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Takatoshi Ueno Last modified date:2019.06.20

Associate Professor / Institute of Biological Control
Department of Bioresource Sciences
Faculty of Agriculture


Graduate School
Undergraduate School
Other Organization
Administration Post
Other


E-Mail
Homepage
http://www.agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp/bio/enemy.html
Phone
092-642-3036
Fax
092-642-3040
Academic Degree
ph.D
Country of degree conferring institution (Overseas)
No
Field of Specialization
Entomology, Biological control, Behavioral ecology, Insect ecology, biodiversity, Pest management
Total Priod of education and research career in the foreign country
00years00months
Outline Activities
*** RESEARCH ***

The focus of my research group is the ecology and behavior of insect parasitoids
and predators.

One of the major research programs in our laboratory is directed toward the
reproductive strategy of polyphagous parasitoids such as Pimpla spp. and Itoplectis
naranyae. This research program involves a variety of aspects that are associated
with the strategy, e.g. defense, development, learning, host searching, host
discrimination, sex allocation, host feeding, cost of reproduction, egg production,
mating etc. Host-parasitoid interactions are also my interests, and I work
on dipteran leafminers (Liriomyza spp.)-eulophid parasitoid systems to reveal
the coevolutionary aspects of host defense versus parasitoid searching tactics.


My research interests also focus on the biological control of insect pests.

This research involves developing effective methods for mass-rearing of natural
enemies including Orius spp. and leafminer parasitoids such as Hemiptarsenus
varicornis. I also work on biological control of alfalfa weevil with an introduced
parasitoid, Bathyplectis anurus, and on parasitoids attacking Asian corn borer
and tea leaf roller, in order to reveal their role in controlling the pest
populations.


Besides I am interested in the determinants of species diversity at several scales,
and am working on flower beetles and other insects to explore what factors determine
the species diversity on islands.


Key words: natural enemies, parasitoid wasps, insect predators, behavioral ecology,
life history evolution, foraging behavior, reproduction, biological control, pest
management, biodiversity, conservation.



*** EDUCATION ***

1992-1995 Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Japan., Ph.D. Entomology.

1990-1992 Faculty of Agriculture, Kobe University, M.A. Entomology.

1986-1990 Faculty of Science, Kobe University, B.A. Biology.


*** Honors and Awards ***

2004 International Scientist for the Year for 2004, IBC, Cambridge, England

2004 Prize for young entomologist, Japanese Society of Applied Entomology & Zoology

1994-1995 JSPS Fellowship
Research
Research Interests
  • Biological control with insect natural enemies
    keyword : parasitoid wasp, integrated pest management, environmentally friendly agriculture, food production, environment, functional biodiversity,
    2000.04Biological Control of Insect Pests with Insect Natural Enemies. Research outlines: Biological Control is the use of natural enemies to control pests and is an environmentally friendly way of pest control. There are currently two biological control projects in our laboratory; one is on thrips control with predatory bugs, Orius spp. and the other is on serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) control with parasitoids..
  • Manipulation of reproduction and behavior of beneficial insect natural enemies
    keyword : biological control, beneficial insects, pest control, mass production, productive efficacy
    2000.04.
  • Behavioral ecology and life history evolution in parasitoid wasps
    keyword : environment, ethology, learning, natural enemies, sex ratio, evolutionary ecology
    1998.04Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology of Insect Parasitoids. Research outlines: Insect natural enemies, in particular parasitoids, are known as excellent model systems for the analysis of many important questions in biology. Our current research includes a variety of aspects of parasitoid biology, e.g. behavioral and evolutionary ecology, life history evolution etc..
Current and Past Project
  • Classical biological control of alfalfa weevil with an introduced parasitoid Bathyplectis anurus.
Academic Activities
Books
1. Encyclopedia of Insect Natural Enemies, part 1. (2004) Eds by F. Ikeda et al..
2. Encyclopedia of Insect Natural Enemies, part 2. (2004) Eds by F. Ikeda et al..
Papers
1. Youssef Mohamed KATTA, Mohamed Mohamed KAMARA, Mohamed Saad ABD EL–ATY, Waleed Hassan ELGAMAL, Ramadan Mohamed SOLEIMAN, Kareem Mohamed MOUSA, Takatoshi UENO, Effect of Storage Temperature on Storage Efficacy, Germination and Physical Characters of Some Paddy Rice Cultivars during Different Storage Periods, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 64, 1, 61-69, 2019.02.
2. Kareem M. MOUSA, Osama M. RAKHA, Takatoshi UENO , Relationships between Development Time, Reproductive Period, Fecundity and Longevity at the Within–individual Level in the Cowpea Aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 64, 1, 101-106, 2019.02.
3. @Kareem M. MOUSA, Takatoshi UENO, Intercropping Potato with Citrus Trees as Ecologically–Based Insect Pest Management, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 64, 1, 71-78, 2019.02.
4. Mohamed B. SHAWER, Osama M. RAKHA, Elsaid M. ELNABAWY, Amr A. ELASHMAWY, Takatoshi UENO, Banana Flowers (Musa sp.: Musaceae): an Essential Source of Nectar for Honeybee During the Dearth Period in Egypt, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 64, 1, 79-85, 2019.02, A nectar dearth is a period when nectar producing flowers are scarce, and the dearth can be devastat- ing for honeybee colonies. Provision or presence of alternative flowering plants is thus crucial to stable bee- keeping. The present study was carried out at two different locations in Egypt to evaluate the importance of banana flowers as a nectar source during the dearth period (August –October) for honeybees. The inves- tigation on nectar production and sugar content estimated that banana flowers produced a large amount of nectar with a relatively high sugar concentaration and that one feddan of banana plantation during 2016 and 2017 seasons produced 29.2 and 31.5 kg nectar, which contained 4.54 and 5.21 kg sugar. Thus, expected honey yields were 5.67 and 6.51 kg honey/feddan in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Field observations demon- strated that the honeybee Apis mellifera carnica frequently visited banana flowers, in particular, in the morning time and that nectar in uncovered banana flowers decreased in response to honeybee vists while nectar volume in covered flowers remained unchanged. The honeybee colonies in banana farms showed much higher flight activity (foraging and pollen collection) and productivity (stored pollen, brood rearing, bee population, queen rearing, royal jelly production and honey production) than those in control localities. We conclude that moving the apiaries to banana plantations during the dearth period can conserve the strength of honeybee colonies allowing good overwintering, and improve honey yield by 2.69 ± 0.1 kg/col- ony..
5. Rowfida A. Bassiony, Fayez A. Abou-Attia, Mahmoud A. Samy, Asmhan E. Youssef, Takatoshi Ueno, Infestation caused by the Agromyzid Leafminer Liriomyza trifolii of Bean Crops in Kafr EL-Shiekh, Egypt., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 2, 435-438, 2017.09, Dipteran leafminers of the family Agromyzidae are polyphagous pests that evoke a severe worldwide threat to various vegetable crops. In Egypt, legume yields have recently been reduced due to intensive infestations by the leafminers. In the present study, we examined the composition of dipteran leafminers in two main leguminous crops, i.e., broad bean and snap bean, and evaluated the damage caused by them, in Kafr EL-Shiekh, Egypt. Liriomyza trifolii was the major leafminer species abundantly found on both crops while Melanagromyza phaseoli was found only in snap bean field with low density. Liriomyza trifolii was detected throughout the growing season of bean plants, though the population and infestation levels were significantly low in snap bean. A higher level of infestation on broad bean suggested the presence of host plant preference in the leafminer. Precipitation appeared to affect the infestation level of the leafminer. We discuss the importance of leafminer management in bean fields in Egypt..
6. Dang Hoa Tran, Masami Takagi, Takatoshi Ueno, Efficacy of the extract from pongam leaves (Pongamia pinnata L.) against Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 2, 439-443, 2017.09, The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are economically important insect pests of a variety of crops primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Conventional control of these pests usually depends on synthetic chemical insecticides. Botanical pesticides have recently been paid considerable attention as an environmentally friendly measure to manage various insect pests. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of a leaf extract from pongam tree Progamia pinnata L. against the two armyworms. The results showed that the acute lethal toxicity of pongam leaf extract was high against the two armyworm species; the LC50 values were 1.94 %, 1.52 % and 1.10 % at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively for S. litura whereas the values for S. exigua larvae were 3.18 %, 2.57 % and 1.89 % at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Our study also indicated that low concentrations of pongam leaf extract caused significant reductions of vitality of the armyworms; they took more time to mature during the larval stage. Taken together, the treatment with a pongam leaf extract can negatively affect the armyworm populations directly and indirectly, and thus cause a reduction of overall pest numbers in the next generation. Thus, the pongam leaf extract is a recommendable bio-pesticide to control the armyworms..
7. Rowfida A. Bassiony, Fayez A. Abou-Attia, Mahmoud A. Samy, Asmhan E. Youssef, Takatoshi Ueno, Parasitoid Wasps Attacking the American Serpentine Leafminer Liriomyza trifolii in Kafr EL-Shiekh, Egypt., International Journal of Zoological Investigations, in press, 2017.06.
8. Dang Hoa Tran, Khac Phuc Le, Hoang Dong Thi Tran, 上野 高敏, Control Efficacy of pongam (Pongamia pinnata L.) Leaf Extract against the Turnip Aphid Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 60, 1, 141-145, 2016.02.
9. Takatoshi Ueno, Oviposition and Development in Gregopimpla kuwanae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, a Gregarious Ectoparasitoid Wasp Attacking the Rice Skipper Parnara guttata, Journal of Insects, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4706376, vol 2016, Article ID 4706376, 8 pages, 2016.02, [URL].
10. Takatoshi Ueno, Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a Major Pest of Welsh Onion in Vietnam, Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 10.15640/jaes.v4n2a21, 4, 181-185, 2015.12.
11. Takatoshi Ueno, The Paper wasp Polistes olivaceus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) as an Important Predator of Beet Armyworm in Vietnam, Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 10.15640/jaes.v4n2a6, 4, 54-57, 2015.12.
12. Takatoshi Ueno, Dang Hoa Tran, Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a Major Parasitoid Wasp of Stone Leek Leafminer Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Central Vietnam, Psyche, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/179560, Article ID 179560, 6 pp., 2015.12, Liriomyza chinensis is a major pest of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum in Asia but little is known about the abundance of its natural enemies. A field survey was made to explore the major parasitoids of L. chinensis leafminer in central Vietnam. An eulophid parasitoid, Neochrysocharis okazakii, comprised more than 95% of parasitoids reared from leafminer larvae collected in the onion field and 98.3% of leafminer parasitoids found during searches of onion plants. The mean number of female N. okazakii on plants was greater in onion fields with a higher density of L. chinensis, and, during searches, a greater proportion of N. okazakii was found on onion with more L. chinensis mines, suggesting density-dependent parasitoid aggregation. Melanized dead larvae of L. chinensis were more frequently found in onion fields with more parasitoids, demonstrating that melanized leafminers are a good indicator of parasitoid activity. Mean instant rate of host encounter by N. okazakii in the field was estimated as 0.077, and the likelihood of a parasitoid finding a host increased with host density. Taken together, these results show that N. okazakii is the major parasitoid of L. chinensis. Usefulness of this parasitoid in stone leek leafminer management is discussed..
13. Takatoshi Ueno, Flower-Visiting by the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), International Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Sciences, 3, 444-448, 2015.12, The Asian hornet or yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax has recently been recorded as an invasive insect evoking environmental, apicultural and medical problems. Many aspects of the ecology, behavior and life history remain unknown, however. The present study focuses on flower-visiting by the hornet in the field. The foraging behavior of V. velutina nigrithorax on and around blooming plants was observed in Tsushima Island, Japan and Busan City, South Korea. The field observations confirmed that the hornet fed on floral nectar of 27 plant species scattering among 15 families. Pollen feeding was not observed. In addition, it was frequently found that V. velutina nigrithorax flew and hovered around a patch of flowers to predate hymenopteran bees and dipteran flies. Hunting behavior was recorded on 20 plant species belonging to 10 families. Field observations and mark-recapture experiments suggested that V. velutina nigrithorax played a role in pollinating at least some plant species. Although numerous hornet workers were found visiting flowers in the public area such as the park, school, hospital and home garden, none of them showed aggressive behavior against humans. Thus, flower-visiting V. velutina nigrithorax away from the nest did not pose a threat or risk associated with hornet stings..
14. Yusuke N. Minoshima, Seiki Yamane, Takatoshi Ueno, An invasive alien hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax du Buysson (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), found in Kitakyushu, Kyushu Island: a first record of the species from mainland Japan, Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology, 21, 2, 259-261, 2015.11, A nest of the invasive alien hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax du Buysson 1905 was collected in 1st September, 2015, from Kitakyushu, Kyushu, western Japan. This represents a first record of the species from mainland Japan. The foundress of the colony might have been transported with ferry cargos from Korea or China. The nest measures 35 cm long and 24.5 cm wide including the envelope, consisting of three combs. The examination of the nest (cell size and pupal caste) indicated that all the combs were for the worker caste and that new queens had not yet been produced..
15. Kanako Sakai, Masami Takagi, Takatoshi Ueno, Evaluation for risk of interspecific mating among native and exotic Orius species (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), Entomology, Ornithology & Herpatology, 10.4172/2161-0983.1000158, 4, 4: 158, 2015.08.
16. Kanako Ueno, Takatoshi Ueno, Host approaching behavior in a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) as influenced by physiological state and host type, Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology, 10.4172/2161-0983.1000159, 4: 159, 2015.08, sent study highlighted the interactions of host type and physiological state (i.e., the number of mature eggs a female carries) in determining a parasitoid’s host-finding behavior, using the solitary endoparasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Females took much shorter time to approach and attack healthy hosts of high-value than empty hosts of no-value, discriminating between the host types from a short distance. Variance of the time was much greater for empty hosts. A striking difference was detected in the influence of physiological state on wasp behavior; females with greater egg loads approached an empty host more quickly in order to examine its suitability for oviposition whereas egg load effects were not found for healthy hosts. Thus, egg load was involved in variation of the host-finding behavior but its effects depended on host types. We discuss the adaptive significance of the context dependent effects of egg load on parasitoid behavior..
17. Takatoshi Ueno, Larval habitats of two Coilodera species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) associated with wood feeding cockroaches., The Journal of Tropical Asian Entomology, 4, 28-32, 2015.12.
18. Takatoshi Ueno, Effects of host size and laboratory-rearing on offspring development and sex ratio in the solitary parasitoid Agrothereutes lanceolatus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., European Journal of Entomology, 112, 2, 281-287, 2015.04.
19. Takatoshi Ueno, Unexpected use of pupal stage of a lepidopteran host by the ectoparasitoid wasp Agrothereutes lanceolatus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology, 10.4172/2161-0983.1000140, 4, 1, ariticle ID 140 (6pp.), 2015.02.
20. Hiroaki Kohmura, Hiroyuki Hirayama, Takatoshi Ueno, Diving Into The Water: Cues Related to the Decision-Making by an Egg Parasitoid Attacking Underwater Hosts, Ethology, 10.1111/eth.12326, 121, 2, 168-175, 2015.02, Although adult parasitoids spend a majority of their lives above ground, females of several species must search for their host in the water or on the soil. Adult parasitoids above ground can use a variety of sensory cues to detect their hosts from a distance. However, their sensory cues can be impaired from volatile chemicals, and their visual stimuli can be decreased while submerging or burrowing in the water of soil during their search for their hosts. Searching underwater or underground would incur high forag- ing costs, that is, time and energy consumption and increase risk of drown- ing. Therefore, to reduce such costs and increase searching efficiency, the decision on where to start submerging or burrowing for attacking hosts is important for parasitoids. Furthermore, there are no studies that have examined the cues of submerging or burrowing parasitoids on their exploit for the decision to attack their hosts. We have examined the cues used by the egg parasitoid Tiphodytes gerriphagus attacking underwater hosts. We compared the searching behaviors of T. gerriphagus among four oviposition site conditions. The four sites investigated were oviposition site with both host adult chemical residues and presence of eggs, with only the presence of eggs, with only the host adult chemical residues, and without any cue. Our results indicated that T. gerriphagus more frequently contacted and submerged at oviposition sites with the adult residues rather than at ovipo- sition sites without them. Nonetheless, the presence of underwater host eggs did not affect the host-searching behavior. This suggests that T. ger- riphagus decided to submerge at the oviposition site in response to the adult residues. Furthermore, our observation also suggested that T. gerriphagus has already detected that the adult residues might be volatile before con- tacting the oviposition site. Finally, we will discuss the exploitation pat- terns of host-searching cue by parasitoids that need to submerge from the context of its reliability and detectability problems..
21. Kouhei Matsushita, Kanako Ueno, Takatoshi Ueno, Physiological Parameters Reflecting Longevity of a Parasitoid Wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 2, 4, 201-205, 2014.12, Itoplectis naranyae is a common parasitoid wasp inhabiting rice paddies in most part of Asia and is a candidate of biological indicators to assess biodiversity and eco-friendly agricultural practice in rice paddies. Here, we examined physiological factors affecting the longevity of I. naranyae to investigate its basic biology. For this purpose, life expectancy of the male and female was assessed without food (=carbohydrate) provision. As expected, the parasitoid had a much shorter lifetime under food deprivation. Curiously, both forewing length and body weight were not significant indices reflecting the longevity of male and female I. naranyae. Therefore, individual differences in life expectancy under starvation are not simply predicted with body size. Body weight loss during the lifetime instead correlated positively with the longevity, regardless of the sexes. Thus, weight loss, rather than body size, reflects the longevity probably because it reflects nutritional storage available for sustaining the life of I. naranyae..
22. Takatoshi Ueno, Age-dependent sex allocation control in a parasitoid wasp., Psyche, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/363174, 2014, Article ID 363174, 4 pp., 2014.11.
23. Takatoshi Ueno, Establishment of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Japan, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 2, 4, 220-222, 2014.12, The Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax, most probably originated in China, has been pausing an ecological problem in Europe and Korea after its accidental introduction and the subsequent establishment during early 2000s. In 2012, an amateur entomologist collected the first specimen of the hornet in Tsushima Island, Japan, which suggested that V. velutina invaded into the country. Field survey was hence made in 2013 to investigate whether the hornet had been established in the island. The survey confirmed the establishment of V. velutina. Morphological examination of the specimens obtained from Tsushima Island determined that the velutina belonged to the subspecies nigrithorax and was well coincided with the specimens from southern China. Field observations also confirmed that the invaded hornet was frequently found predating Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica, an important pollinator native to the island. The invaded hornet was thought to be accidentally introduced from South Korea, where the hornet had been well established since its invasion..
24. Yoshihisa Abe, Tatsuya Ide, Kazuhiko Konishi, Takatoshi Ueno, Discovery of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) from the Indochina region, with description of three new species, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/AN13180, 107, 399-406, 2014.03.
25. Giang Thi Thu Ho, Hao V La, David R. Hall, Thuy D. Le, Jerry V. Cross, Takatoshi Ueno, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-13-octadecenyl acetate improve the attractiveness of the standard sex pheromone of the yellow rice stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in northern Vietnam, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 59, 1, 85-89, 2014.02.
26. Hiroki Itadani, Takatoshi Ueno, Chemically Mediated Mate Finding of the Polyphagous Solitary Parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Annals of the Entomological Society of America, http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/AN12146, 107, 1, 288-294, 2014.01, Polyphagous solitary parasitoids have difficulty finding mates that can be widely dispersed because of their polyphagous natures. Males of polyphagous species are more likely to rely on compounds characteristic of the female or on sex pheromones to find mates. However, the mating biology of few polyphagous parasitoids has been studied and sex pheromones are known for only a few species of parasitoids altogether. Here we examined the mating biology of the polyphagous parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), which attacks a variety of lepidopteran pupae. The existence and timing of emission of female sex pheromones and male response with age were studied in the laboratory. A field test was also conducted to confirm the attractiveness of newly emerged females to wild males over a distance. The results confirmed that volatile compounds are used in the sexual communication in I. naranyae. Females attracted males most strongly shortly after emergence; pupae and older females were much less attractive. Older (30-d-old) males were most responsive to female sex pheromones. Males with prior experience with females responded more strongly than naïve males. The field test showed that traps containing virgin females attracted wild males. These results showed that this solitary polyphagous species uses volatile compounds to find scattered mates at close and moderate ranges. The existence of chemically mediated mate finding suggests that sex pheromone traps may be useful in management of I. naranyae as a biological control agent..
27. Giang Thi Thu Ho, Cuong Viet Le, Thuy Hong Nguyen, 上野 高敏, Dinh Van Nguyen, Incidence of yellow rice stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas Walker in Haiphong, Vietnam and control efficacy of egg mass removal and insecticides, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 58, 301-306, 2013.06.
28. Soichiro Tani and Takatoshi Ueno, Site fidelity and long-distance homing by males of solitary parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae), Canadian Entomologist, 145, 333-337, 2013.05.
29. Takatoshi Ueno, Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies, CNU Journal of Agricultural Science, http://dx.doi.org/10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.4.587, 39, 587-595, 2012.12, In Asia, including Japan and Korea, rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land. Rice paddies provide the habitats for many organisms including endemic species, sustaining high biodiversity. Insect natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of ‘ecosystem services’ because they play a major role in suppressing rice pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the ‘healthiness’ of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study investigates whether insect natural enemies could be good biological indicators for general arthropod biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. The strategy to explore and select such bio-indicators was then proposed. Lastly, field survey was made to evaluate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in Japanese rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The results showed that reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators. Then, the data were analyzed to examine suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. The density of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. The analyses thus have indicated that natural enemies can be suitable as bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture..
30. Takatoshi Ueno, Bioindicators of Biodiversity and Farming Practice in Rice Paddies, International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 1, 84-87, 2013.01, Rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land of Asia and create the habitats for many organisms, sustaining high biodiversity. Natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of ‘ecosystem services’ because they suppress rice pests. Such natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the ‘healthiness’ of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study evaluates whether natural enemies could be good biological indicators for biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. Then, the results based on a field survey were given to show the usefulness of natural enemies. Field studies demonstrated that reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness of natural enemies. The abundance of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. Thus, natural enemies can be suitable as bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture..
31. Aung, K.S.D., Keiji Takasu, Takatoshi Ueno, Masami Takagi, Effect of host feeding on reproduction in Ooencyrtus nezarae (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) , an egg parasitoid of the bean bug Riptortus clavatus.
, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 57, 115-120, 2012.02.
32. Takatoshi Ueno, Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies., International Symposium on Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Life Science in Asia, pp. 35-42, 2012.11.
33. Takatoshi Ueno, Environmentally sound agro-practice, biodiversity and indicator species in rice paddies., EEBS, 2012.10, Rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land and provide the habitats for many organisms. Thus, rice paddies are a key ecosystem in agricultural land that sustains a high level of agro-biodiversity. Natural enemies have an important function for crop production as agents of ‘ecosystem services’ because they play a major role in suppressing pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the ‘healthiness’ of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. In the present study, a survey was made to investigate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies like parasitoids and spiders. Then, it was analyzed to explore suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and a web-constructing araneid spider, Neoscona adianta, (Araneae: Araneidae) were among the commonest species of predators detected in paddy fields, and were tested to examine whether the density of the two could reflect the levels of chemical input and biodiversity. The density of the ladybird did not respond both to pesticide use and to biodiversity, indicating that this species was not suitable as an indicator. In contrast, the araneid spider increased both with a reduction of pesticide use and with an increase of biodiversity. Neoscona adianta was hence a good candidate of natural enemies to assess agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. Thus, it is possible to select species that are ideal bioindicators for monitoring both environmental soundness and biodiversity in agriculture. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed..
34. Y. Ayabe, Takatoshi Ueno, Complex Feeding Tracks of the Sessile Herbivorous Insect Ophiomyia maura as a Function of the Defense against Insect Parasitoids, PLoS ONE, 10.1371/journal.pone.0032594, 7, e32594, 2012.02.
35. Hongyue LIU and Takatoshi UENO, The Importance of Food and Host on the Fecundity and Longevity of a Host-feeding Parasitoid Wasp, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 57, 121-126, 2012.02.
36. Dang Hoa TRAN and Takatoshi UENO, Toxicity of Insecticides to Neochrysocharis okazakii, a Parasitoid of Liriomyza Leafminers on Vegetables, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 57, 127-131, 2012.02.
37. Tran, D. H., K. P. Le, T. Ueno and M. Takagi , Effect of temperature and host on the immature development of the parasitoid Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)., Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 57, 133-137, 2012.02.
38. Thi Thu Giang Ho, Takatoshi Ueno, The effects of honey as a dietary supplement on the survivorship and nutrition-storing capacity of Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Liriomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers., International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 78, 78-84, 2011.06.
39. Baba, N., Hironaka, M., Hosokawa, T., Mukai, H., Nomakuchi, S., Ueno, T., Trophic eggs compensate for poor offspring feeding capacity in a subsocial burrower bug, Biology Letters, 7, 194-196, 2011.05.
40. Aung, K.S.D., T. Ueno and M. Takagi, Effect of temperature on lifetime reproduction of the egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). , Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 56, 67-70, 2011.02.
41. Aung, K.S.D., Takagi, M., Ueno, T., Influence of food on the longevity and egg maturation of the egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) , Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University , 55, 1, 79-81, 2010.02.
42. Aung, K.S.D., Takagi, M., Ueno, T., Effect of female's age on the progeny production and sex ratio of Ooencyrtus nezarae, an egg parasitoid of the bean bug Riptortus clavatus , Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 55, 83-85, 2010.02.
43. Takatoshi Ueno, Biodiversity in Rice Paddies and Use of Indicator Species to Assess Environmental Friendship of Agricultural Practices , 7th International AFAS Joint Symposium Between Korea and Japan, 7, 126-132, 2010.11.
44. Aung, K.S.D., Takasu, K., Ueno, T., Takagi, M., Effect of temperature on egg maturation and longevity of the egg parasitoids Ooencyrtus nezarae (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) , Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 55, 87-89, 2010.02.
45. Thi Thu Giang Ho, Takatoshi Ueno, Host Discrimination and Factors Affecting Incidence of Superparasitism in Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of the Leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae), Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 53, 447-452, 2008.10.
46. Ueno, T., Biological control: an ecological approach to manage invasive pest insects, In: Invasive Alien Species in Monsoon Asia: Status and Control, NIAES International Symposium 2007, 8 pp, 2007.10.
47. Dang Hoa Tran, Thi Thien An Tran, Lan Phuong Mai, Takatoshi Ueno and Masami Takagi, Seasonal abundance of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its parasitoids on vegetables in southern Vietnam, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 52: 49-55, 2007.02.
48. Dang Hoa Tran, Takatoshi Ueno and Masami Takagi, Comparison of the suitability of Liriomyza chinensis and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as hosts for Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Biological Control, 41: 354-360, 2007.06.
49. Kanako Ueno, Takatoshi Ueno, The effect of prior host experience and egg load on host acceptance behavior of the parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on empty hosts, Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 52, 63-67, 2007.02.
50. Thi Thu Giang Ho, Takatoshi Ueno, Improving parasitoid performance by improving adult food quality: a case study for the leafminer parasitoid Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 52, 57-61, 2007.02.
51. Takatoshi Ueno, Kanako Ueno, The effects of host-feeding on synovigenic egg development in an endoparasitic wasp, Itoplectis naranyae., Journal of Insect Science, 7, no 46, available online: insectscience.org/7.46, 2007.03.
52. Takatoshi Ueno, Current status of insect pests attacking green buunching onion in central and southern Vietnam., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 51, 275-283., 2006.10.
53. Masami Takagi, Masami Okumura, Megumi Shoubu, Akinori Shiraishi, Takatoshi Ueno, Classical biological control of the alfalfa weevil in Japan., International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropds, 2, 14-18, 2005.08.
54. Takatoshi Ueno, Effect of host age and size on offspring sex ratio in the pupal parasitoid Pimpla (=Coccygomimus) luctuosa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 50, 399-405, 2005.10.
55. M. Shoubu, M. Okumura, A. Shiraishi, H. Kimura, M. Takagi and T. Ueno, Establishment of Bathyplectes anurus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a larval parasitoid of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Japan., Biological Control, 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.04.009, 34, 144-151, 2005.04.
56. Ueno, K. and Ueno, T., Effect of wasp size, physiological state and prior host experience on host searching beahvior in a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Journal of Ethology, 10.1007/s10164-004-0126-2, 23, 43-49, 2005.01.
57. Takatoshi Ueno, Offspring performance in the pupal parasitoid Pimpla (= Coccygomimus) luctuosa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) as influenced by host age and size., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 49, 2, 321-329, 2004.10.
58. Ayabe, Y. and Ueno, T., Directed search pattern of a leafminer parasitoid among mines of host larvae., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[0586:DSPOAL]2.0.CO;2, 97, 3, 586-591, 2004.05.
59. Ueno, K. and Ueno, T., Relationship between female size and host-feeding behavior in the parasitoid wasp Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 49, 77-84, 2003.02.
60. Ueno, T., Role of short- and long-term memory in parasitoid foraging., 'Learning in Insect Foraging', The 18th Tsukuba International Insect Science Symposium., 11-14., 2000.11.
61. Takatoshi Ueno, Host concealment: a determinant of host acceptance and host-feeding in an ectoparasitoid wasp., OIKOS (Copenhagen), 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2000.890202.x, 89, 2, 223-230, 2000.06.
62. Ueno, T., Host-feeding and acceptance by a parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) as influenced by egg load and experience in a patch., Evolutionary Ecology, 10.1023/A:1006582013488, 13, 33-44, 1999.04.
63. Ueno, T., Host-size-dependent sex ratio in a parasitoid wasp., Reseraches on Population Ecology, 10.1007/PL00011982, 41, 47-57, 1999.04.
64. Ueno, T., Adult size and reproduction in the ectoparasitoid wasp Agrothereutes lanceolatus Walker (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)., Journal of Applied Entomology, 10.1046/j.1439-0418.1999.00386.x, 123, 6, 357-361, 1999.05.
65. Ueno, T., Host-feeding and reproduction in the parasitoid wasp Pimpla nipponica (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 35: 231-237., 1999.05.
66. Ueno, T., Host suitability and sex ratio differences in wild-caught and laboratory-reared parasitoid Pimpla parnarae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 92, 609-614, 1999.07.
67. Ueno, T., Multiparasitism and host-feeding by solitary parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) based on the pay-off from parasitized hosts., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 92, 4, 601-608, 1999.07.
68. Ueno, T., Behavioral evidence for recognition of parasitized hosts by superparasitizing Pimpla nipponica (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Canadian Journal of Zoology, 10.1139/cjz-77-3-413, 77, 413-417, 1999.01.
69. Ueno, T., Sex allocation responses by a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to different host species: a question for the mechanism of host size estimation., Journal of Insect Behavior, 11: 811-821., 1998.09.
70. Ueno, T., Selective host-feeding on parasitized hosts in the parasitoid wasp Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its implications for biological control., Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88, 4, 461-466, 1998.09.
71. Takatoshi Ueno, Adaptiveness of sex ratio control by the pupal parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hym.: Ichneumonidae) in response to host size., Evolutionary Ecology, 13: 33-44., 1998.04.
72. Ueno, T., Host age preference and sex allocation for the pupal parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90: 640-645., 1997.01.
73. Nose, Y., Lee, J. M., Ueno, T., Hatakeyama, M. and Oishi, K., Cloning of cDNA for Vitellogenin of the parasitoid wasp, Pimpla nipponica (Hymenoptera: Apocrita: Ichneumonidae): Vitellogenin primary structure and evolutionary considerations., Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 10.1016/S0965-1748(97)00091-X, 27, 1047-1056, 1997.01.
74. Ueno, T., Effects of superparasitism, larval competition, and host-feeding in the pupal parasitoid Pimpla nipponica (Hym.: Ichneumonidae) on offspring survival and fitness., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90: 682-688., 1997.01.
75. Ueno, T. & T. Tanaka, Comparison between primary and secondary sex ratios in parasitoid wasps using a method for observing chromosomes., Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 82: 105-108., 1997.01.
76. Ueno, T. & Tanaka, T., Self-host discrimination in a parasitic wasp: the role of short- term memory., Animal Behaviour (London), 52: 875-883., 1996.01.
77. 上野 高敏, Estimation of host-size dependent sex ratio in the polyphagous parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the field., Applied Entomology and Zoology, 31, 613-615, 1996.12.
78. 上野 高敏, Abdominal tip movements during oviposition by two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) as an index of predicting the sex of depositing eggs., Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30, 588-590, 1995.12.
79. Takatoshi Ueno, Toshiharu Tanaka, Can a female parasitoid recognize a previous rejected host?, Animal Behaviour (London), 47, 988-990, 1994.09.
80. Takatoshi Ueno, Self-recognition by the parasitic wasp Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)., OIKOS (Copenhagen), 70, 333-339, 1994.04.
81. Takatoshi Ueno, Toshiharu Tanaka, Comparative biology of sex polyphagous solitary pupal endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): differential host suitability and sex allocation., Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 592-598, 1994.10.
Presentations
1. 上野 高敏, Flower-Visiting by the Invasive Hornet Vespa Velutina Nigrithorax (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), International Multi Conference on Chemical, Environmental and Medical Sciences, 2015.12.
2. 上野 高敏, Environmentally Sound Agriculture and Biological Indicators in Rice Paddies, Global Conference on Entomology, 2013.11, Rice is the main food in Asia, where rice paddy systems are traditionally used for the production of rice. Rice paddies, together with the associated irrigation ponds, ditches and ridge, often constitute the traditional landscape in rural environments. Rice paddies commonly occupy the largest cultivated area among agricultural land, and form an ecosystem representing a major semi-natural environment with high biodiversity. Insect natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of ‘ecosystem services’ because they play a major role in suppressing rice pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the ‘healthiness’ of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study investigates whether insect natural enemies could be good biological indicators for general arthropod biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. The strategy to explore and select such bio-indicators was then proposed. Lastly, the results of field survey was given to evaluate whether the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in Japanese rice paddies could be good indicators to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practices and general biodiversity. The results showed that reduction of pesticide use led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators. Use of chemical manure enhanced parasitoid diversity. The density of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. The analyses thus have indicated that natural enemies are suitable bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture..
3. Takatoshi Ueno, Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies, International Symposium on Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Life Science in Asia, 2012.11.
4. Takatoshi Ueno, Environmentally Sound Agro-practice, Biodiversity and Indicator Species in Rice Paddies, International Conference on Ecological, Environmental and Biological Sciences (EEBS'2012), 2012.10, Abstract—Rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land and provide the habitats for many organisms. Thus, rice paddies are a key ecosystem in agricultural land that sustains a high level of agro-biodiversity. Natural enemies have an important function for crop production as agents of ‘ecosystem services’ because they play a major role in suppressing pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the ‘healthiness’ of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. In the present study, a survey was made to investigate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies like parasitoids and spiders. Then, it was analyzed to explore suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and a web-constructing araneid spider, Neoscona adianta, (Araneae: Araneidae) were among the commonest species of predators detected in paddy fields, and were tested to examine whether the density of the two could reflect the levels of chemical input and biodiversity. The density of the ladybird did not respond both to pesticide use and to biodiversity, indicating that this species was not suitable as an indicator. In contrast, the araneid spider increased both with a reduction of pesticide use and with an increase of biodiversity. Neoscona adianta was hence a good candidate of natural enemies to assess agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. Thus, it is possible to select species that are ideal bioindicators for monitoring both environmental soundness and biodiversity in agriculture. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed..
5. Takatoshi Ueno, Use of natural enemies as a bio-indicator for assessing environmental soundness of agricultural practices in rice paddies, 24th International Congress of Entomology, 2012.08.
6. Soichiro Tani, Takatoshi Ueno, Adaptive signifi cance of homing behavior in male scoliid wasps (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae), 24th International Congress of Entomology, 2012.08.
7. Hiroki Itadani, Takatoshi Ueno, The mating system using volatile and substrate-born sex pheromones in a polyphagous solitary parasitoid wasp, Itoplectis naranyae, 24th International Congress of Entomology, 2012.08.
8. Takatoshi Ueno, Functional biodiversity in rice paddies and exploring indicator species that reflect environmentally benign agricultural practices, 7th International AFAS Joint Symposium Between Korea and Japan, 2010.10.
9. , [URL].
10. An ecological reason why parasitism levels of alfalfa weevil by an introduced parasitoid Bathyplectes anurus remain low on Chinese milk vetch..
11. : Much attention has recently been paid to biological threats posed by invasive exotic species. As global trade keeps increasing, new invasive species have been emerging. Strategies to combat invasive species are then essential to conserving our native environment and protecting agricultural production. Prevention is the most preferred method but cannot be perfect. Mechanical, chemical and biological control are major approaches to combat once established species. Here, biological control was focused as an environmentally benign approach. Brief review of biological control was given first. Recent progress of classical biological control of alfalfa weevil with an introduced parasitoid wasp was then demonstrated as a successful example of invasive pest management in Japan. The most important concept of biological control is that this approach basically does not intend to eradicate invasive species; we have to accept them as a member of the fauna in areas of invasion but keep them at low population levels that are not seriously harmful to native ecosystem and agriculture, with the aid of introduced specialist natural enemies, which are also allowed to establish in the areas.

Keywords: classical biological control, natural enemies, pest management, invasive species, biological conservation.
12. The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, was accidentally introduced into Japan in 1980’s, and becomes the most destructive pest of Chinese milk vetch in the western region of Japan since then. Chinese milk vetch is the high-value source of honey production for apiculture, and the problem is that insecticides cannot be a primary option to combat the pest because of a potential contamination of chemicals into honey products. Biological control is then a significant approach to manage alfalfa weevil. Because no native natural enemies were found effective to suppress the weevil populations, Bathyplectes anurus, an ichneumonid parasitoid, was introduced in 1990’s for the classical biological control of the weevil. This parasitoid species is exactly host-specific and does not affect any other native insects. Although this parasitoid provides a successful control of alfalfa weevil in Kitakyushu area now, abundance of the parasitoid is often much lower in Chinese milk vetch fields than leguminous forbs, in particular Vicia angustifolia, fields. Biological factors affecting the difference in parasitism rates between the two host plants were examined in order to find the approach to increase parasitoid abundance in Chinese milk vetch. Laboratory and semi-field experiments showed that this difference partly resulted from the presence of plant preference in B. anurus but such plant preference appears not to provide a full explanation of low level of parasitism in Chinese milk vetch.
We speculated that the difference in adult-food abundance could explain the differential parasitism rates in the field, and conducted a series of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments to examine whether adult food could be a factor influencing parasitoid activity in the field. No adult parasitoids were found to feed on nectar of Chinese milk vetch and other leguminous flowers in the laboratory and field. However, both adult B. anurus showed a strong, innate preference for extrafloral nectar glands of Vicia angustifolia in laboratory and semi-field conditions. Experience did elevate their already high level of responsiveness to the nectar glands. When extrafloral nectar was present, their searching responses were largely strengthened. Further, longevity of adult B. anurus was enhanced by access to extrafloral nectar. In the field, the hunger level of adult B. anurus was confirmed to be higher in Chinese milk vetch than V. angustifolia fields. Our field observations also suggested that nectar not from flowers but from extrafloral nectaries provided parasitoids with essential carbohydrates as energy resources. Extrafloral nectarines provided by V. angustifolia should enhance the build-up of parasitoid population and increase the level of weevil parasitism. Our study demonstrates the importance of adult food in biological control with parasitoids..
Educational
Educational Activities
I have the following classes:
Applied genetics and pest management II, Insect Ecology, Structure snd Function
of Ecosystems, etc.


I am graduate advisees for MS and Ph.D student in the course of biological control,
and have served on thesis committees (MS and Ph.D).
Other Educational Activities
  • 2010.03.
Social
Professional and Outreach Activities
(1) Identification service of insect pests and natural enemies

(2) Editor of scientific journals

(3) Reviewer for scientific journals, including reputable journals such as
Animal Behaviour (London), Oecologia, Ecology Letters, Entomologia
experimentalis et applicata, Biological Control

(4) Secretary for academic societies

etc..