Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Kosaku Kurata Last modified date:2019.04.18

Associate Professor / Bioengineering / Department of Mechanical Engineering / Faculty of Engineering

1. Jan G. Hazenberg, Teuvo A. Hentunen, Terhi J. Heino, Kosaku Kurata, Thomas C. Lee, David Taylor, Microdamage detection and repair in bone
Fracture mechanics, histology, cell biology, Technology and Health Care, 10.3233/THC-2009-0536, 17, 1, 67-75, 2009.02, Bone is an elementary component in the human skeleton. It protects vital organs, regulates calcium levels and allows mobility. As a result of daily activities, bones are cyclically strained causing microdamage. This damage, in the form of numerous microcracks, can cause bones to fracture and therefore poses a threat to mechanical integrity. Bone is able to repair the microcracks through a process called remodelling which is tightly regulated by bone forming and resorbing cells. However, the manner by which microcracks are detected, and repair initiated, has not been elucidated until now. Here we show that microcrack accumulation causes damage to the network of cellular processes, resulting in the release of RANKL which stimulates the differentiation of cells specialising in repair..
2. Terhi J. Heino, Kosaku Kurata, Hidehiko Higaki, H. Kalervo Väänänen, Evidence for the role of osteocytes in the initiation of targeted remodeling, Technology and Health Care, 10.3233/THC-2009-0534, 17, 1, 49-56, 2009.02, Microdamage in bone contributes to fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodeling. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, and their death by microdamage has been suggested to be the major event leading in the initiation of osteoclastic bone resorption. Even though there is increasing evidence that osteocyte density, microcracks and targeted remodeling are related, there still exist several questions. For example, how osteoclasts are targeted to the specific site of microdamage for repair. It has been proposed that apoptotic osteocytes could secrete a specific signal to target osteoclasts. The other question is the nature of this signal. To elucidate the role of microdamage-induced osteocyte cell death in the initiation of targeted remodelling, this paper discusses the potential use of an in vitro model, in which osteocytes can be three-dimensionally cultured and locally damaged. Furthermore, the method enables one to study the osteocyte-derived soluble interactions with bone marrow cells. It was demonstrated that damaged osteocytes locally affect osteoclast precursors by secreting osteoclastogenic factors, and thus can have a role in the initiation of resorption in bone remodelling. This strongly supports the idea that damage to osteocyte cellular network has the potential to stimulate osteoclastic proliferation and therefore the activation of Basic Multicellular Units (BMUs)..
3. Hiroshi Takamatsu, Haidong Wang, Takanobu Fukunaga, Kosaku Kurata, Measurement of fluid thermal conductivity using a micro-beam MEMS sensor, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.09.117, 117, 30-35, 2018.01, A new method for measuring thermal conductivities of gases and liquids was established by demonstrating the measurement of five kinds of liquid and air. It uses a sensor named “micro-beam sensor” that is a ∼10-μm-long free-standing platinum membrane suspended across a trench on a silicon substrate and heated in a sample by DC. This method is unique in that it is a steady-state measurement but free from the effect of natural convection owing to the micrometer size of the sensor. Improving the method for precisely determining the temperature of the sensor and modifying the device from those used in our previous feasibility study, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity ranging from ∼0.03 to ∼0.6 W/(m⋅K) within 4% error..
4. Kosaku Kurata, Junpei Matsushita, Atsushi Furuno, Junichi Fujino, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Assessment of thermal damage in total knee arthroplasty using an osteocyte injury model, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 10.1002/jor.23600, 35, 12, 2799-2807, 2017.12, Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement has been widely used for the anchorage of artificial implants in various orthopedic surgeries. Although it is one of the most successful biomaterials in use, excess heat generation intrinsically causes thermal damage to bone cells adjacent to the bone cement. To estimate a risk of thermal injury, a response of bone cells to cement polymerization must be elucidated because of the occurrence of thermal damage. Thermal damage is affected not only by maximal temperature but also by exposure time, temperature history, and cell type. This study aimed at quantifying the thermal tolerance of bone cells for the development of a thermal injury model, and applying this model for the estimation of thermal damage during cement polymerization in total knee arthroplasty. Osteocytes, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts were respectively subjected to steady supraphysiological temperatures ranging from 45 to 50°C. Survival curves of each cell and temperatures were used to formulate the Arrhenius model. A three-dimensional heat conduction analysis for total knee arthroplasty was conducted using the finite element model based on serial CT images of human knee. A maximal temperature rise of 50°C was observed at the interface between the 3-mm thick cement and the tissue immediately beneath the tibial tray of the prosthesis. The probability of thermal damage to the osteocyte, which was calculated using the Arrhenius model, was negligible at a distance of at least 1 mm away from the cement–bone interface..
5. Mohammed Shurrab, Haidong Wang, Takanobu Fukunaga, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Feasibility of using apparent thermophysical properties to incorporate the effect of blood perfusion in estimation of temperature in tissues, Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, 10.1299/jtst.2017jtst0034, 12, 2, 2017.11, Estimation of temperature distribution in tissues and organs is critically important for treatments such as hyperthermia, radiofrequency ablation and cryosurgery which expose malignant tissue to extreme temperatures that are different from the physiological temperature. Commonly, the bioheat equation, instead of heat conduction equation, is used for estimation to incorporate the effect of blood perfusion, because the heat transfer in tissues is significantly affected by blood perfusion in addition to thermophysical properties of tissues. Nevertheless, in many cases, the rate of blood perfusion is not available for human tissues and organs. This study therefore aims to examine if we can use the normal heat conduction equation with apparent thermophysical properties to take the effect of blood perfusion into account. Feasibility was checked by comparing the results obtained from the heat conduction equation and the bioheat equation. The result indicated that the simulation with the apparent thermal conductivity or specific heat capacity does not agree well with the temperature distribution inside a tissue with blood perfusion. However, the apparent thermal conductivity was useful to estimate the size of growing ice ball produced during cryosurgery..
6. Shuto Yoshimatsu, Masahiro Yoshida, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Development of contact irreversible electroporation using a comb-shaped miniature electrode, Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, 10.1299/jtst.2017jtst0023, 12, 2, 2017.08, Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been studied as a less invasive method for tumor treatment. Since the mechanism of the treatment is based on the fatal perforation of the cell membrane caused by an external electric field, a tumor can be ablated non-thermally if an appropriate electric field is selected. However, an electric field more than a few kV/cm is required to accomplish ablation. In this study, we aim to examine the feasibility of a comb-shaped miniature electrode for reducing the required voltage for IRE. The reduction of the applied voltage while maintaining the potential difference was realized by narrowing the gap between the electrodes. A 150-μm-wide miniature electrode with a 100-μm gap between its teeth was fabricated using photolithography. In the experiment, the electrode was contacted onto a tissue phantom consisting of fibroblasts cultured in agarose gel three-dimensionally. After the application of electric pulses, cell ablation depth was examined using fluorescent staining. The miniature electrode successfully ablated the cells at the surface of the tissue phantom by the application of 90 electric pulses at 100 V. The maximum and average ablation depth were 72.7 μm and 61.0 ± 11 μm, respectively, which was approximately 40 % of that estimated by the numerical analysis. Our study showed that the contact-IRE using a miniature electrode in the order of sub-millimeter does ablate the superficial cells of targeted tissues upon the application of electric pulses of less than 100 V; however, further studies are required to maximize the ablation depth under the constraint of limited applied voltage..
7. Kosaku Kurata, Seiji Nomura, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Three-dimensional analysis of irreversible electroporation: Estimation of thermal and non-thermal damage, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 72, 66-74, 2014.05.
8. Hiroshi Takamatsu, Takanobu Fukunaga, Yuki Tanaka, Kosaku Kurata, Koji Takahashi, Micro-beam sensor for detection of thermal conductivity of gases and liquids, Sensors and Actuators A, 10.1016/j.sna.2013.11.019, 206, 10-16, 2014.02.
9. Syamsul Hadi, Mamoru Nishitani, Agung Tri Wijayanta, Takanobu Fukunaga, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Contact measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of solid materials: Experimental validation of feasibility with a prototype sensor, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.09.068, 69, 256-263, 2014.02.
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11. Kosaku Kurata, Ryo Ueno, Masahiro Matsushita, Takanobu Fukunaga, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Experimental and Analytical Studies on Contact Irreversible Electroporation for Superficial Tumor Treatment, Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering,, 8, 4, 306-318, 2013.12, [URL].
12. Takashi Kono, Yasunori Ayukawa, Yasuko Moriyama, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Kiyoshi Koyano, The effect of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration stimuli on the bone healing of rat incisor extraction socket, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 134, 9, 091001(6 pages), 2012.09.
13. Kosaku Kurata, Takashi Yoshii, Satoru Uchida, Takanobu Fukunaga, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Visualization of electroporation-induced temperature rise using temperature-sensitive ink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55, 23-24, 7207-7212, 2012.08.
14. Syamsul Hadi, Mamoru Nishitani, Agung Tri Wijayanta, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Solid Materials Using a Novel Stamp Sensor: A Feasibility Study with Numerical Analysis, Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, 10.1299/jtst.7.536, 7, 4, 536-548, 2012.08, [URL].
15. Kosaku Kurata, Masahiro Matsushita, Takashi Yoshii, Takanobu Fukunaga, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Effect of Irreversible Electroporation on Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model, Proceedings of the 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 179-182, 2012.08.
16. Gang Zhao, Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Measurement of Membrane Hydraulic Conductivity of Bovine Carotid Artery Endothelial Cells Using A Perfusion Microscope, CryoLetters, 33, 3, 231-239, 2012.03.
17. Tomoki Nakashima, Mikihito Hayashi, Takanobu Fukunaga, Kosaku Kurata, Masatsugu Oh-hora, Jian Q Feng, Lynda F Bonewald, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Anton Wutz, Erwin F Wagner, Josef M Penninger, Hiroshi Takayanagi, Evidence for osteocyte regulation of bone homeostasis through RANKL expression, Nature Medicine, 17, 1231-1234, 2011.11.
18. Kosaku Kurata, Hiroshi Takamatsu, Effect of Hyperthermal Treatment on the Viability of Bone-Derived Cells, Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering,, 6, 2, 101-113, 2011.04, [URL].
19. Hiroshi Takamatsu, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Yusaku Furuya, Satoru Uchida, Kosaku Kurata, Koji Takahashi, Preliminary Study of the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with a Micro-Beam MEMS Sensor, Proceedings of the 9th Asian Thermophysical Properties Conference, 2010.10.
20. Hideshi Miura, Kenta Okawachi, Hyun-Goo Kang, Fujio Tsumori, Kosaku Kurata, Nobuhiro Arimoto, Laser Forming of Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Powder Compacts for Medical Devices, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 654-656, pp. 2057-2060, 2010.06.
21. Hideshi Miura, Kenta Okawachi, Hyun-Goo Kang, Fujio Tsumori, Kosaku Kurata, Nobuhiro Arimoto, Laser Forming Technique For Medical Devices of Ti Alloy powders, Proceeding of the 13th International Conference on Metal Forming, pp.1308-1311, 2010.05.
22. S. Imai, T.J. Heino, A. Hienola, K. Kurata, K. B?ki, Y. Matsusue, H.K. V??n?nen, H. Rauvala, Osteocyte-derived HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) is associated with bone formation and mechanical loading, Bone, 10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.004, 44, 5, 785-794, Vol.44, No.5, pp.785-794, 2009.05.
23. T. Fukunaga, K. Kurata, J. Matsuda, H. Higaki, Effects of strain magnitude on mechanical responses of three-dimensional gel-embedded osteocytes studied with a novel 10-well elastic chamber, Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering,, 3, 1, 13-24, Vol.3, No.1, pp.13-24, 2008.02, [URL].
24. K. KURATA, H. TANIGUCHI, T. FUKUNAGA, J. MATSUDA, H. HIGAKI, Development of a compact microbubble generator and its usefulness for three-dimensional osteoblastic cell culture, Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering,, 2, 4, 166-177, 2007.10, [URL].
25. K. KURATA, T. FUKUNAGA, J. MATSUDA, H. HIGAKI, Role of mechanically damaged osteocytes in the initial phase of bone remodeling, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol.29, No.6, pp.1010-1018, 2007.06.
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27. N. TSUKAMOTO, T. MAEDA, H. MIURA, S. JINGUSHI, A. HOSOKAWA, K. HARIMAYA, H. HIGAKI, K. KURATA, Y. IWAMOTO, Repetitive tensile stress to rat caudal vertebrae inducing cartilage formation in the spinal ligaments: a possible role of mechanical stress in the development of ossification of the spinal ligaments, Journal of Neurosurgery Spine, Vol.5, No.3, pp.234-242, 2006.09.
28. K. KURATA, T. J. HEINO, H. HIGAKI, H. K. V__N_NEN, Bone marrow cell differentiation induced by mechanically damaged osteocytes in 3D gel-embedded culture, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10.1359/jbmr.060106, 21, 4, 616-625, Vol.21, No.4, pp.616-625, 2006.04.
29. K. KURATA, H. HIGAKI, H. MIURA, T. MAWATARI, T. MURAKAMI, Y. IWAMOTO, Influences of newly formed woven bone on tissue stresses in rat caudal vertebrae subjected to mechanical loading: A study based on morphological measurement using a micro-CT and computational stress analysis, JSME International Journal, Series C, 10.1299/jsmec.45.558, 45, 2, 558-566, Vol.45, No.2, pp.558-566, 2002.06, [URL].
30. K. KURATA, T. UEMURA, A. NEMOTO, T. TATEISHI, T. MURAKAMI, H. HIGAKI, H. MIURA, Y. IWAMOTO, Mechanical strain effect on bone resorbing activity and mRNA expressions of marker enzymes in isolated osteoclast culture, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.4.722, 16, 4, 722-730, Vol.16, No.4, pp.722-730, 2001.04.
31. K. KURATA, H. HIGAKI, H. MIURA, T. MURAKAMI, Y. IWAMOTO, Alteration of mechanical properties of remodeling bone adapted to mechanical stimuli, JSME International Journal, Series C,, 43, 4, 822-829, Vol.43, No.4, pp.822-829, 2000.12, [URL].
32. T. MAWATARI, H. MIURA, H. HIGAKI, T. MORO-OKA, K. KURATA, T. MURAKAMI, Y. IWAMOTO, Effect of vitamin K2 on three-dimensional trabecular microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.9.1810, 15, 9, 1810-1817, Vol.15, No.9, pp.1810-1817, 2000.09.
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34. K. KURATA, H. HIGAKI, H. MIURA, T. MAWATARI, T. MURAKAMI, Y. IWAMOTO, The morphological measurements with a micro CT and the stress analyses of the adaptive remodeling by applied mechanical stimuli in rat caudal vertebrae, JSME International Journal, Series C, 10.1299/jsmec.42.492, 42, 3, 492-500, Vol.42, No.3, pp.492-500, 1999.09, [URL].
35. T. MAWATARI, H. MIURA, H. HIGAKI, K. KURATA, T. MORO-OKA, T. MURAKAMI, Y. IWAMOTO, Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional complexity and connectivity changes in trabecular microarchitecture in relation to aging, menopause, and inflammation, Journal of Orthopaedic Science, Vol.4, pp. 431-438, 1999.04.