Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
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Naoki Hirose Last modified date:2018.07.19

Graduate School

Ocean Modeling Group .
Center for Oceanic Atmospheric Research .
Academic Degree
Ph. D
Field of Specialization
Outline Activities
Central issue of my current research is physical oceanography of the east Asian marginal seas such as the Japan/East Sea or the East China Sea. Mysterious ocean variability will be uncovered by way of deductive numerical modeling and inductive data assimilation. I am also interested in atmosphere-ocean interaction and influence of the ocean circulation to fisheries.
Research Interests
  • Regional climate affected by oceanic variation
    keyword : air-sea interaction, ocean-to-atmosphere feedback
  • High-frequency variability of barotropic ocean
    keyword : barotropic signals, high-frequency variability, pressure and wind forcing
    1999.04~2007.03High-frequency variability of barotropic ocean.
  • Ocean data assimilation
    keyword : ocean prediction, data assimilation, inverse estimation
    1996.04Ocean data assimilation.
  • Circulation research of the East Asian marginal seas
    keyword : ocean circulation, Japan Sea, East China Sea
    1996.04Japan Sea circulation.
Current and Past Project
  • Enhanced monitoring of ocean current using ADCP mounted in an international ferryboat crossing the Tsushima/Korea Strait
  • The primary purpose of the Collaboration is to conduct research toward 'Improvement of SST and predictability using NWP-ocean mixed layer coupled model'.
  • Numerical Experiment for Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in the Japan Sea
  • The Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team (COSSTT) deals with scientific issues in support of multidisciplinary analysis and forecasting of the coastal transition zone, as well as shelf/open ocean exchanges in relation with the larger-scale efforts.
Academic Activities
1. Takeshi Matsuno, Naoki Hirose, Jing Zhang, Yang Ki Cho, Dake Chen, Dongliang Yuan, Chin Chang Hung, Sen Jan, Recent progress in Pacific-Asian Marginal Seas (PAMS) studies, Continental Shelf Research, 10.1016/j.csr.2017.07.001, 143, 89-90, 2017.07, [URL].
2. Naoki Hirose, Katsumi Takayama, Jae-Hong Moon, Tatsuro Watanabe, Yoshinori Nishida, Regional data assimilation system extended to the East Asian marginal seas, Umi to Sora (Sea and Sky), 89, 2, 43-51, 2013.12, [URL].
3. MOON JAEHONG, Hirose Naoki, MORIMOTO Akihiko, Green's function approach for calibrating tides in a circulation model for the East Asian marginal seas, Journal of Oceanography, 10.1007/s10872-011-0097-1, 68, 2, 345-354, 2012.04, [URL], A simple effective method of inverse estimation provided by model Green's functions is examined to calibrate tides in a regional circulation model for the East Asian marginal seas. The Green's function optimization derived by perturbing the model parameters significantly improves the estimate relative to observation as compared with baseline integration. Among the optimized model parameters, the largest effects on cost function reduction come first from the harmonic constant of M 2 along the open boundaries with the optimized values of 89.7 ± 0.8% for amplitude, and second from the bottom friction with the optimized value of (3.06 ± 0.08) × 10 -3..
4. Hirose, N., Inverse estimation of empirical parameters used in a regional ocean circulation model, Journal of Oceanography, 10.1007/s10872-011-0041-4, 67, 3, 323-336, 2011.06.
5. Jae Hong Moon, Naoki Hirose, Jong Hwan Yoon, Ig Chan Pang, Offshore detachment process of the low-salinity water around Changjiang Bank in the East China Sea, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10.1175/2010JPO4167.1, 40, 5, 1035-1053, 2010.05, [URL], A patchlike structure of low-salinity water detached from the Chanjiang "Diluted Water" (CDW) is frequently observed in the East China Sea (ECS). In this study, the offshore detachment process of CDW into the ECS is examined using a three-dimensional numerical model. The model results show that low-salinity water is detached from the CDW plume by the intense tide-induced vertical mixing during the spring tide period when the tidal current becomes stronger. During the spring tide, thickness of the bottom mixed layer in the sloping bottom around Changjiang Bank reaches the mean water depth, implying that the stratification is completely destroyed in the entire water column. As a result, the offshore detachment of CDW occurs in the sloping side of the bank where the tidal energy dissipation is strong enough to overcome the buoyancy effect during this period. On the other hand, the surface stratification is retrieved during the neap tide period, because the tidal current becomes substantially weaker than that in the spring tide. Wind forcing over the ECS as well as tidal mixing is a critical factor for the detachment process because the surface wind primarily induces a northeastward CDW transport across the shelf region where tide-induced vertical mixing is strong. Moreover, the wind-enhanced cross-isobath transport of CDW causes a larger offshore low-salinity patch, indicating that the freshwater volume of the low-salinity patch closely depends on the wind magnitude..
6. Onitsuka, G., N. Hirose, K. Miyahara, T. Ota, J. Hatayama, Y. Mitsunaga, and T. Goto, Numerical simulation of the migration and distribution of diamond squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus) in the southwest Sea of Japan, Fisheries Oceanography, 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2009.00528.x, 19, 1, 63-75, 2010.01, [URL].
7. Masaru Yamamoto, Naoki Hirose, Regional atmospheric simulation of monthly precipitation using high-resolution SST obtained from an ocean assimilation model
Application to the wintertime Japan sea, Monthly Weather Review, 10.1175/2009MWR2488.1, 137, 7, 2164-2174, 2009.10, [URL], The present study examines the influence of an assimilation SST product on simulated monthly precipitation. The high-resolution SST structures located close to the oceanic front and coastal areas are important in regional atmospheric simulations over semienclosed marginal seas such as the Japan Sea. Two simulations are conducted using assimilation and interpolation SST products (experiments R and N, respectively), for January 2005. The surface heat fluxes and PBL height in experiment R are lower than those in experiment N in coastal areas and the cold tongue. A decrease of 4 K in SST leads to decreases of 120 W m-2 in surface sensible and latent fluxes and 300 m in PBL height. The precipitation in experiment R is less than that in experiment N for the sea area except at 38°N, 137°E. The cold tongue in the central Japan Sea acts to reduce moisture supply via the latent heat flux, resulting in low precipitation in coastal areas. The fact that the difference between observed and modeled precipitation in experiment R is 21% less than that in experiment N demonstrates that the assimilation of SST data leads to improved regional atmospheric simulations of monthly precipitation..
8. Validation of the number of branches in the Tsushima Warm Current based on assimilated estimates, [URL].
9. Jae Hong Moon, Naoki Hirose, Jong Hwan Yoon, Comparison of wind and tidal contributions to seasonal circulation of the Yellow Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2009JC005314., 114, 8, 2009.08, [URL], [1] Seasonal circulation of the Yellow Sea (YS) in response to wind and tidal forces is examined using a three-dimensional numerical model. Wind forcing affects the wintertime circulation of the YS; on the other hand, the summer southerly monsoon is weak and therefore has little impact on the circulation, on the basis of comparative experiments with and without wind conditions. Results indicate that the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) along the YS trough exists regardless of wind forcing. However, strong winter northerly winds intensify the southward coastal flows along both coasts of the YS, and therefore, the northward intrusion of the YSWC becomes stronger. These flows in the YS are substantially weakened when wind forcing is not applied to the model. In addition to wind-driven circulation, tide-induced circulation is also dominant in the YS, particularly in summer. In winter, the tidal effect weakens the upwind and downwind flows in response to the strong northerly winds, while in summer, tidal forcing induces a strong southward residual flow along the western slope and a cyclonic gyre with a bottom cold water dome at the central region of the YS. The southward residual current possibly explains the southward movement of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water as observed in summer. Comparison to the effects of parameterized tidal mixing suggests that residual flow driven by explicit tidal forcing plays an important role in the summertime circulation of the YS..
10. Naoki Hirose, Kazuya Nishimura, Masaru Yamamoto, Observational evidence of a warm ocean current preceding a winter teleconnection pattern in the northwestern Pacific, Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2009GL037448, 36, 9, 2009.05, [URL], The role of the extratropical ocean in climate remains unclear due to the complexities in air-sea interaction processes. We have found robust evidence for the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) preceding the western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern by conducting an analysis over the past 30 years. The WP index in winter sharply succeeds the volume transport of the TWC in autumn, but rather smoothly connects with the El Niño indices, indicating a considerable role of the ocean current in the climate system. Correlation patterns of seasonal precipitation over the Japanese Islands are also consistent with this relationship. The significant lead-lag correlations with the coherent structures of surface temperature indicate ocean-to-atmosphere feedback in which the interannual variation of the wind-driven current, represented by the TWC transport, influences the regional climate conditions associated with the WP pattern in winter..
11. Naoki Hirose, Hideyuki Kawamura, Ho Jin Lee, Jong Hwan Yoon, Sequential forecasting of the surface and subsurface conditions in the Japan Sea, Journal of Oceanography, 10.1007/s10872-007-0042-5, 63, 3, 467-481, 2007.06, [URL], This study estimates a realistic change of the Japan Sea by assimilating satellite measurements into an eddy-resolving circulation model. Suboptimal but feasible assimilation schemes of approximate filtering and nudging play essential roles in the system. The sequential update of error covariance significantly outperforms the asymptotic covariance in the sequential assimilation due to the irregular sampling patterns from multiple altimeter satellites. The best estimates show an average rms difference of only 1.2°C from the radiometer data, and also explain about half of the sea level variance measured by the altimeter observation. The subsurface conditions associated with the mesoscale variabilities are also improved, especially in the Tsushima Warm Current region. It is demonstrated that the forecast limit strongly depends on variable, depth, and location..
12. Numerical simulation of Kyucho along the eastern coast of the Noto Peninsula in 2004.
13. Naoki Hirose, Ken ichi Fukudome, Monitoring the Tsushima warm current improves seasonal prediction of the regional snowfall, Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere, 10.2151/sola.2006-016, 2, 61-63, 2006.01, [URL], Seasonal predictions of rain or snowfall are usually too uncertain at regional scales. We suggest utilizing subsurface ocean measurements to improve long-term weather forecasts. The example we give is that regional snowfall in Japan can be predicted by a simple regression from an acoustic Doppler current profiler attached to a regular ferryboat to observe the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current. The lag correlation is shown to exceed 0.75 attributed to the simple underling marine meteorology and regional oceanography. The relationship certainly improves seasonal precipitation estimates led by the winter monsoon absorbing the latent heat from the Japan Sea. We predict there will be less snowfall this winter of 2005/2006 than in 2004/2005 despite the heavy snowfall event in the last December..
14. Hirose, N., I. Fukumori, C.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Yoon, Numerical simulation and satellite altimeter data assimilation of the Japan Sea circulation, Deep Sea Research II, 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.034, 52, 11-13, 1443-1463, 52, 1443-1463, 2005.08.
15. Hirose, N, Least-squares estimation of bottom topography using horizontal velocity measurements in the Tsushima/Korea Straits, Journal of Oceanography, 10.1007/s10872-005-0085-4, 61, 4, 789-794, 2005.08, [URL].
16. Hirose, N., I. Fukumori, R. M. Ponte, and V. Zlotnicki, Modeling the high-frequency barotropic response of the ocean to atmospheric disturbances: Sensitivity to forcing, topography, and friction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2000JC000763, 106, C12, 30987-30995, 2001.12, [URL].
17. Hirose, N., I. Fukumori, and R. M. Ponte, A non-isostatic global sea level response to barometric pressure near 5 days, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 12, 2441-2444, 2001.06, [URL].
18. Hirose, N. and A. G. Ostrovskii, Quasi-biennial variability in the Japan Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2000JC900046, 105, C6, 14011-14027, 105 (C6), 14011-14027, 2000.06, [URL].
19. Naoki Hirose, H.-C. Lee, Jong-Hwan Yoon, Surface Heat Flux in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 3, 401-417, 29, 401-417, 1999.03.
20. Hirose, N., I. Fukumori, and J.-H. Yoon, Assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data with a reduced gravity model of the Japan Sea, Journal of Oceanography, 55, 53-64, 1999.01, [URL].
21. Hirose, N., C.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Yoon, Heat budget in the Japan Sea, Journal of Oceanography, 52, 553-574, 1996.10, [URL].
22. Naoki Hirose, Cheol Ho Kim, Jong Hwan Yoon, Heat budget in the Japan sea, Journal of Oceanography, 10.1007/BF02238321, 52, 5, 553-574, 1996.01, [URL], The long-term mean (31-year mean) surface heat fluxes over the Japan Sea are estimated by the bulk method using the most of the available vessel data with the resolution of 1° × 1°. The long-term annual mean net heat flux is about -53 W m-2 (negative sign means upward heat flux) with the annual range from 133 W m-2 in May to -296 W m-2 in December. The small gain of heat in the area near Vladivostok seems to indicate the existence of cold water flowing from the north. In that area in winter, the mean loss of heat attains about 200 W m-2, and the Bowen's ratio is over the unity. The largest insolation occurs in May in the Japan Sea, and the upward latent heat flux becomes the largest in November in this area. The heat flux of Haney type is also calculated, and the result shows that the constant Q1 has the remarkable seasonal and spatial variation, while the coefficient Q2 has relatively small variation throughout all seasons. Under the assumption of constant volume transport of 1.35 × 106 m3s-1 through the Tsugaru Strait, the long-term averages of the volume transport through the Tsushima and Soya Straits are estimated to be about 2.20 and 0.85 × 106 m3s-1 from the result of the mean surface heat flax, respectively..
Works, Software and Database
1. Data assimilation Research of the East Asian Marine System
2. Japan Sea Forecasting System
3. The four-dimensional estimates of the Japan Sea circulation are provided for any of those who are interested in them. The data covers the entire Japan Sea (33-52N, 126.5-142.5E) for period from January 2nd, 1992 to November 19th, 2000 (total 3245days) with daily interval. The 1/6-degree, 19-level GFDL MOM (OGCM) was driven by daily ECMWF forecast and monthly inflow and outflow at the three openings. Satellite altimeter data of TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1/2 were assimilated into the model by using approximate Kalman filter and RTS smoother. Please visit the URL:
1. Naoki Hirose, Coastal Ocean data assimilation experiment interacting with local fisheries, PAMS 2017 19th Pacific Asian Marginal Seas Meeting, 2017.04.
2. Naoki HIROSE, Atsushi KANEDA, Noriyuki OOKEI, Yutaka KUMAKI, Keiichi YAMAZAKI, Tatsuro WATANABE, Development of Coastal Prediction System for the Southeastern Japan Sea, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) 11th Annual Meeting, 2014.08.
3. Naoki Hirose, Katsumi Takayama, Improvement of ocean prediction model for the east Asian Marginal Seas, The 17th PAMS (Pacific Asian Marginal Seas) Meeting, 2013.04.
4. , [URL].
5. TAIRYO project: A real-time ocean prediction experiment for coastal fishery, [URL].
6. , [URL].
7. Effective momentum flux and empirical parameters inversely estimated by model Green's functions in the East Asian marginal seas, [URL].
8. Inverse estimation of empirical parameters in a circulation model for the East Asian marginal seas, [URL].
9. Validation of the number of branches in the Tsushima Warm Current, [URL].
10. Formation process of low-salinity water patches in the East China Sea, [URL].
11. Numerical tracer study on the migration of the giant jellyfish (Nemoplilema nomurai) in the Japan Sea, [URL].
12. Strong Influence of the Tsushima Warm Current on the Regional Climate in Winter, [URL].
13. , [URL].
14. , [URL].
15. , [URL].
16. , [URL].
17. , [URL].
18. , [URL].
19. Reanalysis of the Japan Sea Circulation Using Approximate Smoother.
20. A forecast system for the Japan/East Sea.
21. An ocean model for de-aliasing high-frequency barotropic sea level variations.
22. Quasi-biennial Variability in the Japan Sea.
23. Sea level anomaly propagation over the Japan Sea.
24. Separation of the East Korean Warm Current and the Deep Convection in the Japan Basin.
Membership in Academic Society
  • The Oceanographic Society of Japan
  • The Marine Meteorological Society
  • The Korean Society of Oceanography
  • Asia Oceania Geosciences Society
  • American Geophysical Union
Educational Activities
Participating the education for Department of Earth System Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences