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Kenji Tahara Last modified date:2019.06.26

Associate Professor / Control Systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering


Graduate School
Undergraduate School
Other Organization


E-Mail
Phone
092-802-3238
Fax
092-802-3238
Academic Degree
Ph. D (Eng.)
Field of Specialization
Robotics
Research
Research Interests
  • Research on robotics technology that realizes force control maturation, systematization, and flexible collaboration with people.
    keyword : Force Control, Softness
    2019.02~2020.01.
  • Robust motor control strategy to delay and noise of sensory information in sensory-motor integration
    keyword : Sensory-motor integration, delay, noise
    2016.04~2019.03.
  • Soft human support device using polymer artificial muscle
    keyword : polymer artificial muscle
    2015.10~2017.03.
  • Compound mobility using soft and hemispheric foot with torsional motion
    keyword : Compound mobility
    2014.04.
  • Dexterous object manipulation by fusing a sensory feedback manner with proprioceptive information
    keyword : Virtual frame
    2013.04.
  • On control of musculoskeletal systems by combining a feedfoward and feedback control manners
    keyword : musculoskeletal system
    2012.03.
  • A high-backdrivable manipulator with variable stiffness mechanism
    keyword : Variable stiffness
    2009.04.
  • Development and analysis of an intelligent motor control strategy for whole body musculo-skeletal system model to generate a smooth and natural human-like movement.
    keyword : Muscul-skeletal system
    2007.04.
  • Development of a human-like nursing care robotic system that can lift up a human being
    keyword : nursing care robot
    2003.04~2007.03.
  • Dynamic object manipulation using a multi-fingered robotic hand
    keyword : Dynamic Grasping and manipulation
    2007.04.
Academic Activities
Books
1. Kenji Tahara, Akihiro Kawamura, Chapter 9: A Grasping and Manipulation Scheme That is Robust gainst Time Delays of Sensing Information: An Application of a Controller Based on Finger-Thumb Opposability
Human-Inspired Dexterity in Robotic Manipulation, 1st Ed.
, Academic Press, 2018.07.
2. K. Tahara and Z.W. Luo, "On dynamic control mechanisms of redundant human musculo-skeletal system,", Springer-Verlag, S. Kawamura and M. Svinin (Eds.): Advances in Robot Control -From Everyday Physics to Human-Like Movements-, pp. 217–247, 2011.10.
Reports
1. A Robust Motor Control Strategy against Time-delays and Noises:—Motor Intelligence on Open Environments—.
2. On special issue “Soft Robotics”.
Papers
1. Kenji Tahara, Ryo Hayashi, Ken Masuya, Kentaro Takagi, Toshihira Irisawa, Takuma Yamauchi, Eitaro Tanaka, Rotational Angle Control of a Twisted Polymeric Fiber Actuator by an Estimated Temperature Feedback, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 10.1109/LRA.2019.2901982, 4, 3, 2447-2454, 2019.07, A twisted polymeric fiber (TPF) actuator often referred to as a fishing line/sewing thread artificial muscle, is one of the soft actuators which is made by twisting and heating a nylon fishing line. There are mainly two types of the TPF actuator, one is to make a contraction motion, which is sometimes called a twisted and coiled polymeric fiber actuator, and the other is to make a rotational motion, called simply a TPF actuator. This letter focuses on the latter one and proposes an estimated temperature feedback control method to regulate a torsional angle of the TPF actuator. The TPF actuator is very lightweight and low cost, but the advantage would be lost if some external sensors, such as a thermal sensor or encoder is used. In order to control the torsional angle without the use of the external sensors, a temperature of the actuator is estimated by measuring the change in the Ohm resistance of a heater wrapping around the actuator. By feedbacking the estimated temperature, the torsional angle can be regulated indirectly. First, the two types of models are proposed. One is to derive a desired temperature of the actuator from the desired angle. The other is to estimate the actuator's temperature from a change of the resistance of the actuator's heater. Next, the temperature feedback control law is composed using these two models. Finally, experiments of the torsional angle regulation are conducted using a prototype of the actuation module, which consists of antagonistically embedded two TPF actuators to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed controller..
2. Ryo Hayashi, Ken Masuya, Kentaro Takagi, Toshihira Irisawa, Rui Fujino, Takuma Yamauchi, Eitaro Tanaka, Kenji Tahara, Rotational Angle Trajectory Tracking of a Twisted Polymeric Fiber Actuator by the Combination of a Model-Based Feed-Forward and Estimated Temperature Feedback, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 10.1109/LRA.2019.2908484, 4, 3, 2561-2567, 2019.07, In this letter, an angular trajectory tracking controller for a twisted polymeric fiber (TPF) actuator by the combination of a model-based feed-forward and estimated temperature feedback is proposed. TPF actuator is one of the soft actuators that can produce a rotational motion, which is made by twisting a nylon yarn and thermally treating it. Adding a feed-forward controller with a feedback controller makes it possible to reduce a phase lag and realizes a higher frequency response compared with using only the feedback controller when performing a time-dependent trajectory tracking. First, temperature-angle, resistance-temperature, and voltage-temperature models are composed, respectively, and then combined in order to design a feedforward controller. Next, parameter estimation is performed through experiments using the prototype of a rotational actuation module. Finally, trajectory-tracking experiments are conducted using a prototype to demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the tracking performance by reducing the phase lag..
3. A Robust Motor Control Strategy against Time-delays and Noises:—Motor Intelligence on Open Environments—.
4. Ken Masuya, Shu Ono, Kentaro Takagi, Kenji Tahara , Feedforward Control of Twisted and Coiled Polymer Actuator Based on a Macroscopic Nonlinear Model Focusing on Energy, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 10.1109/LRA.2018.2801884, 3, 3, 1824-1831, 2018.07, This letter proposes a feedforward (FF) controller for the twisted and coiled polymer actuator (TCPA), the so-called fishing line/sewing thread artificial muscle, based on its macroscopic nonlinear model. TCPA is an artificial muscle, and it contracts up to 50% in response to heating. Although several methods considering Joule heating as the input have been proposed to control the TCPA displacement, the FF controller based on the linear model shows the nonnegligible offset error. Therefore, the FF controller should be designed based on a nonlinear model, e.g., the model constructed by the authors. However, computing the inverse of the nonlinear model for the FF controller is difficult. Even if the inverse can be computed under static conditions, the problem of how to compensate the dynamics still remains. For this problem, we compensate the dynamics based on the idea of the Hammerstein model, namely we divide the inverse dynamics into the nonlinear transformation part and linear dynamics part. The former part consists of a converter from the displacement to temperature and a ratio adjuster for the squared voltage. Meanwhile, the latter is represented by the linear model of TCPA temperature. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed FF controller can reduce the offset error of the displacement compared with the linear controller..
5. Y. Matsutani, Kenji Tahara, H. Kino, H. Ochi, Complementary compound set-point control by combining muscular internal force feedforward control and sensory feedback control including a time delay, Advanced Robotics, 10.1080/01691864.2018.1453375, 32, 8, 1-15, 2018.03, This paper proposes a new set-point control method for a musculoskeletal arm by combining muscular internal force feedforward control with feedback control including a large time delay. The proposed method accomplishes robust and rapid positioning with a relatively small muscular force. In the positioning by the muscular internal force feedforward controller, a large muscular force is required to achieve good performance. On the other hand, in the positioning by the feedback controller including the large time delay, the system can easily fall into an unstable state. A simple linear combination of these two controllers makes it possible to improve the control performance and to overcome the drawbacks of each controller in a complementary manner. First, a two-link six-muscle arm model is considered as a musculoskeletal system in this study. Second, the new set-point control method, which consists of the feedforward control signal and the feedback control signal including the time delay, is designed. Third, the stability of the proposed method is investigated using the Lyapunov–Razumikhin method. Finally, the results of numerical simulations and experiments are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method..
6. Miao Li, Kenji Tahara, Aude Billard, Learning task manifolds for constrained object manipulation, Autonomous Robots, 10.1007/s10514-017-9643-z, 42, 1, 159-174, 2018.01, Reliable physical interaction is essential for many important challenges in robotic manipulation. In this paper, we consider Constrained Object Manipulations tasks (COM), i.e. tasks for which constraints are imposed on the grasped object rather than on the robot’s configuration. To enable robust physical interaction with the environment, this paper presents a manifold learning approach to encode the COM task as a vector field. This representation enables an intuitive task-consistent adaptation based on an object-level impedance controller. Simulations and experimental evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for several typical COM tasks, including dexterous manipulation and contour following..
7. Ken Masuya, Shu Ono, Kentaro Takagi, Kenji Tahara, Modeling framework for macroscopic dynamics of twisted and coiled polymer actuator driven by Joule heating focusing on energy and convective heat transfer, Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, 10.1016/j.sna.2017.10.016, 267, 443-454, 2017.11, In this paper, a nonlinear dynamics model of the twisted and coiled polymer actuator (TCPA) driven by Joule heating is proposed. TCPA is an actuator based on the phenomenon that the twisted and coiled polymer contracts by heating. TCPA has received considerable research attention after the discovery of this phenomenon. Although several conventional models were proposed to explain TCPA behavior, they do not address several characteristics of a real TCPA, namely, the delay of the displacement to the temperature, temperature behavior to the input (Joule heating), and effect of the convective heat transfer on the relationship between the displacement and temperature. The macroscopic modeling framework presented herein explains these properties. The main ideas of the proposed model are (1) the energy relating to TCPA, and (2) the temperature and velocity dependence of the convective heat transfer coefficient. Experiments were conducted for three kinds of TCPA. It was verified that the proposed model is more viable than a conventional model. In particular, the proposed model reduced the prediction errors of the displacement by more than 50% compared with the conventional model..
8. Ryuta Ozawa, Kenji Tahara, Grasp and dexterous manipulation of multi-fingered robotic hands
a review from a control view point, Advanced Robotics, 10.1080/01691864.2017.1365011, 31, 19-20, 1030-1050, 2017.10, Manipulation is one of the most important fields in robotics. Nevertheless, even given the long history of manipulation research, technologies for multi-fingered robotic hands are still in development. This paper investigates past research studies on control systems of multi-fingered robotic hands for grasping and manipulation..
9. Akihiro Kawamura, Kenji Tahara, Ryo Kurazume, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Dynamic grasping of an arbitrary polyhedral object, Robotica, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263574712000525, 31, 4, 511-523, 2013.07.
10. Hitoshi Kino, Shiro Kikuchi, Yuki Matsutani, Kenji Tahara, Takahiro Nishiyama, Numeracal Analysis of Feedforward Position Control for Non-pulley Musculoskeletal System: a Case Study of Muscular Arrangements of a Two-link Planar System with Six Muscles, Robotics Society of Japan, 10.1080/01691864.2013.824133, 27, 16, 1235-1248, 2013.03.
11. Akihiro Kawamura, Kenji Tahara, Ryo Kurazume, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Robust visual servoing for object manipulation against temporary loss of sensory information using a multi-fingered hand-arm, Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, 25, 1, 125-135, 2013.01.
12. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto, R. Ozawa and Z.W. Luo, Bio-mimetic pinching movements of musculo-skeletal dual finger model, Advanced Robotics, 25, 1-2, 175-204, 2011.01.
13. K. Tahara and H. Kino, Reaching movements of a redundant musculo-skeletal arm: Acquisition of an adequate internal force by iterative learning and its evaluation through a dynamic damping ellipsoid, Advanced Robotics, 24, 5-6, 783-818, 2010.04.
14. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto, M. Sekimoto and Z.W. Luo, On control of reaching movements for musculo-skeletal redundant arm model, Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, 6, 1, 57-72, 2009.03.
15. H. Kino, T. Yahiro, S. Taniguchi and K. Tahara, Sensorless position control using feedforward internal force for completely restrained parallel-wiredriven systems, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 25, 2, 467-474, 2009.02.
16. S. Arimoto, K. Tahara and J.-H. Bae, A stability theory on a manifold: Concurrent realization of grasp and orientation control of an object by a pair of robot fingers, Robotica, 21, 2, 163-178, 2003.03.
17. S. Arimoto, M. Yoshida, J.-H. Bae and K. Tahara, Dynamic force/torque balance of 2D polygonal objects by a pair of rolling contacts and sensorymotor coordination, Journal of Robotic Systems, 20, 9, 517-537, 2003.09.
18. K. Tahara, Z.W. Luo, S. Arimoto and H. Kino, Sensory-motor control mechanism for reaching movements of a redundant musculo-skeletal arm, Journal of Robotic Systems, 22, 11, 639-651, 2005.11.
19. S. Arimoto, K. Tahara, M. Yamaguchi, P.T.A. Nguyen and H.-Y. Han, Principle of superposition for controlling pinch motions by means of robot fingers with soft tips, Robotica, 19, 1, 89-98, 2001.01.
Presentations
1. Yuki Matsutani, Kenji Tahara, Hitoshi Kino, Hiroaki Ochi, Stiffness evaluation of a tendon-driven robot with variable joint stiffness mechanisms, 17th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robotics, Humanoids 2017, 2017.12, This paper proposes a new tendon-driven robot with variable joint stiffness mechanisms. The tendon-driven robot is able to vary the stiffness of joints by sliding variable stiffness mechanisms over the link by wire tensions. As a reason for that structure and moment arms of the tendon-driven robot are changed depending on the position of the variable mechanism. Thus in this paper, the tendon-driven robot with variable stiffness mechanisms is designed, and the stiffness of the tendon-driven robot is evaluated by using a stiffness ellipsoid..
2. Ken Masuya, Shu Ono, Kentaro Takagi, Kenji Tahara, Nonlinear dynamics of twisted and coiled polymer actuator made of conductive nylon based on the energy balance, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM 2017, 2017.08, This paper proposes a novel dynamics model of the twisted and coiled polymer actuator (TCPA) which is one of the artificial muscles recently discovered. It can be driven by Joule heating and can contract up to 25%. Most of the conventional works employed the linear model of TCPA which represents the relationships between the input voltage, the temperature, and the displacement, but the real TCPA shows the nonlinearity. Although a nonlinear model was proposed based on the curve fitting, it is difficult to apply the model to the various TCPAs. Additionally, the conventional works cannot explain the effect of the convective heat transfer condition on the displacement behavior of TCPA. This paper aims to construct a general nonlinear model of TCPA based on the following two ideas: (1) The energy balance of TCPA and (2) the temperature and velocity dependence of the heat transfer coefficient. The temperature model is obtained from the time derivative of the energy balance, and the displacement model is derived as Lagrange's equation of motion with the dissipation function. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed model is closer to the real dynamics than the conventional linear model..
3. Kenji Tahara, Yuki Matsutani, Daisuke Nakagawa, Masataka Sato, Hitoshi Kino, Variable combination of feed-forward and feedback manners for set-point control of a musculoskeletal arm considering the maximum exertable muscular force, 42nd Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016, 2016.12, In this paper, our previously proposed set-point control method for a musculoskeletal system is improved to reduce required muscular forces and to avoid a saturation of muscular forces during movement. The previous method is robust against a considerable time-delay in sensory information, but it still requires large muscular forces to accomplish a desired position, and the maximum exertable muscular force has not yet been taken into consideration. To cope with these two issues, two variable parameters are newly introduced. One is for changing the combination ratio of feed-forward and feedback controllers to reduce necessary muscular forces. The other is for avoiding the saturation of muscular forces during movement The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through several numerical simulation results..
4. Takeshi Arakawa, Kentaro Takagi, Kenji Tahara, Kinji Asaka, Position control of fishing line artificial muscles (coiled polymer actuators) from nylon thread, SIPE, 2016.03.
5. Tetsuya Morizono, Kenji Tahara, Hitoshi Kino, Experimental investigation of contribution of biarticular actuation to mappings between sensory and motor spaces, 41st Annual Conf. of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015.11.
6. Hiroaki Ochi, Hitoshi Kino, Kenji Tahara, Yuki Matsutani, Geometric conditions for feedforward positioning of musculoskeletal tendon-driven structure, 41st Annual Conf. of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015.11.
7. Tokuo Tsuji, Kosei Baba, Kenji Tahara, Kensuke Harada, KEN'ICHI MOROOKA, Ryo Kurazume, Grasp stability evaluation based on energy tolerance in potential field, IEEE⁄RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2015.09.
8. Tomofumi Okada, Kenji Tahara, Development of a two-link planar manipulator with continuously variable transmission mechanism, 2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM 2014, 2014.07, This paper proposes a novel two-link planar manipulator with continuously variable transmission (CVT) mechanism by means of plural linear shaft motors. In our previous works, we have proposed the parallel-link manipulator with the CVT mechanism which has two orthogonal DOFs. However, its configuration is not useful for a practical field because only one main link can be rotated around two joints like a joystick. In order for this mechanism to be more useful, the two-link planar type manipulator with the CVT is newly modeled and developed. Firstly, the proposed manipulator is modeled, and its control signals are designed. Next, the output force of the end-point of the manipulator is evaluated by using both the Manipulating-Force Ellipsoid and the Dynamic Manipulability Ellipsoid. After that, several fundamental experiments are performed to evaluate the CVT mechanism and show the effectiveness of the proposed manipulator..
9. Miao Li, Hang Yin, Kenji Tahara, Aude Billard, Learning object-level impedance control for robust grasping and dexterous manipulation, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2014.06.
10. Yuki Matsutani, Kenji Tahara, Hitoshi Kino, Hiroaki Ochi, Motoji Yamamoto, Set-point control of a musculoskeletal arm by the complementary combination of a feedforward and feedback Manner, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2014.06.
11. Kenji Tahara, Yuta Kuboyama, Ryo Kurazume, Iterative learning control for a musculoskeletal arm: Utilizing multiple space variables to improve the robustness, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2012.10.
12. K. Tahara, K. Maruta, A. Kawamura and M. Yamamoto, Externally sensorless dynamic regrasping and manipulation by a triple-fingered robotic hand with torsional fingertip joints, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2012.05.
13. A. Kawamura, K. Tahara, R. Kurazume and T. Hasegawa, Robust manipulation for temporary lack of sensory information by a multi-fingered hand-arm system, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2011.09.
14. K. Tahara, S. Iwasa, S. Naba and M. Yamamoto, High-backdrivable parallel-link manipulator with continuously variable transmission, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2011.09.
15. K. Tahara and S. Arimoto, Iterative learinig scheme for a redundant manipulator: Skilled hand writing motion on an arbitrary smooth surface, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2011.05.
16. K. Tahara and H. Kino, Iterative learning control for a redundant musculoskeletal arm: Acquisition of adequate internal force, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2010.10.
17. K. Matsuo, K. Murakami, K. Niwaki, T. Hasegawa, K. Tahara and Ryo Kurazume, A tactile sensing for estimating the position and orientation of a joint-axis of a linked object, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2010.10.
18. K. Tahara, K. Maruta and M. Yamamoto, External sensorless dynamic object manipulation by a dual soft-fingered robotic hand with torsional fingertip motion, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2010.05.
19. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto and M. Yoshida, Dynamic object manipulation using a virtual frame by a triple soft-fingered robotic hand, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2010.05.
20. K. Matsuo, K. Murakami, T. Hasegawa, K. Tahara and R. Kurazume, Segmentation method of human manipulation task based on measurement of force imposed by a human hand on a grasped object, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2009.10.
21. M. Yoshida, S. Arimoto and K. Tahara, Pinching 2D object with arbitrary shape by two robot fingers under rolling constraints, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2009.10.
22. A. Kawamura, K. Tahara, R. Kurazume and T. Hasegawa, Dynamic grasping for an arbitrary polyhedral object by a multi-fingered hand-arm system, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2009.10.
23. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto and M. Yoshida, Dynamic force/torque equilibrium for stable grasping by a triple robotic fingers system, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2009.10.
24. M. Yoshida, S. Arimoto and K. Tahara, Modeling and control of a pair of robot fingers with saddle joint under orderless actuations, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2009.05.
25. H. Kino, S. Kikuchi, T. Yahiro and K. Tahara, Basic study of biarticular muscle’s effect on muscular internal force control based on physiological hypotheses, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2009.05.
26. S. Arimoto, M. Yoshida, M. Sekimoto and K. Tahara, A Riemannian-Geometry approach for dynamics and control of object manipulation under constraints, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2009.05.
27. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto and M. Yoshida, Dynamic object grasping by a triple-fingered robotic hand, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2008.09.
28. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto, M. Sekimoto, M. Yoshida and Z.W. Luo, On iterative learning control for simultaneous force/position trajectory tracking by using a 5 d.o.f. robotic thumb under non-holonomic rolling constraints, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2008.05.
29. K. Tahara, S. Arimoto, Z.W. Luo and M. Yoshida, On control for "Blind Touching" by human-like thumb robots, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2007.04.
30. M. Onishi, Z.W. Luo, S. Hirano, K. Tahara and T. Mukai, Generation of human care behaviors by human-interactive robot RI-MAN, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2007.04.
31. K. Tahara, Z.W. Luo and S. Arimoto, On control mechanism of human-like reaching movements with musculo-skeletal redundancy, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2006.10.
32. T. Odashima, M. Onishi, K. Tahara, K. Takagi, F. Asano, Y. Kato, H. Nakashima, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mukai, Z.W. Luo and S. Hosoe, A soft human-interactive robot RI-MAN, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2006.10.
33. K. Tahara, Z.W. Luo, R. Ozawa, J.-H. Bae and S. Arimoto, Bio-mimetic study on pinching motions of a dual-finger model with synergistic actuation of antagonist muscles, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2006.05.
34. K. Tahara, Z.W. Luo, S. Arimoto and H. Kino, Sensory-motor control of a muscle redundant arm for reaching movements -Convergence analysis and gravity compensation-, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots, Syst., 2005.08.
35. K. Tahara, Z.W. Luo, S. Arimoto and H. Kino, Task-space feedback control for a two-link arm driven by six muscles with variable damping and elastic properties, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., 2005.04.
Membership in Academic Society
  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society
  • The Robotics Society of Japan
  • The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers
  • The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers
Awards
  • RI-MAN
Educational
Educational Activities
System Control II and Exercise.
Fundamental Physics IA.
Intelligent Systems.
Other Educational Activities
  • 2019.04.
  • 2017.03.
  • 2016.02.