||The Inter-Provincial Movement of White-Collar Workers to the Pearl River Delta Area in China
and their Intention to Continue Working There.
||The Mechanism for Regional Expansion and Chain Store Control of Company A:
A Case Study on the Chinese Shoe Chain in Shandong Province
This research deals with the mechanism for regional expansion and chain store control of a Chinese
shoe company. It focuses on the following three points: 1) the history and background of the expansion of the
chain store’s network via a franchise system, 2) management and support mechanisms that made it possible
for franchisees to achieve high sales quotas, and 3) the relationship between the chain headquarters and
franchisees and the changes in this relationship.
Our research method was to interview four executives at Company A’s headquarters and its regional
agency, and to interview 18 owners of Company A franchises. We investigated the process of how people
became owners, the contract conditions and arrangements between headquarters and owners at the time of
procurement of goods, the support which the owners received from headquarters, and the changes in this
In its nationwide expansion, Company A signed franchise agreements with wholesalers and retailers,
and it set up specialty stores that only handled its products. This company eased the financial burden of
franchisees by relaxing payment terms, offering incentives based on sales, and supporting part of the startup
fund by delegating some decision-making to the regional agency in Wenzhou, the city where Company A
originated. In addition, it provided storeowners with training and knowhow on store operations.
Many people in China have a high sense of business entrepreneurship, and they manage companies
and stores. A distinct feature of Company A’s expansion has been its speed and effectiveness in mobilizing the
entrepreneurial talents of these persons. Over a period of about 15 years in which it introduced its franchise
system, the company rapidly expanded its network to 4,000 stores. On the other hand, looking at the
relationship between the headquarters and franchisees, headquarters had previously provided full support to
distributors. However, Company A’s headquarters has recently been strengthening its control over
franchisees, and support for franchisees has decreased. In other words, due to stalled sales, difficulties with
profit distribution has become evident.
Key words: Chinese shoe chain, franchise system, chain control, Wenzhou, Shandong province.
||The Characteristics of Residential Patterns and Constraints of Population Movements among Urban White-collar Workers: A Study on Workers of Private Enterprises in Hangzhou, China
ABE Yasuhisa and HUA Xia
Keywords：residential and working places, white-collar workers, gender, birthplace, Hangzhou City
In this study, we targeted white-collar workers employed in private enterprises in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and examined the characteristics of their residential patterns and population movements, with a focus on attributes such as birthplace and gender and whether they lived together with their parents. We conducted a questionnaire survey and follow up interviews based on it. Company offices were selected for the survey, and needed to satisfy 3 criteria: 1) They were located in central Hanzhou: 2) They were private companies: 3) They were head offices of the companies and the ratio of management positions in the companies was high. We distributed the questionnaire form to these head offices and conducted interviews with five human resources personnel who served as the liaison for this survey in each company. Results of the survey were as follows.
Concerning the academic background of the survey respondents, 87.2% graduated from specialized colleges or above standard. This is a high rate considering China’s college enrollment rate was 23% in 2007. Concerning commuting distance and time, women tended to travel for shorter distances and time than men overall. One reason was that, a high percentage of men used their own cars to commute. Also, for women, it can be considered that they had to choose workplaces near their residences when finding employment. Moreover, there were those who chose areas close to their workplace when moving.
Another survey question asked respondents who had moved their reasons for doing so. As for the birthplace of the survey respondents, most male and female respondents were born in Hangzhou. The results revealed that few respondents had left the city for college or employment. Also notable was the living pattern in which parents lived with the respondent or close to them. Among the results was the finding that relatively fewer men than women were born in regions other than Hangzhou. In contemporary Chinese cities, men tend to bear a heavy economic burden after marriage, as a result of purchasing a home and automobile, for example. This was also the case in Hangzhou. According to interviews, the reason that fewer men than women had moved from other regions was that when single men were employed in Hangzhou, they often returned to their birthplace when they became marriage-minded. In contrast, because the economic load as described above for women is light when they marry, they remain in the same city. There are many cases of women continuing to live and work in Hangzhou after marrying a Hanzhou man.
Also, while it was assumed that the survey respondents had positions that allowed them to earn relatively high incomes in their companies, because housing expenses took up a large part of household expenditure, regardless of whether or not the respondent was born in Hangzhou, many of them lived with their parents even after marriage. The living pattern that many of them desired was “living close to their parents.” However, in actuality, nearly half of the respondents said that they had no choice but to live with their parents..
||The Slowdown of ICT Service Business Expansion in Yanji City, China
: Focus on Korean Enterprises
Keywords: Employment Conditions, ICT Service Businesses, Korean Residents, Yanji City
We investigated the slowdown of ICT service business expansion in the city of Yanji, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, China, focusing on the employment conditions of workers. The results of our study revealed that within Yanji, the ICT service industry is composed primarily of both domestic and Korean companies. The Entrance of Korean companies into Yanji began noticeably around 2006. Initially, the major factors of this entry were the abundance of ethnic Korean residents who could understand the Korean language, and furthermore, the low wage levels. However, since 2008, due to the financial crises such as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, and, in addition, due to a significant rise in the wage levels, a deterioration in the business conditions of some companies that entered into Yanji could be seen. Meanwhile, while the wage levels were increasing, compared with past levels, our study revealed that they were still low compared with wages offered in other regions of China and abroad. We observe that the reason for this condition is that few jobs being offered by ICT service companies in Yanji require a high level of education and skills. Therefore there were scant job offers where a high wage can be expected because of the classification of the position itself and job demands..
||‘The Shanghai Dream’ and the Reality:The Motivations of Migration and the Possibilities for Career Enhancement of Japanese Youth Workers in Shanghai
Key words: carrers abroad, locally-hired employee, Japanese, human capital, Shanghai.
||Informatization of University Students’ Job Search in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China, and
Constraints on Extra-Provincial Employment
The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in how university students seek jobs and employment conditions outside the
province as informatization advances, using Jinan City in Shandong Province, China, as a case study. One change found by the study in
the university students’ job-seeking behavior was the large number of students now using an online system introduced by the provincial
government. The system supports job seekers by providing job search information. On the other hand, conventional methods, such as
company information sessions held on campus, were still used by many students as a method of finding jobs. Meanwhile, there were
few students who placed much weight on other job-seeking methods besides the provincial jobs information system, such as commercial
employment websites and social networking services (SNS). The survey conducted by this study revealed that job searches tended to
be confined to within the boundaries of the province. An issue is that although many job-seekers were native residents of the province,
because many of them also sought the option of seeking jobs outside the province, the jobs information system only listed jobs offered
within the province. Despite this constraint, however, there were many job-seekers using this system. This finding indicates that they
placed a premium on the large number of job vacancies listed on the system, the system’s detailed information, and its reliability..
||Development and Background of University-Affiliated Enterprise in China:
A Case Study of Neusoft Group in Shengyang City, Liaoning Province.
||Localization and Product Feature Differentiation for Japanese Electronics and Electric Parts Manufacturer
- Case Study of Company A in Shanghai-.
||How have Customer Service Centers for Japan in Foreign Cities Changed their Business?
- A Case Study of Dalian City, China-.
||Change in Ordering System and Locations of Suppliers in the Chinese Automobile Industry: Case Study of Geely Automobile.
||Changes in Locational Environment of Japanese Machinery and Instrument Industry in China ―A Case Study of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Area―.
||ABE Yasuhisa, ZHENG Nan, Why do the unemployed remain in an Area of China with Disadvantaged Employment Opportunity?:A Case Study of Fushun City, the Northeast China, 地理科学学会編『地理科学』, 64巻1号,22-37., 2009.01.
||Studies about the Human-Land Relationship in Chinese Geographical Society.
||The Change in Operational Strategy and Regional Differentiation in a State-Owned Corporation :A Case Study of the Liaoning Special Steel Corporation.
||ABE Yasuhisa, Regional Differentiation on the Policy for Chinese Laborers in Modern Japanese Colonies :A Case Study of Taiwan, 地理科学学会編『地理科学』, 61巻1号，22-39頁, 2006.01.