Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Reports
kuniyoshi shimizu Last modified date:2019.09.18

Associate Professor / Systematic Forest and Forest Products Science / Department of Agro-environmental Sciences / Faculty of Agriculture

1. Qinchang Zhu, Kenichi Kakino, Chika Nogami, Koichiro Ohnuki, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, An LC-MS/MS-SRM Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Four Representative Organosulfur Compounds in Garlic Products, Food Analytical Methods, 10.1007/s12161-016-0535-1, 2016.12, The quantitative analysis of organosulfur compounds is important for the quality control of various garlic products along with studying their molecular functionality and nutraceutical properties. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-MS/MS-SRM) method with electrospray ionization detection was developed and validated for the rapid, simultaneous quantification of four representative organosulfur compounds in garlic: alliin, S-allyl-L-cysteine, γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, and allicin. Stable SRM transitions were achieved for these compounds under optimized conditions, and the linear range extended from 1 to 2000 ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.003 to 0.058 ng/mL and from 0.01 to 0.19 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent recovery and reproducibility at different spiking levels were achieved. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of organosulfur compounds in fresh garlic samples. This highly selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS-SRM method is expected to be a useful tool for studying molecular functionality and the quality control of garlic products..
2. Amira Mira, kuniyoshi shimizu, An Update on Antitumor Activity of Angelica Species, Medicinal Plants - Recent Advances in Research and Development, pp 363-371, 2016.10.
3. Sonam Tamrakar, Hai Bang Tran, Marina Nishida, Satoru Kaifuchi, Hiroto Suhara, Katsumi Doi, Katsuya Fukami, Gopal Prasad Parajuli, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Antioxidative activities of 62 wild mushrooms from Nepal and the phenolic profile of some selected species, Journal of Natural Medicines, 10.1007/s11418-016-1013-1, 2016.10, Mushrooms have garnered immense popularity for their nutritional as well as medicinal values. The therapeutic potential of mushrooms in Nepal, a country well known for its biodiversity and natural medicinal resources, remains largely unstudied. Therefore, this study attempts to unveil the antioxidative properties of Nepalese wild mushrooms. Sixty-two wild mushroom samples were collected from several forests in different parts of Nepal. Ethanol and water extracts of the dried samples were tested for their antioxidative activities using total phenolic content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and reducing power (RP) assays. Ethanol extracts of samples belonging to the order Hymenochaetales showed significantly high activity in all the assays. Inonotus clemensiae had an exceptionally high TPC of 643.2 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and also exhibited the lowest EC50 values in DPPH (0.081 mg/mL), ABTS (0.409 mg/mL), and EC0.5 value in reducing power (RP; 0.031 mg/mL) assays. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the top ten samples with the highest TPC was done to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis for some unknown compounds. These findings highlight the very strong antioxidative activity of Nepalese mushrooms, and paves the way for further research to explore their economic potential..
4. Seiichi Sakamoto, Nao Kikkawa, Toshitaka Kohno, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto, Immunochromatographic strip assay for detection of bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, Fitoterapia, 10.1016/j.fitote.2016.08.016, 2016.10, Ganoderic acid A (GAA) is one of the major Ganoderma triterpenes produced by medicinal mushroom belonging to the genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae). Due to its interesting pharmacological activities, Ganoderma species have been traditionally used in China for the treatment of various diseases. Herein, we developed a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip assay (ICA) for the rapid detection of GAA using highly specific monoclonal antibody against GAA (MAb 12A) conjugated with gold nanoparticles. Using the developed ICA, the detection of GAA can be completed within 15 min after dipping the test strip into an analyte solution with the limit of detection (LOD) for GAA of ~ 500 ng/mL. In addition, this system makes it possible to perform a semi-quantitative analysis of GAA in Ganoderma lingzhi, where high reliability was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The newly developed ICA can potentially be applied to the standardization of Ganoderma using GAA as an index because GAA is major triterpenoid present much in the mushroom..
5. Amira Mira, Wael Alkhiary, Qinchang Zhu, Toshinori Nakagawa, Hai Bang Tran, Yhiya M. Amen, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Improved Biological Activities of Isoepoxypteryxin by Biotransformation, Chemistry and Biodiversity, 10.1002/cbdv.201600049, 2016.10, Isoepoxypteryxin is the major coumarin of a Japanese medicinal plant Angelica shikokiana. This research was designed to study the effect of structural changes through fungal biotransformation on the reported biological activities of isoepoxypteryxin. Among the tested microorganisms, only Cordyceps sinensis had enzymes that could catalyze the ester hydrolysis and the reductive cleavage of the epoxide ring of isoepoxypteryxin, separately, to give two more polar metabolites (+)-cis-khellactone (P1) and a new coumarin derivative (+)-cis-3′-[(2-methyl-3-hydroxybutanoyl)oxy]-4′-acetoxy-3′,4′-dihydroseselin (P2), respectively. The polar metabolite P2 showed stronger cytotoxicity and higher selectivity than isoepoxypteryxin. On the molecular level, P2 showed more in vitro inhibition of both tubulin polymerization and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). Similarly, P2 showed more neuroprotection against amyloid beta fragment 1 – 42 (Aβ1 – 42)-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and exhibited more inhibition of the in vitro aggregation of Aβ1 – 42. Both metabolites showed stronger antiplatelet aggregation by increased inhibition of thromboxane-A2 synthase (TXS) activity and thromboxane-A2 (TXA2) production. This study is the first to describe the improved cytotoxic, neuroprotective, and antiplatelet aggregation activities of isoepoxypteryxin through its biotransformation by C. sinensis..
6. Amal Sallam, Amira Mira, Ahmed Ashour, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and melanin synthesis inhibitors from Salvia officinalis, Phytomedicine, 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.06.014, 2016.09, Background Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. Methods The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Results Seven phenolic diterpenes―sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol―were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. Conclusions The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation..
7. Yhiya M. Amen, Qinchang Zhu, Mohamed S. Afifi, Ahmed F. Halim, Ahmed Ashour, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, New cytotoxic lanostanoid triterpenes from Ganoderma lingzhi, Phytochemistry Letters, 10.1016/j.phytol.2016.07.024, 2016.09, Further chemical investigation of the metabolites in the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lingzhi resulted in isolation of eight triterpenes; two of them are new triterpene acid ethyl esters. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic studies and comparison with the known related compounds. The anticancer potential of the isolates were tested with an in vitro cytotoxic assay against five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HCT-116, Caco-2 and HepG2) and two normal human cell lines (TIG-1 and HF19). Results showed that the new compounds have a strong to moderate selective cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 while they showed moderate to weak activity against HeLa cell line. Potent cytotoxic activities of some of the known isolated compounds are reported for the first time..
8. Yhiya M. Amen, Qinchang Zhu, Hai Bang Tran, Mohamed S. Afifi, Ahmed F. Halim, Ahmed Ashour, Amira Mira, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Lucidumol C, a new cytotoxic lanostanoid triterpene from Ganoderma lingzhi against human cancer cells, Journal of Natural Medicines, 10.1007/s11418-016-0976-2, 2016.07, A new oxygenated lanostane-type triterpene, named lucidumol C, together with six known compounds, was isolated from the chloroform extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lingzhi. Structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic and chemical studies. Potential cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116, Caco-2), human liver carcinoma (HepG2), and human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines using WST-1 reagent. Selectivity was evaluated using normal human fibroblast cells (TIG-1 and HF19). Among the compounds, lucidumol C showed potent selective cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 7.86 ± 4.56 µM and selectivity index (SI) >10 with remarkable cytotoxic activities against Caco-2, HepG2 and HeLa cell lines..
9. Ahmed Zaki, Ahmed Ashour, Amira Mira, Asuka Kishikawa, Toshinori Nakagawa, Qinchang Zhu, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds, Phytotherapy Research, 10.1002/ptr.5589, 2016.05, Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2O2. These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time..
10. Seiichi Sakamoto, Toshitaka Kohno, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto, Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Planta Medica, 10.1055/s-0042-104202, 2016.05, Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life..
11. Fawzia Ibrahim, Mohie Khaled Sharaf El-Din, Rania Nabih El-Shaheny, Asmaa Kamal El-Deen, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Simultaneous determination of four vasoactive phytochemicals in different pharmaceutical preparations by a simple HPLC-DAD method, Analytical Methods, 10.1039/c5ay03003j, 2016.02, A new, simple isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of four vasoactive phytochemicals: ascorbic acid (ASC), rutin (RUT), hesperidin (HSP), and diosmin (DSM) in different pharmaceutical preparations. Separation of the four compounds was achieved in about 8 min on a phenomenex-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) using a mobile phase consists of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 4.0):acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) eluted at 1.0 mL min-1 with diode array detection at 275 nm. Linear correlation was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 2.0-60.0, 1.0-20.0, 2.0-50.0, and 5.0-100.0 μg mL-1 for ASC, RUT, HSP, and DSM, respectively. The developed method is efficient, reproducible and appropriate as a versatile method for quality control of various combinations of these drugs in different pharmaceutical preparations with high values of %recoveries which agreed well with the labeled claim. The method is also a stability-indicating one for DSM in its pure state and single-component tablets. A comparison of the results obtained by the developed method with those of the comparison methods confirmed no significant differences between them with respect to accuracy and precision..
12. Shoko Furuta, Rika Kuwahara, Eri Hiraki, Koichiro Ohnuki, Shinobu Yasuo, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Hericium erinaceus extracts alter behavioral rhythm in mice, Biomedical Research, 10.2220/biomedres.37.227, 2016.01, Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep–wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN. In addition, both extracts decreased wakefulness around end of active phase. The findings of the present study suggest that HE may serve as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and delayed sleep phase syndrome..
13. Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Yhiya M. Amen, Satoru Kaifuchi, Methoxyflavones from New Lingzhi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lingzhi (agaricomycetes), International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i8.70, 2016.01, Ganoderma lingzhi is one of the most famous medicinal fungi in the world. It has been used in folk medicine, especially in East Asian countries. It is also a white-rot fungus with strong wood degradation ability, especially against lignin. Different classes of bioactive natural products have been reported in Ganoderma, including triterpenes, polysaccharides, sterols, and peptides. The triterpenes and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive compounds of Ganoderma. We report for the first time the presence of 3 methoxyflavones as minor constituents in G. linghzi. The 3 compounds were identified based on different spectroscopic techniques, including 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) and mass spectrometry (high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Our report provides an approach to a possible biosynthetic pathway for biosynthetic genes in the mushrooms. Another great possibility is that these compounds may exist or be formed through degradation of the components in the woody substrate, such as lignin, and then subsequently translocate to the fruiting bodies..
14. Toshinori Nakagawa, Qinchang Zhu, Hiroya Ishikawa, Koichiro Ohnuki, Kenichi Kakino, Naoya Horiuchi, Hiroaki Shinotsuka, Terumi Naito, Tsuyoshi Matsumoto, Noriko Minamisawa, Mitsuyoshi Yatagai, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Multiple uses of Essential Oil and By-Products from Various Parts of the Yakushima Native Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica), Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 10.1080/02773813.2015.1057648, 2016.01, This article presents multiple potential uses of the Yakushima native cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), known in Japan as the Yaku-sugi tree. The Yaku-sugi was divided into four parts: leaves, branches with leaves, branches, and stems. We obtained the essential oil, hydrosol, distillation residue, and distillation wastewater from the trees. Essential oil and hydrosol were determined to be volatile organic compounds. All samples were screened for the following bioactivities: antioxidative, antibacterial, and anti-melanogenesis activities. Freeze-dried distillation residue was tested to assess whether it had a deodorizing effect. The main component of the leaf essential oil was found to be monoterpenes. In contrast, the stem essential oil mainly contained sesquiterpenes. In terms of bioactivities, the leaf essential oil showed antibacterial activity and the stem essential oil showed anti-melanogenesis activity. Distillation residue and wastewater showed many activities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-melanogenesis activities. Moreover, the residue had a deodorizing effect against ammonia..
15. Reda Abdelhameed, Mohamed Saleh Elgawish, Amira Mira, Amany K. Ibrahim, Safwat A. Ahmed, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Koji Yamada, Anti-choline esterase activity of ceramides from the Red Sea marine sponge Mycale euplectellioides, RSC Advances, 10.1039/c5ra26424c, 2016, The isolation and structure elucidation of new phytoceramides from a methanolic extract of the Red Sea sponge Mycale euplectellioides was exclusively studied. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS. The anti-choline esterase activity of the isolated ceramides was evaluated in vitro using a microplate-based Ellman's assay. Bioassay guided isolation led to the isolation of a MEC-1 phytoceramide molecular species; further purification of MEC-1 afforded three pure phytoceramides: MEC-1-4, MEC-1-7 and MEC-1-8. Molecular modeling studies using glide docking showed tight binding of the ceramides to acetylcholine esterase (AChE). The ceramides showed a better docking score and glide Emodel value when compared to known AChE inhibitors. The ceramides interacted with an aromatic residue of the peripheral anionic site and penetrated deeply into the catalytic triad residues of the active site. Overall, the ceramides obtained using the approaches described here could be considered as promising lead compounds for the discovery and design of potent anti-choline esterase drug candidates, which would be used for Alzheimer's eradication..
16. Wiwit Denny Fitriana, Taslim Ersam, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Sri Fatmawati, Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera extracts, Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 10.22146/ijc.1148, 2016, Moringa oleifera have been evaluated for its antioxidant activity. M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and n-hexane. The antioxidant activity of extracts were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay and an improved 2,2’-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay in vitro. Trolox was used as standard with IC50 5.89 μg/mL in DPPH assay and 3.06 μg/mL in ABTS assay. The methanol extract showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 49.30 μg/mL in DPPH assay and 11.73 μg/mL in ABTS assay. This study provided that M. oleifera leaves possess antioxidant..
17. Hiroki Horiba, Toshinori Nakagawa, Qinchang Zhu, Ahmed Ashour, Atsushi Watanabe, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Biological activities of extracts from different parts of cryptomeria japonica, Natural Product Communications, 2016, Cryptomeria japonica is one of the most important forest tree species in Japan. To increase the demand for domestic timber, broad uses related to the functional attributes of C. japonica must be developed. Several studies have examined the usefulness of C. japonica in terms of its biological activities, but a comprehensive study subjecting all parts of the C. japonica plant to the same solvent for extraction has not been done. Here, methanol extractions from the leaves, branches, bearing branches, male flowers, female flowers, cones, bark, heartwood, sapwood, pith, rhizomes, roots, and pollen were subjected to several in vitro assays of their biological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti-lipase activity, antibacterial activity and melanin-biosynthesis-inhibition activity. Their total phenolic content was also determined. The methanol extracts from each part of C. japonica except for pollen showed strong activities in the bioactivity assays. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were analyzed by GC/MS. The phytochemical profile varied among extracts from various parts of C. japonica. Our results suggest the great potential of C. japonica for use as a functional ingredient in health-related products..
18. Qinchang Zhu, Tran Hai Bang, Koichiro Ohnuki, Takashi Sawai, Ken Sawai, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Inhibition of neuraminidase by Ganoderma triterpenoids and implications for neuraminidase inhibitor design, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep13194, 2015.08, Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the dominant antiviral drugs for treating influenza in the clinic. Increasing prevalence of drug resistance makes the discovery of new NA inhibitors a high priority. Thirty-one triterpenoids from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lingzhi were analyzed in an in vitro NA inhibition assay, leading to the discovery of ganoderic acid T-Q and TR as two inhibitors of H5N1 and H1N1 NAs. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the corresponding triterpenoid structure is a potential scaffold for the design of NA inhibitors. Using these triterpenoids as probes we found, through further in silico docking and interaction analysis, that interactions with the amino-acid residues Arg292 and/or Glu119 of NA are critical for the inhibition of H5N1 and H1N1. These findings should prove valuable for the design and development of NA inhibitors..
19. I. Kubo, T. J. Ha, K. Shimizu, Molecular Design of Soybean Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Based on Natural Products, A Comprehensive Survey of International Soybean Research - Genetics, Physiology, Agronomy and Nitrogen Relationships, James E. Board (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0876-4, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/52703., 2013.01.
20. N. Masuoka, K. Shimizu, I. Kubo, Antioxidant Activity of Anacardic Acids
, In: Antioxidants and Biocides from Latin American Plants; C.L. Cespedes, D.A. Sampietro, D.S. Seigler, Ed., CABI Publishing (UK)(2012), In: Antioxidants and Biocides from Latin American Plants;
C.L. Cespedes, D.A. Sampietro, D.S. Seigler, Ed., CABI Publishing (UK)(2012), 2012.02.
21. I. Kubo, K. Fujita, K. Shimizu, Anti-Salmonella Agents from Tanacetum Balsamita, A Brazilian Medicinal Plant, and their Application, In: Antioxidants and Biocides from Latin American Plants; C.L. Cespedes, D.A. Sampietro, D.S. Seigler, Ed., CABI Publishing (UK), 2012.02.
22. I. Kubo, K. Shimizu, K. Nihei, MANICOBA, A quercetin rich Amazonian dish, In: Quercetin: Dietary Sources, Functions and Health Benefits- Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012.02.
23. I. Kubo, K. Shimizu, K. Fujita, Naturally Occurring Antifungal Agents and Their Modes of Action., In : Fungicides Volume I; D. Dhanasekaran, N. Thajuddin, A. Panneerselvam, Ed., InTech - Open Access Publisher, 2012.02.
24. I. Kubo, N. Masuoka, T. J. Ha, K. Shimizu, K. Nihei, Multifunctional Antioxidant Activities of Alkyl Gallates, The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal, 3, 1-11(2010), 2010.06.
25. K. Shimizu, R. Kondo, K. Sakai, Tyrosinase inhibitors from Artocarpus incisus., Research Advances in Phytochemistry, 1, p19-34, 2000.01.
26. K. Shimizu, Tyrosinase and 5a-Reductase Inhibitory Components from Artocarpus incisus, Bull. Kyushu Univ. For., 82, p21-63, 2001.01.
27. I. Kubo, T. J. Ha, T. Nitoda, K. Shimizu, A. Kubo, Multifunctional Acne Control Agents , Current Topics in Phytochemistry, 9, 95-102 (2008) , 2008.06.