Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Presentations
Akihiko Takagi Last modified date:2019.09.27

Professor / Department of History (Geography) / Department of History / Faculty of Humanities


Presentations
1. Geopolitics and the South Seas in prewar Japan.
2. Akihiko Takagi, New dynamics and security in border regions in Japan, World Social Science Forum 2018, 2018.09, Recent Japan has experienced a rapid increase of foreign visitors. The number of foreign visitors exceeded 20 million for the first time in 2016. This increase is mainly due to the economic growth in Asian countries. Therefore, more than three-quarters of foreign visitors were from Asian countries: Chinese were 6.37 million (26.5%), Koreans were 5.09 million (21.2%), Taiwanese 4.17 million (17.3%), Hong Kongers 1.84 million (7.7%) and Thais 0.9 million (3.8%). Visit Japan Project which is a policy of the Japanese government to attract foreign visitors and the weak yen policy called “Abenomics” also contributed to the increase of foreign visitors in Japan.
Surrounded by the sea, most foreigners to Japan visited central areas like Tokyo and Kyoto by airplanes so far. However, economic growth in Asian countries has increased the number of Asian tourists entering peripheral border regions directly. This means the tourism pattern of foreigners to Japan has changed. This is a sign that the tourism among Asian countries is entering a new phase. Above all, this change of tourism had a great influence in economic and security realms on local cities and towns in these border regions. This paper examines the new phase of international tourism and its influence on the local economy and security in the border regions in western part of Japan.
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3. Akihiko Takagi, New Dynamics of Border Regions in Asia: A Case of Ishigaki Island in Japan, International Forum on Frontiers of Political Geography: IGU Commission on Political Geography, Pre-Conference in Guangzhou 2016, 2016.08, Recent Japan has experienced the rapid increase of foreign visitors. Their number was about 20 million in 2015 and exceeded the number of Japanese travelling abroad. These figures show the highest record of foreign visitors to Japan so far. This increase is mainly due to the economic growth in Asian countries. It is also due to the policy to attract foreign visitors by the Japanese government, Visit Japan Project, and the weak yen policy called Abenomics. One of characteristics of this trend is the increase of foreign visitors entering into border islands in the southwestern part of Japan directly from Asian countries by ships. About two hundred thousands Korean tourists visited Tsushima Island and more than eighty thousands Taiwanese also visited Ishigaki Island in 2014. Surrounded by the sea, most foreigners to Japan visited central areas like Tokyo and Kyoto by airplanes so far. However, economic growth in Asian countries has increased the number of Asian tourists entering peripheral border regions directly. This means the tourism pattern of foreigners to Japan has changed. This is a sign that the tourism among Asian countries is entering a new phase. This is the reason why my title is ‘New Dynamics of Border Regions in Asia.’And this trend of inbound tourism had a great influence on local cities in these border regions. Today, I show you a case study of Ishigaki Island in Japan.







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4. Akihiko Takagi, Border Studies: Old and New Theme in Political Geography , Redesigning Asia Pacific Future Studies at Kyushu University, 2016.02, [URL].
5. Akihiko Takagi, Recent increase of foreign visitors from East Asia in Japan (Part 2, The 10th China-Japan-Korea Joint Conference on Geography (The 1st Asian Conference on geography), 2015.10, This is a continuation of my presentation which I spoke with the same title in 2012. Foreign visitors to Japan have increased rapidly in recent years due to a weak yen policy by Abenomics. The number of foreign visitors was more than 13 million in 2014. The figures show the highest record of foreign visitors to Japan. And more than three-quarters of them were from Asian countries: Taiwanese were 2.83 million (21.1%), Koreans 2.76 million (20.5%), Chinese 2.42 million (18.0%) and Hong Kongers 0.93 million (6.9%).
The characteristic of recent foreign tourism is that foreigners visiting border regions in Kyushu and Okinawa directly are growing. Most of them visit there by regular services of ships and cruise ships. And the rapid increase of foreign visitors has caused various problems in border regions. However, their visit gives some benefits to the local economy.
Following the presentation in 2012, this study investigates features of the recent trends of foreign visitors from East Asian countries and surveys the prospects of international tourism in the East Asian countries from the view point of border tourism.
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6. Akihiko Takagi, Exceptionalism in Japanese geopolitics, International Geographical Union Regional Conference Moscow 2015, 2015.08, [URL], I presented a paper with a title called “Japanese wartime geopolitics and exceptionalism in the post war era” at IGU Cracow Regional Conference in 2014. This paper is a sequel of it.
Geopolitics revived in 1980s. Since then, many books and articles of geopolitics have been published in the world. Japan also has witnessed many books on geopolitics. However, it never led to the revival of geopolitics in geography. Although some geographers investigated the wartime geopolitics from the history of geographical thought, most of Japanese geographers never took a growing interest in geopolitical studies on international politics just like western counterpart. There are two main reasons for this situation. One is that Japanese geographers are still suffering from the aftereffects of engaging geopolitics during the war time. The other is that Marxism has been dominant in the academic and publishing circles in Japan. Geopolitical books were considered as “the smart logic” or “the evil logic” and never welcomed into the academic world.
The situation has not changed in the 21st century. Japanese geography must overcome this exceptionalism. To do so, two issues should be considered. One is aspiring peace or pacifism in Japanese diplomacy. The other is middle power diplomacy which means the great economic power with the pacifism. I will speak on these issues in detail..
7. Akihiko Takagi, Japanese Wartime Geopolitics and Exceptionalism in the Post War Era, International Geographical Union Regional Conference Cracow 2014, 2014.08, [URL], German geopolitics (Geopolitik) was introduced into Japan in 1925. During the 1920s, geopolitics was studied and advanced by geographers as an academic subject. However, it began to take on the character of a geopolitical movement going along with of the national policy in the late 1930s, leading to its zenith during the war.
As many geographers had engaged in geopolitical studies during the war, some of them were purged from public service by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers after the war. Therefore, studying Japanese geopolitics during the war has been considered taboo by post-war Japanese geographers. In the 1970s, however, there appeared some studies criticizing the geopolitical studies during the war. Most studies on Japanese wartime geopolitics have critically analyzed books and articles written by geographers from the perspective of the history of geography.
Many books and articles of geopolitics were published around 1980 in the world. And this trend led to the revival of geopolitics in the western geography. Japan also witnessed many books of geopolitics in this time. However, it never led to the revival of geopolitics in geography. Although some geographers investigated geopolitics in the wartime from the history of geographical thought, most of Japanese geographers never took a growing interest in geopolitical studies on international politics just like western counterpart. There are two main reasons for this situation. One is that Japanese geographers are still suffering from the aftereffects of engaging geopolitics during the war time. The other is that Marxism has been dominant in the academic and publishing circles in Japan. Geopolitical books were considered as “the logic of the evil” or “the method of the magic” and never welcomed into the academic world. The situation has not changed in the 21st century. Japanese geography need to overcome this exceptionalism.
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8. Akihiko Takagi, Japanese Geography in Crisis?, The 7th East Asian Regional Conference in Alternative Geography, 2014.07, [URL], The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology (MEXT) shifted its educational policies to the neoliberal’s one in 1990s in Japan. As a result, the number of graduate students in Japanese university increased in 1990s (109,000 in 1992) and early in 2000s (223,000 in 2002 and 271,000 in 2012) and national universities became national university corporations in 2004. The number of graduate students of geography also has increased.

I investigated the characteristics of articles published in two major geographical journals in Japan, the Geographical Review of Japan and Japanese Journal of Human Geography during 1990-2, 2000-2 and 2010-2. The number of articles in two journals decreased gradually. It is indicated that the average age of the authors in Japanese journals of geography is younger than any other countries. The authors in their 30s were the largest age group in 1990-2 and 2010-2. The authors in their 20s were the largest in 2000-2. This means that the number of graduate students increased in geography and most of them published their studies in the both journals in this period.

However, the ratio of the authors in 20s group decreased rapidly in 2010-2 while the number of graduate students has not decreased in this period. The ratio of female geographers increased in 2000-2 but also decreased in 2010-2. Japanese geography encounters the crisis now. Their most pressing need right now is to train young geographers, especially female geographers.
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9. Akihiko Takagi, Increase of Korean visitors in Tsushima Island and consciousness of Tsushima by Busan people, 9th Korea-China-Japan Joint Conference on Geography, 2014.07, Since a high-speed vessel service started between Busan and Tsushima in 1999, Korean visitors to Tsushima increased rapidly and more than 150 thousand Korean visitors visited Tsushima in 2012. Most of Korean tourists visit some of sightseeing spots, climb mountains and go fishing around the seashore in Tsushima.

Therefore, taking into consideration of the increase of Korean visitors in Tsushima, it is likely that most Busan people know about Tsushima. But it actually is not. Judging from questionnaires conducted by Tsushima city and the presenter, a few people of Busan know about Tsushima.

Recent increase of the permeability of borderlands owes a great deal of efforts by local government and people in Tsushima. They should deepen exchanges to enhance more the permeability of the borderlands. The presenter speaks the recent increase of Korean visitors in Tsushima and the consciousness of it by Busan people showing the results of the questionnaires.
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10. Akihiko Takagi, Post-Cold War Border Regions in Japan: Focusing on the Increase of Foreign Tourists from Asian Countries, Association for Borderlands Studies, 2014.06, Foreign visitors to Japan have increased rapidly in the last decade and Japan has experienced the largest-ever number of foreign visitors in 2013. This increase is mainly due to the economic growth in Asian countries after the cold war. It is partly because of the policy to attract foreign visitors by the Japanese government (Visit Japan Project).
One of characteristics of this trend is the increase of foreign visitors entering into border islands in the southwestern part of Japan directly from Asian countries by ships. More than a hundred thousand Korean tourists visited Tsushima Island in 2012. And more than fifty thousand Chinese (Taiwanese) also visited Ishigaki Island in the same year. The annual number of foreign visitors is in excess of the number of residents in both islands.
Surrounded by the sea, most foreigners visited central areas like Tokyo and Kyoto by airplanes. However, economic growth in Asian countries has increased the number of Asian tourists entering peripheral border regions directly. This means the tourism pattern of foreigners to Japan has changed. This is a sign that the tourism among Asian countries is entering a new phase. This paper examines the this new phase of international tourism in the border regions and the meaning of the movements of people crossing borders from a geographical perspective.
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11. Characteristics of Articles Published in the Geographical Review of Japan and Japanese Journal of Human Geography.
12. Fabrizio Eva, Akihiko Takagi, Students’ understanding of the contemporary geopolitical situations around Japan: A comparative analysis of surveys to Italian and Japanese students, International Geographical Union Regional Conference, Kyoto, 2013, 2013.08.
13. Akihiko Takagi, The recent increase of foreign tourists and the change of the border regions in the western part of Japan, International Geographical Union Regional Conference, Kyoto, 2013, 2013.08.
14. Akihiko Takagi, Keisuke Tanaka, Some Geographical Aspects on the Japanese General Election in 2012
, 8th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, 2013.08, 2012年12月に行われた衆議院総選挙結果の地理的特徴についてポスター発表をおこなった。.
15. Akihiko Takagi, Recent changes in the borderland areas in the western part of Japan: Comparing Tsushima Island and Ishigaki Island, 12th Border Regions in Transition, Fukuoka and Busan, 2012, 2012.11.
16. Recent trends and agenda of municipal mergers in Heisei era.
17. Beyond a national Geography: An Essay on Overcoming the difference in
Ethnocentric Views of Geography in the Asia-Pacific Region.
18. Research Trends of Political Geography and its possibility.
19. Political Geography and its possibility.
20. Japanese Nationalism and Geographical Thought.
21. Recent Trends in Political Geography.
22. Now, Political Geography is new!.
23. Recent Studies on Geopolitik.
24. Report on IGU Commission on World Political Map Conference at Maynooth.