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Yasuhisa Abe Last modified date:2018.06.22

Associate Professor / Department of Social Studies
Department of Social Studies
Faculty of Social and Cultural Studies


Graduate School
Other Organization


E-Mail
Phone
092-802-5630
Fax
092-802-5630
Academic Degree
Ph.D.(Geography)
Field of Specialization
 State-owned Enterprise Reform,Social Security and Migration in China,  Chinese Immigrants in Modern Japan,
Research
Research Interests
  • 1) Indutrial Location in China
    2) Social Security and Migration in China
    3) Chinese Immigrants in Modern Japan
    keyword : Industrial location, transnational enterprise,Automobile industry, Migration
    2002.04.
Academic Activities
Reports
1. Hejing Duanmu, Yasuhisa Abe, Rethinking Embeddedness: Case Study of the Apparel Industry, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China
, Long abstract of the 12th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, pp.189-191., 2017.08.
2. Yaodan Zhang, Yasuhisa Abe, The motivations, preferences, and residence purchasing patterns of Chinese middle class members in Japanese cities., Long abstract of the 12th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, pp.406-408., 2017.08, This research looked at long-term foreign residents of Japanese cities and selected for study Chinese persons belonging to the middle class and studied these persons’ residence purchasing patterns and their motives and preferences regarding the purchase of a residence in Japan. We gathered information and documents through interview surveys of 22 middle class Chinese who had purchased a residence in Japan .We took these middle class Chinese residents of Japan as the subjects of our research, and we studied their preference patterns and decision-making in regard to their purchase of a house or condominium. In conclusion, the areas where Chinese middle class housing purchasers chose to locate showed diverse tendencies— there were some people who chose a single detached house in the suburbs and there were others who chose a convenient condominium in the central city. The result is that the residence pattern of resident purchasers can be said to be decentralized. Unlike traditional immigrants who tended, for purposes of mutual aid, to live in specific areas such as places near their workplace, middle class Chinese residents have a certain level of economic power. This power enables them to live in suburban housing or central city high rise condominiums, so that they disperse and disappear among the Japanese residents in these areas. Therefore, from the aspect of housing policy, diverse preferences are shown by residence purchasers in regard to the type of residence purchased, the areas where residences are purchased and the motives for purchasing. This means that there is scant need for a policy that presumes we must carry out measures such as promoting the purchase of residences by foreigners or constructing special housing subdivisions for foreign residents.

Keywords: purchasing patterns, Chinese middle class, Japanese cities.
3. Yasuhisa Abe, Yang Yan, The regional background of Business Startups by Unemployed People in Fushun, China, Long abstract of the 12th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, pp.222-223., 2017.08, The purpose of this study is to examine the regional background that may favor or limit business startups by unemployed people in Fushun, China.Our study method included gathering and analyzing prior research and statistical data pertaining to re-employment prospects for jobless people. In addition, an interview survey was conducted with 24 people who had experienced unemployment in the local area. As a conclusion, successful independent business people are operating among the unemployed of Fushun. Yet, these newly launched businesses, benefiting from the exchange of knowhow among local residents, differ from startups in coastal areas like the Yangtze Delta, where manufacturing growth centers on the formation of light-industry clusters. It can be said that the small-business people of Fushun tend to focus on the service industry.

Keywords: The Restructure of State-owned Enterprises,Unemployed, Business Startups, Self-employed, Northeast China.
4. Yang Yan, Yasuhisa Abe, The Inter-Provincial Movement of White-Collar Workers to the Pearl River Delta Area in China and their Intention to Continue Working There, Proceedings of the 11th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, pp.18-20, pp.47-49., 2016.09.
5. ABE Yasuhisa, XU Yawen, Employment Status of Overseas Students who have Gone Back to their Countries from Japan and their Evaluation of Studying in Japan —A Case Study of Chinese Graduate Students-, Proceedings of the 5th Japan-Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography, pp.18-20, 2010.11.
Papers
1. The Inter-Provincial Movement of White-Collar Workers to the Pearl River Delta Area in China
and their Intention to Continue Working There.
2. The Mechanism for Regional Expansion and Chain Store Control of Company A:
A Case Study on the Chinese Shoe Chain in Shandong Province

 This research deals with the mechanism for regional expansion and chain store control of a Chinese
shoe company. It focuses on the following three points: 1) the history and background of the expansion of the
chain store’s network via a franchise system, 2) management and support mechanisms that made it possible
for franchisees to achieve high sales quotas, and 3) the relationship between the chain headquarters and
franchisees and the changes in this relationship.
 Our research method was to interview four executives at Company A’s headquarters and its regional
agency, and to interview 18 owners of Company A franchises. We investigated the process of how people
became owners, the contract conditions and arrangements between headquarters and owners at the time of
procurement of goods, the support which the owners received from headquarters, and the changes in this
support.
 In its nationwide expansion, Company A signed franchise agreements with wholesalers and retailers,
and it set up specialty stores that only handled its products. This company eased the financial burden of
franchisees by relaxing payment terms, offering incentives based on sales, and supporting part of the startup
fund by delegating some decision-making to the regional agency in Wenzhou, the city where Company A
originated. In addition, it provided storeowners with training and knowhow on store operations.
 Many people in China have a high sense of business entrepreneurship, and they manage companies
and stores. A distinct feature of Company A’s expansion has been its speed and effectiveness in mobilizing the
entrepreneurial talents of these persons. Over a period of about 15 years in which it introduced its franchise
system, the company rapidly expanded its network to 4,000 stores. On the other hand, looking at the
relationship between the headquarters and franchisees, headquarters had previously provided full support to
distributors. However, Company A’s headquarters has recently been strengthening its control over
franchisees, and support for franchisees has decreased. In other words, due to stalled sales, difficulties with
profit distribution has become evident.

 Key words: Chinese shoe chain, franchise system, chain control, Wenzhou, Shandong province.
3. The Characteristics of Residential Patterns and Constraints of Population Movements among Urban White-collar Workers: A Study on Workers of Private Enterprises in Hangzhou, China

ABE Yasuhisa and HUA Xia

Keywords:residential and working places, white-collar workers, gender, birthplace, Hangzhou City

In this study, we targeted white-collar workers employed in private enterprises in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and examined the characteristics of their residential patterns and population movements, with a focus on attributes such as birthplace and gender and whether they lived together with their parents. We conducted a questionnaire survey and follow up interviews based on it. Company offices were selected for the survey, and needed to satisfy 3 criteria: 1) They were located in central Hanzhou: 2) They were private companies: 3) They were head offices of the companies and the ratio of management positions in the companies was high. We distributed the questionnaire form to these head offices and conducted interviews with five human resources personnel who served as the liaison for this survey in each company. Results of the survey were as follows.
Concerning the academic background of the survey respondents, 87.2% graduated from specialized colleges or above standard. This is a high rate considering China’s college enrollment rate was 23% in 2007. Concerning commuting distance and time, women tended to travel for shorter distances and time than men overall. One reason was that, a high percentage of men used their own cars to commute. Also, for women, it can be considered that they had to choose workplaces near their residences when finding employment. Moreover, there were those who chose areas close to their workplace when moving.
Another survey question asked respondents who had moved their reasons for doing so. As for the birthplace of the survey respondents, most male and female respondents were born in Hangzhou. The results revealed that few respondents had left the city for college or employment. Also notable was the living pattern in which parents lived with the respondent or close to them. Among the results was the finding that relatively fewer men than women were born in regions other than Hangzhou. In contemporary Chinese cities, men tend to bear a heavy economic burden after marriage, as a result of purchasing a home and automobile, for example. This was also the case in Hangzhou. According to interviews, the reason that fewer men than women had moved from other regions was that when single men were employed in Hangzhou, they often returned to their birthplace when they became marriage-minded. In contrast, because the economic load as described above for women is light when they marry, they remain in the same city. There are many cases of women continuing to live and work in Hangzhou after marrying a Hanzhou man.
Also, while it was assumed that the survey respondents had positions that allowed them to earn relatively high incomes in their companies, because housing expenses took up a large part of household expenditure, regardless of whether or not the respondent was born in Hangzhou, many of them lived with their parents even after marriage. The living pattern that many of them desired was “living close to their parents.” However, in actuality, nearly half of the respondents said that they had no choice but to live with their parents..
4. The Slowdown of ICT Service Business Expansion in Yanji City, China
: Focus on Korean Enterprises

Keywords: Employment Conditions, ICT Service Businesses, Korean Residents, Yanji City

We investigated the slowdown of ICT service business expansion in the city of Yanji, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, China, focusing on the employment conditions of workers. The results of our study revealed that within Yanji, the ICT service industry is composed primarily of both domestic and Korean companies. The Entrance of Korean companies into Yanji began noticeably around 2006. Initially, the major factors of this entry were the abundance of ethnic Korean residents who could understand the Korean language, and furthermore, the low wage levels. However, since 2008, due to the financial crises such as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, and, in addition, due to a significant rise in the wage levels, a deterioration in the business conditions of some companies that entered into Yanji could be seen. Meanwhile, while the wage levels were increasing, compared with past levels, our study revealed that they were still low compared with wages offered in other regions of China and abroad. We observe that the reason for this condition is that few jobs being offered by ICT service companies in Yanji require a high level of education and skills. Therefore there were scant job offers where a high wage can be expected because of the classification of the position itself and job demands..
5. ‘The Shanghai Dream’ and the Reality:The Motivations of Migration and the Possibilities for Career Enhancement of Japanese Youth Workers in Shanghai

Key words: carrers abroad, locally-hired employee, Japanese, human capital, Shanghai.
6. Informatization of University Students’ Job Search in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China, and
Constraints on Extra-Provincial Employment

The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in how university students seek jobs and employment conditions outside the
province as informatization advances, using Jinan City in Shandong Province, China, as a case study. One change found by the study in
the university students’ job-seeking behavior was the large number of students now using an online system introduced by the provincial
government. The system supports job seekers by providing job search information. On the other hand, conventional methods, such as
company information sessions held on campus, were still used by many students as a method of finding jobs. Meanwhile, there were
few students who placed much weight on other job-seeking methods besides the provincial jobs information system, such as commercial
employment websites and social networking services (SNS). The survey conducted by this study revealed that job searches tended to
be confined to within the boundaries of the province. An issue is that although many job-seekers were native residents of the province,
because many of them also sought the option of seeking jobs outside the province, the jobs information system only listed jobs offered
within the province. Despite this constraint, however, there were many job-seekers using this system. This finding indicates that they
placed a premium on the large number of job vacancies listed on the system, the system’s detailed information, and its reliability. .
7. Development and Background of University-Affiliated Enterprise in China:
A Case Study of Neusoft Group in Shengyang City, Liaoning Province.
8. Localization and Product Feature Differentiation for Japanese Electronics and Electric Parts Manufacturer
- Case Study of Company A in Shanghai-.
9. How have Customer Service Centers for Japan in Foreign Cities Changed their Business?
- A Case Study of Dalian City, China-.
10. Change in Ordering System and Locations of Suppliers in the Chinese Automobile Industry: Case Study of Geely Automobile.
11. Changes in Locational Environment of Japanese Machinery and Instrument Industry in China ―A Case Study of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Area―.
12. ABE Yasuhisa, ZHENG Nan, Why do the unemployed remain in an Area of China with Disadvantaged Employment Opportunity?:A Case Study of Fushun City, the Northeast China, 地理科学学会編『地理科学』, 64巻1号,22-37., 2009.01.
13. Studies about the Human-Land Relationship in Chinese Geographical Society.
14. The Change in Operational Strategy and Regional Differentiation in a State-Owned Corporation :A Case Study of the Liaoning Special Steel Corporation.
15. ABE Yasuhisa, Regional Differentiation on the Policy for Chinese Laborers in Modern Japanese Colonies :A Case Study of Taiwan, 地理科学学会編『地理科学』, 61巻1号,22-39頁, 2006.01.
Presentations
1. Yasuhisa Abe, Yang Yan, The regional background of Business Startups by Unemployed People in Fushun, China
, The 12th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第12回日韓中地理学会議), 2017.08, The purpose of this study is to examine the regional background that may favor or limit business startups by unemployed people in Fushun, China.Our study method included gathering and analyzing prior research and statistical data pertaining to re-employment prospects for jobless people. In addition, an interview survey was conducted with 24 people who had experienced unemployment in the local area. As a conclusion, successful independent business people are operating among the unemployed of Fushun. Yet, these newly launched businesses, benefiting from the exchange of knowhow among local residents, differ from startups in coastal areas like the Yangtze Delta, where manufacturing growth centers on the formation of light-industry clusters. It can be said that the small-business people of Fushun tend to focus on the service industry.

Keywords: The Restructure of State-owned Enterprises,Unemployed, Business Startups, Self-employed, Northeast China
.
2. Hejing Duanmu, Yasuhisa Abe, Rethinking Embeddedness: Case Study of the Apparel Industry, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China
, The 12th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第12回日韓中地理学会議), 2017.08.
3. Yaodan Zhang, Yasuhisa Abe, The motivations, preferences, and residence purchasing patterns of Chinese middle class members in Japanese cities, The 12th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第12回日韓中地理学会議), 2017.08, This research looked at long-term foreign residents of Japanese cities and selected for study Chinese persons belonging to the middle class and studied these persons’ residence purchasing patterns and their motives and preferences regarding the purchase of a residence in Japan. We gathered information and documents through interview surveys of 22 middle class Chinese who had purchased a residence in Japan .We took these middle class Chinese residents of Japan as the subjects of our research, and we studied their preference patterns and decision-making in regard to their purchase of a house or condominium. In conclusion, the areas where Chinese middle class housing purchasers chose to locate showed diverse tendencies— there were some people who chose a single detached house in the suburbs and there were others who chose a convenient condominium in the central city. The result is that the residence pattern of resident purchasers can be said to be decentralized. Unlike traditional immigrants who tended, for purposes of mutual aid, to live in specific areas such as places near their workplace, middle class Chinese residents have a certain level of economic power. This power enables them to live in suburban housing or central city high rise condominiums, so that they disperse and disappear among the Japanese residents in these areas. Therefore, from the aspect of housing policy, diverse preferences are shown by residence purchasers in regard to the type of residence purchased, the areas where residences are purchased and the motives for purchasing. This means that there is scant need for a policy that presumes we must carry out measures such as promoting the purchase of residences by foreigners or constructing special housing subdivisions for foreign residents.

Keywords: purchasing patterns, Chinese middle class, Japanese cities.
4. Yasuhisa Abe, Ning Gao, The regional expanding mechanism and chain control of Company A:Case study on a Chinese shoe chain in Shandong province, The 10th International Convention of Asia Scholars, 2017.07, Keywords: Sales routes, Management of distributors, Chain store, Wenzhou, Shandong province

This study used Company A, a major shoes chain store in Wenzhou, China, as the subject to clarify the (1) background and method of how the company expanded its sales routes via exclusive distributors, (2) management and support mechanism that enables distributors to achieve high sales quota, and (3) relationship between the chain headquarters and the local stores and changes in the sales channels. Presently there are still very few researches that look into domestic sales channels in emerging nations. One reason for this is that basic data, such as commercial statistical data, are extremely scarce. In order to make an in-depth study amidst the dearth of data and research on this area, it is necessary to conduct a detailed field survey and collect information on a particular company that has been able to achieve a certain level of success in expanding its sales routes across the entire country through its distributors. To this end, the authors conducted interviews with four executives of Company A’s Headquarters regarding how they manage their exclusive distributors. We also interviewed 18 owners of stores within the top 30 in terms of sales in Shandong, to find out the background of their becoming an exclusive distributor of the chain store, how they decide contract conditions for product procurement, and the actual sales support provided by the Headquarters. Results revealed that rather than seeking to gain short-term profits by charging contract fees and commissions from the distributors, the company focused on easing the financial burden of the distributors by extending payment terms for part of the startup funding and for accounts receivables and by providing incentives based on sales. The company also provided the storeowners with training and knowhow on store operations. These strategies enabled the company to rapidly expand its nationwide sales network. Although there is a high level of entrepreneurship in China, wherein there are many people wanting to manage their own companies and stores, in most cases they lack the necessary educational training and do not have sufficient funds to start a business. The method used by the company to expand its network of chain stores can also be seen in Japan and other countries. What distinguishes them, however, is that by supporting entrepreneur-minded people, they were able to expand to 4,000 stores nationwide within only 15 years since adopting the exclusive dealership system. On the other hand, based on the relationship between the Headquarters and the distributors, it was found that the trend before was for the Headquarters to flexibly respond to requests of storeowners based on the need to secure sales channels. Recently, however, it was found that Headquarters has been exercising stronger control over the distributors. As the number of stores increased, mutual trust between the Headquarters and the storeowners weakened, leading to the inability of the Headquarters to flexibly respond to the needs of the owners..
5. Yasuhisa Abe, Ning Gao, Expansion of sales routes and characteristics of management of distributors in Chinese corporations – Case study on Company A, a shoes chain store, The 11th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第11回日韓中地理学会議), 2016.09, Keywords: Sales routes, Management of distributors, Chain store, Wenzhou, Shandong province

This study used Company A, a major shoes chain store in Wenzhou, China, as the subject to clarify the (1) background and method of how the company expanded its sales routes via exclusive distributors, (2) management and support mechanism that enables distributors to achieve high sales quota, and (3) relationship between the chain headquarters and the local stores and changes in the sales channels. Presently there are still very few researches that look into domestic sales channels in emerging nations. One reason for this is that basic data, such as commercial statistical data, are extremely scarce. In order to make an in-depth study amidst the dearth of data and research on this area, it is necessary to conduct a detailed field survey and collect information on a particular company that has been able to achieve a certain level of success in expanding its sales routes across the entire country through its distributors. To this end, the authors conducted interviews with four executives of Company A’s Headquarters regarding how they manage their exclusive distributors. We also interviewed 18 owners of stores within the top 30 in terms of sales in Shandong, to find out the background of their becoming an exclusive distributor of the chain store, how they decide contract conditions for product procurement, and the actual sales support provided by the Headquarters. Results revealed that rather than seeking to gain short-term profits by charging contract fees and commissions from the distributors, the company focused on easing the financial burden of the distributors by extending payment terms for part of the startup funding and for accounts receivables and by providing incentives based on sales. The company also provided the storeowners with training and knowhow on store operations. These strategies enabled the company to rapidly expand its nationwide sales network. Although there is a high level of entrepreneurship in China, wherein there are many people wanting to manage their own companies and stores, in most cases they lack the necessary educational training and do not have sufficient funds to start a business. The method used by the company to expand its network of chain stores can also be seen in Japan and other countries. What distinguishes them, however, is that by supporting entrepreneur-minded people, they were able to expand to 4,000 stores nationwide within only 15 years since adopting the exclusive dealership system. On the other hand, based on the relationship between the Headquarters and the distributors, it was found that the trend before was for the Headquarters to flexibly respond to requests of storeowners based on the need to secure sales channels. Recently, however, it was found that Headquarters has been exercising stronger control over the distributors. As the number of stores increased, mutual trust between the Headquarters and the storeowners weakened, leading to the inability of the Headquarters to flexibly respond to the needs of the owners..
6. Yang Yan, Yasuhisa Abe, The Inter-Provincial Movement of White-Collar Workers to the Pearl River Delta Area in China and their Intention to Continue Working There, The 11th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第11回日韓中地理学会議), 2016.09.
7. Yasuhisa Abe, Xia Hua, The Characteristics of Residential Patterns and Population Movements among Urban White-collar Workers: A Study on Workers of Private Enterprises in Hangzhou, China , The 33rd International Geographical Congress held in Beijing, China, 2016.09,
In this study, we targeted white-collar workers employed in private enterprises in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and examined the characteristics of residential patterns and population movements among urban white-collar workers, with a focus on attributes such as birthplace and gender and whether they lived together with their parents.
For the study methods, we conducted a questionnaire survey and interviews based on it. For the criteria on choosing the target companies and business offices, we first selected five private companies in Hangzhou. We distributed the survey form to the head offices of companies in which the rate of career positions was high. The selection criteria of career workers who were to be survey respondents were as follows: 1) workers who assume management positions, such as middle management, and 2) workers expected to rise to management positions in the future due to their academic background and intra-company evaluation. Human resources personnel in each company were asked to select candidates who satisfied these conditions. The candidates were then asked to respond to the survey. At the point in time of the survey, because we wished to conduct analysis with a focus on women from among the white-collar workers, we requested the names of about 30 women and 20 men from each company. As a result, we obtained responses from 226 workers (137 women, 89 men). In addition, we conducted interviews with five human resources personnel who served as the liaison for this survey in each company.
First, concerning the academic background of the survey respondents, 87.2% graduated from specialized colleges (equivalent to Japan’s junior college) or above. This is a high rate considering China’s college enrollment rate. The percentage of respondents with membership in the Communist Party was also high at 39.4%. Thus we were able to confirm that many of them were positioned as career-track employees in their companies.
Concerning commuting distance, overall women tended to travel shorter distances compared with men. Especially characteristic of this trend was the high rate of women commuting a distance of 3 km or less compared with men. In terms of commuting time, overall women also tended to have a shorter time compared with men, with many of them commuting 30 minutes or less. A reason was that for men, a high percentage used their own cars as a method of transportation. This made it possible for many of them to live in areas distant from their workplace.
Also, for women, it was possible for them to choose workplaces near their residential places when finding employment. Moreover, there were those who chose areas close to their workplace when moving. Another survey question asked respondents who had experienced moving their reasons for doing so.
As for the birthplace of the survey respondents, many of both men and women respondents were born in Hangzhou. The results revealed that there were few respondents who had experienced moving outside the city for college or employment. Also notable was the living pattern in which parents lived together with the respondent or close to him or her. Among the results was the finding that compared with women there were relatively few men who were born in regions other than Hangzhou.
In contemporary Chinese cities, men tend to bear a heavy economic burden after marriage, as a result of purchasing a home and automobile, for example. This was also the case in Hangzhou. According to interviews, the reason that compared with women there were few men who were born in other regions was that when single men were employed in Hangzhou, they often returned to their birthplace when they became marriage-minded.
In contrast, because the economic load as described above for women is light when they marry, they remain in the same city. There are many cases of women continuing to live and work in Hangzhou if they marry a Hanzhou man.
Also, while it was assumed that the survey respondents had work positions that allowed them to earn relatively high incomes in their companies, because housing expenses took up a large part of household expenditure, regardless of whether or not the respondent was born in Hangzhou, many of them lived together with their parents (in the case of a respondents born in another region, with his or her parents-in-law) even after marriage. The living pattern that many of them desire was “living close to their parents.” However, in actuality nearly half of the respondents said that they had no choice but to live together with their parents.
In conclusion, we observed that a characteristic of white-collar workers of private enterprises in Hangzhou was the paucity of men who were born outside Hangzhou and the great number of them who lived together with their parents, primarily because of the high cost of housing.

Keywords: residential and working places, urban career workers, gender, birthplace, Hangzhou City.
8. Yasuhisa Abe, Xia Hua, Selection of Residential and Working Places among Urban Career Workers: A Study on Workers of Private Enterprises in Hangzhou, China, The 10th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第10回日韓中地理学会議), 2015.10, Our research concerns the influence of gender and birthplace on how Chinese career workers select their residential and employment places. This study was based on a questionnaire survey of 226 career workers at private enterprises in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. The results showed that many of the career workers surveyed, men and women, were living in the city of their birth (Hangzhou), with few of them having had the experience of moving away from the city after going on to higher education and career employment. A pattern of living with, or close to, parents was notable. Clearly the percentage of male career workers who were born elsewhere was smaller than that of women. Since men are expected to obtain housing when they marry to demonstrate strong financial viability, it is thought that many of the bachelor careerists working in Hangzhou will return to their home areas when they feel it is time to get married. Thus those surveyed who were from out of the area were fewer than the number of female career workers. The trend in Chinese urban society today calls for men to purchase a house and car, and to assume a heavy financial burden. As housing expenses take up the biggest proportion of the family budget, the survey results reveal that financial circumstances have compelled many people to live with their parents even after they marry.

Keywords: residential and working places, urban career workers, gender, birthplace, Hangzhou City
.
9. Yasuhisa Abe, Jing Hongmei, Localization and Product Feature Differentiation for Japanese Electronics and Electric Parts Manufacturer
- A Case Study of Company A in Shanghai-

, The 9th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第9回日韓中地理学会議), 2014.07, This paper is a case study of a sales subsidiary that handles intermediate goods for Company A, a large Japanese electronics and electric parts manufacturer in Shanghai. In the study we researched how vertically disintegrated business transactions affected customer makeup, localization of human resources, and the relationship between the Japanese head office and local subsidiaries.
 Recently, Japanese electronics and electric parts manufacturer have often undertaken the sale of intermediate goods. They have combined sales to both foreign manufacturers, such as Chinese makers, and to Japanese manufacturers, including companies within their own business group. In this paper we looked at three sales departments that handled intermediate goods for Company A. We focused on how to develop a market strategy and concomitant human resource strategy to respond to vertical disintegration, which has been expanding recently, as well as to conventional vertical integration. We concluded that among three sales departments, the 1stsales department had a high percentage of its sales to Chinese corporations, and were making most Chinese stuffs promote to management positions. We also found that by accepting proposals from local subsidiaries it was developing and selling products that meet the needs of the Chinese market.
 On the other hand, the 2nd and 3rd sales departments had a low percentage of their sales to Chinese corporations, were making little Chinese stuffs promote to management positions, and were developing almost no specialized products for the Chinese market. In the 3rd sales department, in particular, sales to Group companies and other Japanese corporations accounted for almost all of the total sales, and this department made no progress in promoting local staff to management positions. The reason is that this department sells vertically integrated products. These products are customized parts. The parts are jointly developed with the customer from the design and development stage to meet the customer’s needs. So a high level of technological capability is required from the customer as well. For this reason, the Japanese head office makes the selections and decisions regarding customers, sales prices and quantities, and local subsidiaries just do backup work. On the other hand, the 2nd sales department sells low price products and has to increase their sales to Chinese companies. In the future, both the 2nd and the 3rd sales department will have to move more aggressively to localize their human resources.
 At the same time, Chinese managers in interviews pointed out that it was necessary to increase the speed and efficiency of head office decision making, and build up support systems for local subsidiaries, instead of the headquarter having authorities about transaction.

Keywords:Japanese multinational enterprise, Localization, Electronics parts, Vertically integration, Vertically disintegration, Corporate headquarter
.
10. Yasuhisa Abe, SUN Yan, The Employment Situation for Chinese Foreign Students in Local Cities and Their Will to Continue Working
-A Case Study of Fukuoka Prefecture-
, The 8th Japan -Korea-China Joint Conference on Geography (第8回日韓中地理学会議), 2013.08, Among local cities that have received Chinese foreign students, Fukuoka Prefecture cities have received the largest number. We did a case study of the employment situation of Chinese students in Fukuoka Prefecture and investigated the will of such students to continue working there. The typical image of such foreign students is that they are ‘Highly skilled professionals’ but from the results of a survey we found that these students are actually persons with differing backgrounds and conditions. Much of the work they do is work similar to that which Japanese do, and few of them who do work related to Chinese corporations, Chinese people, or to other jobs concerned with international business. This situation occurred because the students can’t move to larger cities due to their family circumstances, and they have difficulty finding jobs in Fukuoka Prefecture. In addition, because the work students are employed in and the conditions of their visa for staying in Japan do not always match, there are cases in which getting a visa extension has become difficult. Because there is a gap between the works they want to do and their actual work, few of them expect to continue their employment in Fukuoka Prefecture for a long time. In addition, these students are concerned not only about their working conditions, but they also worry about support for their parents and raising their children, and they hope to work at jobs in China that have more stability. Overall, they have a transnational consciousness. For example, their goal in Japan is obtaining permanent residency in Japan, but they are willing to build a life for themselves as Chinese. On the other hand, they are also in a situation in which it is difficult to describe clear prospects for their future careers and place of residence..