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AHMED ASHIR(あはめっど あしる) データ更新日:2019.06.24



主な研究テーマ
PHC(ポータブル・ヘルス・クリニック)システムの地域適応性検証のための調査研究
キーワード:遠隔医療、地域特性、ポータブルクリニックシステム
2016.04~2017.03.
ICTの高度活用によるBOP層農民の組織化支援
キーワード:情報通信技術、農家、所得向上
2013.10~2017.02.
途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究
キーワード:モビリティ、情報通信技術、社会価値
2016.04~2017.03.
途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究
キーワード:モビリティ、情報通信技術、社会価値
2015.04~2016.03.
途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究
キーワード:モビリティ、情報通信技術、社会価値
2014.04~2015.03.
途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究
キーワード:モビリティ、情報通信技術、社会価値
2013.06~2014.03.
手頃な価格で利用し易い予防医療システム「ポータブルクリニック」開発に関する研究
キーワード:ポータブルクリニック、予防医療、健康管理、医療ビックデータ
2010.04~2020.03.
情報通信技術を利用した農家所得向上プロジェクト
キーワード:情報通信技術、農家、所得向上
2010.07~2013.06.
農村情報プラットホーム「一村一ポータル」構築に関する研究
キーワード:農村情報、情報取得法、発信仕組み、
2007.08~2012.03.
開発途上国に向けた車搭載型農村向け社会情報サービスの研究
キーワード:情報通信技術、車搭載、社会サービス、ソーシャルビジネス
2011.07~2012.03.
BOP(低所得者層)向け多目的電子機器「ePassbook」の研究開発
キーワード:ePassbook, マイクロクレジット、低所得者、電子通帳
2012.10~2012.10.
従事しているプロジェクト研究
遠隔医療システムにおける 処方箋予測に向けた手書き医療用語認識に関する研究
2018.04~2019.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Grameen Communications (Bangladesh)
Portable Health Clinic は発展途上国農村部における健康促進に向けた遠 隔医療システムである.ヘルスアシスタントと呼ばれるスタッフが複数の 健康測定器具を医者のいない農村部に持ち込み,村民に対して健康診断を行 う.健康診断の結果,医者からの診断が必要であると判断された患者は都市 部にいる医者と電話を通して繋がり,診断を受けることができる.このシス テムによって,医者が直接診断できない発展途上国農村部においても人々 は診断を受けることができる.このシステムでは,医者は患者を診断しなが ら症状や処方薬などをノートに取り,通話後にそれをコンピュータに入力 して処方箋を作成する.このときにノートに書かれた手書き文字を認識し, その情報を元に処方箋を予測してコンピュータに入力する手間を削減でき れば,医者の時間を節約でき,医者はさらに多くの人々の診断を行うことが できる.
本研究では,処方箋の予測に向けたシステムの初期研究として,再帰型 ニューラルネットワークを用いたオンライン手書き医療用語認識手法の提案 を行う.また,オンライン手書き文字のデータ拡張手法として SRP(Stroke Rotation and Parallel-shift)手法を提案する..
Detection and reduction of medical data errors in remote healthcare systems
2014.10~2019.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Grameen Communications (Bangladesh)
eヘルスは、グローバルヘルスケアに対するICTの最も重要な貢献の1つと見なされています。 eヘルス業界は、従来の対面ヘルスケア業界よりも急速に成長しています。急速な進歩とICTへの手頃な価格のアクセス、健康意識の向上、中産階級の増加、そして高齢者人口の増加が、この世界的なeヘルスブームの原動力となっています。

eHealthに関連する既存の研究の大部分は、ITの設計と実装、システムアーキテクチャ、およびインフラストラクチャの問題に集中しています。ただし、医療ITの成功は、その設計とインフラストラクチャだけでなく、サービスが設計および提供されているユーザーに対する消費者の受け入れにも依存します。特に世界の人口の大部分が居住するアジアの発展途上国の観点から、eヘルスの全般的な消費者行動を調査するのに十分な研究が行われていないことは明らかです。

この研究の目的は、eヘルスの消費者行動を分析し理解することです。全体的な目標を達成するために、この調査では以下に述べるいくつかの具体的な目的を明らかにしました。
農村部の消費者の間でのeHealthの現在のレベルの知識と認識を探求すること。
消費者によるeヘルスの受け入れに影響を与える要因を特定し、eヘルス受け入れモデルを提案すること。
電子処方箋に対するコンプライアンス行動を評価し、消費者のコンプライアンス行動に影響を与える相対的な大きさを持つ要因を特定することによって、消費者の信頼レベルを測定します。
機械学習を通じて消費者の行動を予測し、予測精度の観点から最高のパフォーマンスを発揮するモデルを提案する。.
Consumer Behavior of eHealth Services
2014.10~2019.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Grameen Communications (Bangladesh)
eヘルスは、グローバルヘルスケアに対するICTの最も重要な貢献の1つと見なされています。 eヘルス業界は、従来の対面ヘルスケア業界よりも急速に成長しています。急速な進歩とICTへの手頃な価格のアクセス、健康意識の向上、中産階級の増加、そして高齢者人口の増加が、この世界的なeヘルスブームの原動力となっています。

eHealthに関連する既存の研究の大部分は、ITの設計と実装、システムアーキテクチャ、およびインフラストラクチャの問題に集中しています。ただし、医療ITの成功は、その設計とインフラストラクチャだけでなく、サービスが設計および提供されているユーザーに対する消費者の受け入れにも依存します。特に世界の人口の大部分が居住するアジアの発展途上国の観点から、eヘルスの全般的な消費者行動を調査するのに十分な研究が行われていないことは明らかです。

この研究の目的は、eヘルスの消費者行動を分析し理解することです。全体的な目標を達成するために、この調査では以下に述べるいくつかの具体的な目的を明らかにしました。
農村部の消費者の間でのeHealthの現在のレベルの知識と認識を探求すること。
消費者によるeヘルスの受け入れに影響を与える要因を特定し、eヘルス受け入れモデルを提案すること。
電子処方箋に対するコンプライアンス行動を評価し、消費者のコンプライアンス行動に影響を与える相対的な大きさを持つ要因を特定することによって、消費者の信頼レベルを測定します。
機械学習を通じて消費者の行動を予測し、予測精度の観点から最高のパフォーマンスを発揮するモデルを提案する。.
Concept Design and Implementation of Personalized Triage to Reduce Healthcare Data Errors in Human Assisted Remote Healthcare Systems
2018.04~2021.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan)
この研究は、遠隔医療システムの誤った医療データを減らすことを目的としています。 健康診断の前に値の範囲を予測するために「個別トリアージ」の概念が開発されます。 私達の携帯用健康診療所プロジェクト(バングラデシュの32の場所)は過去7年間で39,549の健康記録をアーカイブしました。 システムは誤ったデータを生成します(> 13%)。 そのほとんど(> 82%)は、医療従事者が測定データをソフトウェアアプリに入力したときに発生します。 外れ値のエラーは検出が容易ですが、外れ値にとっては困難です。 間違ったデータは間違った決定につながります。 初期段階でエラーを検出するために、個別トリアージがソフトウェアアプリにインストールされます。 本研究では、パーソナライズトリアージアルゴリズムを定義し、パーソナライズトリアージの概念の有効性を評価するために、30カ月間ダッカ市内の60人のコホート患者を調べます。 この概念は、遠隔地の高齢者のために日本で再輸入できると私たちは想像しています。.
途上国遠隔医療バックエンドサービスの研究
2014.04~2016.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan)
バングラデシュなどの開発途上国の農村部では、村人が保健医療サービスを受けることが困難である。そこで本調査研究の目的は、ICTを活用することで遠隔地での保健医療サービスを実現する「医療バックエンドサービス」を研究することである。医療バックエンドサービスの中核には、バングラデシュに最適化した検診データベースを構築および実装することを想定し、将来の目標として実際に保健医療サービスを運用することを見据える。
開発途上国では、社会経済的な背景の違いにより、日本社会の検診データベースをそのまま導入することが最適とはいえない。そのため本研究はバングラデシュに最適な検診データベースを導き、またそれを使った医療バックエンドサービスを実現し、将来のリバースイノベーションにつながる保健医療サービスの新たなモデルを形成する。本研究は、日本からの技術提供をおこないながらも、同時にバングラデシュからのフィードバック、さらにはリバースイノベーションにつなげる。この研究の医療バックエンドサービスでハンドリングするデータは、カルテのような構造化されたものだけではなく、半構造化、またまったく構造化できないが重要な自然言語のデータを大量に含む。そこで、医療バックエンドサービスの中核となる検診データベースに蓄積し、今後分析を進める内容は、以下の5つである。
1. 劣悪な状況での医療バックエンドサービス運用ノウハウの取得(自然環境、通信、電力など)
2. 文化の違いに関する運用ノウハウの取得
3. 医療サービスがない地域へのサービス提供するためのノウハウ
4. 識字率の低い地域、文字が読めない人へのサービス提供ノウハウ
5. 人種特性(セラセミアなど)・地域の違いによる疾患ノウハウと人種を超えた共通アルゴリズムの抽出。
 本研究の成果により将来的には、ICTを活用することで開発途上国の遠隔地に居住する低所得の村人にも保健医療サービスへのアクセスの機会を提供できるようにする。これは医療「フロント」エンド・サービス、つまり医療従事者の労力だけでは実現が困難であり、ICTのパワーを活用した「バック」エンド・サービスが加わることではじめて実現可能性が高まるのである。また同時にその医療データを扱いやすい形で確実に管理と分析をおこない(これは医療バックエンドサービスの役割の一部である)、効率的な保健医療サービス提供の新しいモデル構築の実現につなげる。
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途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の研究
2019.03~2014.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Department of Advanced Information Technology, Kyushu University, トヨタ自動車株式会社(日本)
本プロジェクトは開発途上国農村部の抱える“移動”に関連する社会課題解決を目指しています。開発途上国の農村部では、移動に伴う困難さが教育や医療、情報の入手など様々な面において、人々、特に女性の生活に悪影響を与えています。本プロジェクトでは、1つの村・コミュニティが1台以上の車を所有し、持続的かつ、多目的に利用可能な環境を構築できる状態“GramCar” (One Village/Community One Car)の実現によって、この社会問題の緩和、解決を図ろうとしています。.
バングラデシュの 農村地域における 検診履歴データベース構築の調査研究
2013.04~2015.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, P&P Kyushu University
南アジアに位置するバングラデシュでは約3000人に対して医者が1人しかおらず農村部での診療は難しい。また医療機関では、人々の保健医療の検診履歴は保存されていない。過去の検診履歴がわからないために医者も診断ごとに余計な時間とコストがかかる。
そこで本研究では、バングラデシュにおいてどのような検診履歴データベースの構築が求められているのか、また、どのような検診履歴データベースの記録内容が保健医療の改善を可能とすることができるのかについて現地調査をおこない明らかにする。これはICT(情報通信技術)を活用し、最適な検診履歴データベースを実装した保健医療サービスを実際に運用することを将来的な目的として見据えた研究である。バングラデシュをはじめとする開発途上国では、社会経済的な背景の違いにより、日本や欧米の検診履歴データベースをそのまま導入することが最適とはいえない。コスト面からも無理が生じる。そのため本研究では、バングラデシュにおいて最適な検診履歴データベースについての調査をおこない、将来の保健医療サービス分野のリバースイノベーションにつながる検診履歴データベースの新たなモデルを形作る。.
ICTの高度活用によるBOP層農民の組織化支援
2014.02~2017.01, 代表者:緒方 一夫, 九州大学熱帯農学研究センター, 九州大学(日本)
本事業の目的は、ICTを活用してBOP農民の所得向上を図ることである。
以下の4つを主軸とする活動を3年間の事業期間において取り組んでいる。
イ) 農民がテレセンター(農村インターネットカフェ)を使い適正な農業情報を活用できるようにする
ロ) BOP層に最適化した農業情報システムを確立する
ハ) 女性グループの換金作物生産への参加を促進する
ニ) 農産物マーケットチャンネルを開拓する

バングラデシュの農村ではテレセンターが既に存在しており、農業、教育やビジネス、政府情報などあらゆる情報をここで入手することが可能となりつつある。このテレセンター機能の重要性に着目し、農民が適正な農業技術情報が入手でき、また、農民がテレセンターで農業相談できるようにする。政府の農業指導員が各地に配置されているが、前述のように人数が少なく農民が気軽に相談できる状態にはなく、テレセンターで補う重要性は高い。.
最先端研究開発支援プログラム(FIRST)(H22-26) 超巨大データベース時代に向けた最高速データベースエンジンの開発と当該エンジンを核とする戦略的社会サービスの実証・評価
2011.04~2014.03, 代表者:喜連川 優, 東京大学, 東京大学(日本)
Portable ClinicプロジェクトはURP(UnReached People)に健康管理サービスを提供することを目指しています。
Portable Clinicとは検査機器を搭載した健康診断のためのブース、または機器を収納したカバンを指します。プロジェクトで訓練したスタッフが各村を回ってFHR(Family Health Record:家族の健康記録)を収集し、データベースにアップロードしていきます。
この健康情報の蓄積は、各地域の住民の健康状況や傾向を知る重要な手掛かりとなるため、政府やNGO、社会開発に関連する組織にとって計り知れない重要性を持っています。.
ICTを活用したBOP層農民の所得向上プロジェクト
2010.07~2013.06, 代表者:緒方 一夫, 九州大学熱帯農学研究センター, 九州大学(日本)
本事業の目的は、ICTを活用してBOP農民の所得向上を図ることである。
以下の4つを主軸とする活動を3年間の事業期間において取り組んでいる。
イ) 農民がテレセンター(農村インターネットカフェ)を使い適正な農業情報を活用できるようにする
ロ) BOP層に最適化した農業情報システムを確立する
ハ) 女性グループの換金作物生産への参加を促進する
ニ) 農産物マーケットチャンネルを開拓する

バングラデシュの農村ではテレセンターが既に存在しており、農業、教育やビジネス、政府情報などあらゆる情報をここで入手することが可能となりつつある。このテレセンター機能の重要性に着目し、農民が適正な農業技術情報が入手でき、また、農民がテレセンターで農業相談できるようにする。政府の農業指導員が各地に配置されているが、前述のように人数が少なく農民が気軽に相談できる状態にはなく、テレセンターで補う重要性は高い。.
IT融合による発展途上国向けバーチャルクリニック構築事業
2012.10~2014.03, 代表者:Naoki Nakashima, Kyushu University Hospital, NEDO IT融合による新社会システムの開発・実証プロジェクト/(ヘルスケア分野), Japan
ヘルスケア分野においては、世界的に平均寿命が延び高齢化が進んでおり、高齢化の進展は生活スタイルや食生活の変化と相まって社会保障の在り方に大きな影響を及ぼしており、①疾病の予兆をいち早く把握し介入を行う先制医療や個人の特性・ニーズに応じた多様・柔軟な医療・健康サービス、②医師個人の技量や経験則ではなく、IT技術を駆使した統計的な解析・データベースを活用した科学的なアプローチによる対応等が重要となる。.
GramWeb: One VIllage One Portal
2007.08~2015.12, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, 九州大学, Kyushu University (Japan)
本プロジェクトは開発途上国の社会情報基盤構築を目指しています。現在はバングラデシュの85、000の村のそれぞれにVIE(Village Information Entrepreneurs:村の情報起業家)を養成し、彼らが村に関する情報を作成、所有することで収入を得られるようになることを目指しています。
これにより、村に関する情報の透明性、正確性が向上し、村人達は情報の消費者、調査対象という立場だけでなく、情報の生産者、提供者になることも可能になります。また、部外者ではなく、村で生活しているVIEだからこそ気付くことのできる、村の“見えなかった”課題やその原因が発見、発掘されることも期待できます。
本プロジェクトは各村にVIE(Village Information Entrepreneurs:村の情報起業家)を養成し、彼らが村に関する情報を作成、所有することで収入を得られるようになることを目指します。
これにより、村に関する情報の透明性、正確性が向上し、村人達は情報の消費者、調査対象という立場だけでなく、情報の生産者、提供者になることも可能になるのです。また、部外者ではなく、村で生活しているVIEだからこそ気付くことのできる、村の“見えなかった”課題やその原因が発見、発掘されることも期待できます。.
バングラデシュにおける社会基盤確立に向けたマイクロクレジットの電子化に関わる実証実験
2009.04~2011.03, 代表者:安浦 寛人, 九州大学, 九州大学(日本)
バングラデシュの国民の社会基盤となっているマイクロクレジットにおいて、その現状の問題点を解決すること、その運営基盤を多目的に利用できるようにすること、及び国民の生活を安心安全便利にするため、九州大学の情報基盤技術を用いて当該運用基盤を情報化すること、それらの実験を通じてマイクロクレジットが安定的に運営可能で、国民生活を豊かにできる可能性があることを実証する。.
途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の研究
2011.04~2013.03, 代表者:Ashir Ahmed, Department of Advanced Information Technologies, Kyushu University, 九州大学(日本)
Kyushu University (Japan)
本プロジェクトは開発途上国農村部の抱える“移動”に関連する社会課題解決を目指しています。開発途上国の農村部では、移動に伴う困難さが教育や医療、情報の入手など様々な面において、人々、特に女性の生活に悪影響を与えています。本プロジェクトでは、1つの村・コミュニティが1台以上の車を所有し、持続的かつ、多目的に利用可能な環境を構築できる状態“GramCar” (One Village/Community One Car)の実現によって、この社会問題の緩和、解決を図ろうとしています。.
研究業績
主要著書
1. N. Hossain, H. Okajima, H. Kitaoka, F. Yokota, and A. Ahmed, Book Chapter: eHealth Consumer Behavior
Book Title: Behavior Engineering and Applications, 1st ed., Springer International Publishing, 2018. ISBN-10: 3319764292.
, Springer, ISBN-10: 3319764292, 2018.06, [URL], Numerous studies have been conducted on eHealth’s structure, technological aspects, current status, problems and prospects. However, there are only a few studies conducted in regards to the consumer behavior of eHealth. This chapter describes the necessity of behavioral research in eHealth. eHealth initiatives and current status in Bangladesh is reported. The chapter also explores and analyzes the current level of, reasons behind and factors affecting consumer acceptance of Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an e-Health initiative in Bangladesh, currently serving on experimental basis. In order to conduct an in-depth consumer behavior research, a sample of 600 rural respondents has been selected through stratified random sampling method. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire survey and analyzed with statistical tools including central tendency, frequency analysis, chi-square test of association and simple linier regression. This chapter also analyzes consumer’s demographic and socio-economic factors that affect their acceptance of eHealth. Our finding says, consumer’s age, occupation and purchasing power have very strong influence on their acceptance of eHealth services from PHC while their gender, level of education, access to cell phone and previous eHealth knowledge have very insignificant or weaker impact. Finally, the major applications of behavioral research are reported through which eHealth initiatives can be more socially acceptable and financially viable..
2. 大杉 拓三, AHMED ASHIR, グラミンのソーシャル•ビジネス:世界の社会的な課題とどう向き合うか (増補改訂版), 集広舎, 2017.02, ソーシャル・ビジネスは,社会課題を解決するための一つの強力な方法です。私たちが直面している社会課題のほとんどは人々が作りだしたものですが,同時にそれらの課題は人々が力を合わせることで解決できます。多くの学問領域にわたる技術と資源を擁する学界は,課題解決の道筋を開発するための理想的な場所と言えます。
この本を通じて,グラミンが金融や教育,ヘルスケア,エネルギー,通信に関する社会的な課題にどのように取り組んできたのかを,読者のみなさんは知ることができるでしょう。私は,ここに書かれた物語を読んだ人々がアクションを起こすこと,つまり学生たちが社会課題の解決を目指すキャリアを選ぶことを,また研究者が新たな研究の種を見つけることを,そして世界的に名高い技術を持つ日本の産業界がソーシャル・ビジネスへの関与を広げることを希望します。それが小さなスタートであったとしても,そこにはすべての人々にとって,よりよい世界をつくるための可能性があるのです.
3. Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Nohara Yasunobu, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Naoki Nakashima, Hiroto Yasuura, Smart Sensors and Systems
Chapter: Portable Health Clinic: A Telehealthcare System for UnReached Communities
, Springer, 2015.03, [URL], One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of access to quality healthcare services largely as a result of the paucity of healthcare facilities and medical experts in rural areas. We have prototyped “portable health clinic (PHC), a compact telehealth system with diagnostic equipment and GramHealth software for archiving and searching patients’ past health records. The back-end of the system consists of data servers and a medical call center. The front-end has the instances of portable briefcase consisting of medical sensors and measuring equipment operated by healthcare workers living in unreached communities. The front-end data transmission system and Skype telemedicine calls connect with the back-end using mobile network coverage and Internet. Doctors at the medical call center access GramHealth data cloud through the In-ternet or have a copy of the database in the call center server. Upon receiving a multimedia call from a patient, the doctor can find that patient’s previous EHR record and then create and send an e-Prescription. The healthcare worker’s PHC briefcase is designed to be low cost and portable. It is envisioned as costing less than US$300 (an amount an entrepreneur can borrow from micro-finance institu-tions such as Grameen Bank in Bangladesh) and light enough to be carried by a female health assistant. The PHC briefcase will be owned and operated by a vil-lage health assistant. This will be a sustainable business model as the health assis-tant can build a professional relationship with her local clientele. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organizations to observe the local adoption of the technology. We are looking at the applicability of our PHC system for aging societies in developed countries..
4. 大杉 卓三, AHMED ASHIR, グラミンのソーシャル•ビジネス:世界の社会的な課題とどう向き合うか, 集広舎, 2012.07, ソーシャル・ビジネスは,社会課題を解決するための一つの強力な方法です。私たちが直面している社会課題のほとんどは人々が作りだしたものですが,同時にそれらの課題は人々が力を合わせることで解決できます。多くの学問領域にわたる技術と資源を擁する学界は,課題解決の道筋を開発するための理想的な場所と言えます。
この本を通じて,グラミンが金融や教育,ヘルスケア,エネルギー,通信に関する社会的な課題にどのように取り組んできたのかを,読者のみなさんは知ることができるでしょう。私は,ここに書かれた物語を読んだ人々がアクションを起こすこと,つまり学生たちが社会課題の解決を目指すキャリアを選ぶことを,また研究者が新たな研究の種を見つけることを,そして世界的に名高い技術を持つ日本の産業界がソーシャル・ビジネスへの関与を広げることを希望します。それが小さなスタートであったとしても,そこにはすべての人々にとって,よりよい世界をつくるための可能性があるのです.
5. Ashir Ahmed, 大杉 卓三,  BOP変革する情報通信技術:バングラデシュの挑戦, 集広舎, 2009.09, 電気が通じていない農村で携帯電話を使う村人、電話線が整備されていない町で運営されるインターネットカフェ。開発途上国において、情報通信技術(ICT)が農村部でも人々の身近に存在する 風景は、ありふれたものになろうとしている。 本書の舞台であるバングラデシュをはじめとする開発途上国ではBOP(Base of the Pyramid:貧困層が人口の多くの割合を占める。世界で40億人以上といわれるBOPを巨大なマーケットとして再定義し、持続的なビジネスを通して貧困削減に取り組む戦略が注目を集めている。BOPマーケットでは、社会的利益を最優先させ、BOPの人々が自ら取り組む「ソーシャル・ビジネス」が重要であり、そこにICTは不可欠なツール となっている。ICTを活用することで人々は適切な情報を入手し、またコミュニケーションは人々の連帯を実現する。その結果、自らの能力に自信を持ち、単なる巨大マーケットの消費者ではなく新たな富を創造する生産者ともなりうる。 本書は九州大学とグラミン・コミュニケーションズの共同研究の成果に基づき、バングラデシュにおいてICTが導く社会経済の変革について具体的事例を綴ることで、そこに暮らすBOPの人々の姿を 明らかにする。.
主要原著論文
1. F. Yokota, Manish Biyani, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Mariko Nishikitani, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Yasunobu Nohara, and Naoki Nakashima, Lessons Learned from Co-Design and Co-Production in a Portable Health Clinic Research Project in Jaipur District, India, Sustainability, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114148, 10, 11, 4148, 2018.10, [URL], Co-design and co-production with non-academic stakeholders has been recognized as a key approach in transdisciplinary sustainability research. The majority of transdisciplinary studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, with a marked lack of such research in the Asian context—particularly with regard to healthcare. Utilizing a case study involving mobile health check-ups performed using a portable health clinic system in Jaipur, India, from March 2016 to March 2018, this study identifies key factors in co-design and co-production that should be considered to ensure the project’s sustainability. Thoroughly reviewing all of the documents and materials related to the case study’s co-design and co-production, this study identifies the following key factors: (1) mutual stakeholder agreement on a long-term research plan, protocol, and budget; (2) harmonizing research objectives, frames, and the scale of stakeholder expectations; (3) stakeholders’ commitment and a sense of ownership derived from their needs and priorities; (4) stakeholder trust; (5) effective coordinators; (6) personality type and characteristics of stakeholder leaders; (7) capacity building and the empowerment of local research staff and participants; and (8) continuous efforts to involve stakeholders throughout the co-design and co-production processes. Facilitating effective co-design and co-production, these factors will help ensure the future sustainability of projects.
2. N. Hossain, F. Yokota, A. Fukuda, and A. Ahmed, Factors affecting rural patients’ primary compliance with e-prescription: a developing country perspective, Telemedicine and e-Health, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.008 1, 25, 5, 2018.06, Background: The electronic prescription system has emerged to reduce the ambiguity and misunderstanding associated with handwritten prescriptions. The opportunities and challenges of e-prescription system, its impact on reducing medication error, and improving patient's safety have been widely studied. However, not enough studies were conducted to explore and quantify the factors that affect rural patients' compliance with e-prescription, especially from the perspective of Asian developing countries where most of the world's population resides. Objective: The objective of this study is to explore and assess the factors that affect rural patients' primary compliance with e-prescription in Bangladesh. Methods: Data were collected from 95 randomly selected rural patients who received e-prescription through a field survey with a structured questionnaire from Bheramara subdistrict, Bangladesh, during June and July 2016. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. Results: The study found patients' gender as the most significantly influential factor (regression coefficient [Coef.] = 2.02, odds ratio [OR] = 7.51, p < 0.05) followed by visiting frequency (Coef. = 0.99, OR = 2.70, p < 0.05); education (Coef. = 0.92, OR = 2.51, p < 0.05); and distance to healthcare facility (Coef. = 0.82, OR = 2.26, p < 0.01). However, patients' age, monthly family expenditure, and use of cell phone were found insignificant. The model explains 59.40% deviance (R2 = 0.5940) in the response variable with its constructs. And the "Hosmer-Lemeshow" goodness-of-fit score (0.99) is also above the standard threshold (0.05), which indicates the data fit well with the model. Conclusions: The findings of this study are expected to be helpful for e-health service providers to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence their patients to comply with e-prescriptions..
3. N. Hossain, F. Yokota, N. Sultana and A. Ahmed, Factors Influencing Rural End-Users’ Acceptance of e-Health in Developing Countries: A study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh, Telemedicine and e-Health, 2018, 10.1089/tmj.2018.0039, 25, 3, 221-229, 2018.04, [URL], BACKGROUND:
Existing studies regarding e-health are mostly focused on information technology design and implementation, system architecture and infrastructure, and its importance in public health with ancillaries and barriers to mass adoption. However, not enough studies have been conducted to assess the end-users' reaction and acceptance behavior toward e-health, especially from the perspective of rural communities in developing countries.

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this study is to explore the factors that influence rural end users' acceptance of e-health in Bangladesh.

METHODS:
Data were collected between June and July 2016 through a field survey with structured questionnaire form 292 randomly selected rural respondents from Bheramara subdistrict, Bangladesh. Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the research framework. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the theoretical model.

RESULTS:
The study found social reference as the most significantly influential variable (Coef. = 2.28, odds ratio [OR] = 9.73, p < 0.01) followed by advertisement (Coef. = 1.94, OR = 6.94, p < 0.01); attitude toward the system (Coef. = 1.52, OR = 4.56, p < 0.01); access to cellphone (Coef. = 1.37, OR = 3.92, p < 0.05), and perceived system effectiveness (Coef. = 0.74, OR = 2.10, p < 0.01). Among demographic variables, age, gender, and education were found significant while we did not find any significant impact of respondents' monthly family expenditure on their e-health acceptance behavior. The model explains 54.70% deviance (R2 = 0.5470) in the response variable with its constructs. The "Hosmer-Lemeshow" goodness-of-fit score (0.539) is also above the standard threshold (0.05), which indicates that the data fit well with the model.

CONCLUSION:
The study provides guidelines for the successful adoption of e-health among rural communities in developing countries. This also creates an opportunity for e-health technology developers and service providers to have a better understanding of their end users..
4. M. N. Hossain, H. Okajima, H. Kitaoka, and A. Ahmed, Consumer Acceptance of eHealth among Rural Inhabitants in Developing Countries (A Study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh), Procedia Comput. Sci.,, 111, 2015, 471-478, 2017.04, [URL], This paper explores and analyzes the current level of, reasons behind and factors affecting consumer acceptance of Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an e-Health initiative in Bangladesh. Our findings revealed that, 40% of the respondents have idea of using ICT in healthcare while 21% have their own experience of using any of the existing mHealth or eHealth systems. On the other hand, PHC’s acceptance rate among our respondents is 32% i.e. they have received healthcare services from PHC at least once. This research also analyzed consumer’s demographic and socio-economic factors that affect their acceptance of eHealth. Our finding says, consumer’s age, occupation and purchasing power have very strong influence on their acceptance of eHealth services while their gender, level of education, access to cell phone and previous eHealth knowledge have very insignificant or weaker impact..
5. Takuzo Osugi, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Jecinta Kamau, Abdullah Emran, Ashir Ahmed, Healthcare Service on Wheels for Unreached Communities, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6 (5), pp. 594-599, 2016., 6, 5, 594-599, 2016.04, This article introduces an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that provides multiple social services especially healthcare delivery to the unreached communities. A community car brings healthcare devices, PC and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to pre-allocated service points within villages. The measuring devices and applications are supported by a back-end data operations office using Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the healthcare and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villager were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
6. Mehdi Hasan, Mamoru Ito, Ashir Ahmed, Dissemination of Personalized Agricultural Knowledge for Farmers in Bangladesh, International Journal of Innovative Research and Development (IJIRD), 5, 3, 65-69, 2016.02, Bangladesh is predominately an agricultural country. To feed her 160 million people from 8.2 million hectares of cultivable land
is a tough task. 15, 089,000 families out of total 17,600,804 families are directly or indirectly involve with the agriculture. Every
year, almost 0.20 million people are being added to the total population whereas the estimated annual shrinkage of agricultural
land is about 0.08 million hectares due to various non-agricultural activities like constructions of houses, roads, etc. In 1971,
agriculture was the first contributor to the GDP 71% which is currently 20.60%. In terms of employment, agriculture still
remains to the largest source. To continue the sustainable agricultural development, farmers need updated knowledge. Currently
they have various sources to get knowledge as like TV, mobile phone, radio, private group and so on. However, 60% farmers are
still expecting knowledge from the government agriculture extension officers. But it is quite difficult to disseminate personalize
agricultural knowledge for 12,000 extension officers to 16 million farmers around the country. This research will identify the
existing gap for getting agricultural knowledge from the most preferable sources and propose the improved service design which
can support to disseminate personalize agricultural knowledge for farmers in Bangladesh..
7. Ashir Ahmed, Kazi Mozaher Hossein, Md. Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Osugi, Akira Fukuda, Hiroto Yasuura, Expansion of e-Commerce Coverage to Unreached Community by using Micro-Finance Infrastructure , International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (ijacsa), 10.14569/IJACSA.2015.060904, 6, 9, 2015.09, Most people at the BOP (base of the economic pyramid, the largest but the poorest community in the world comprising 69% of world population) do not have access to e-commerce services. The way e-commerce is designed and practiced today does not enable their participation. The reasons are: their purchasing power is low, they do not have any means to make online payments, and there is no infrastructure to deliver the purchased items to their doors. To enable the participation of the people at BOP, we propose an e-commerce framework by engaging MFI resources and our recently developed ePassbook system. This paper shows how the BOP community can enjoy the benefits of the e-commerce service by using the proposed model. The advantages of making e-commerce available to the BOP are discussed, in addition to the challenges involved in implementing the model. .
8. Takuzo Osugi, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Jecinta Kamau, Abdullah Emran, Ashir Ahmed, Healthcare Service on Wheels for Unreached Communities , Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, 2015.04, This article introduces an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that provides multiple social services especially healthcare delivery to the unreached communities. A community car brings healthcare devices, PC and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to pre-allocated service points within villages. The measuring devices and applications are supported by a back-end data operations office using Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the healthcare and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villager were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
9. Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Kuroda, Sozo Inoue, Tatsuo Hiramatsu, Michio Kimura, Naoki Nakashima, Health Checkup and Telemedical Intervention Program for Preventive Medicine in Developing Countries: Verification Study, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 10.2196/jmir.3705, 17, 1, 2015.01, Background: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries.
Objective: The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention.
Methods: We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required.
Results: The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (P<.001). Based on these results, we propose a cost-effective method using a machine learning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries.
Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries..
10. REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Hiroshi Nakajima, Ashir Ahmed, Keiichi Obayashi, Naoki Nakashima, Mitsuo Kuwabara, Islam Rafiqul, Toshikazu Shiga, Investigation into Blood Pressure Variability in Japan and Bangladesh by ICT based Healthcare Systems, The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2014), 2014.10, Blood Pressure readings are widely accepted as a measure to determine the risk of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and stroke. Affordable healthcare devices and sensors allow individuals to monitor blood pressure at home or at a local service point on a daily basis. ICT based healthcare systems interpret the readings and give feedback to individuals or may trigger a telemedicine call to a remote doctor. This paper introduces case studies for ICT healthcare studies undertaken in Japan and Bangladesh. Blood Pressure data collected by the Omron WellnessLink (500,000 readings) and the Kyushu University/Grameen Portable Heath Clinic (21,252 readings) are examined for similarities and differences. The results show similarities in gender and temporal influences. Males have higher blood pressure and readings appear to be rhythmic according to day and month. The differences indicate that the mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) for Japanese males is higher than Bangladesh males and SBP for Bangladesh females is higher than Japanese females. The impact of climate is stronger on Japanese SBP than Bangladesh SBP. The Bangladesh data shows progressive increase in SBP in each ten year age category until 80 years; this is also reflected by BMI categories. The study reveals that affordable devices connected to basic ICT based healthcare systems reveal underlying factors in the Blood Pressure variability..
11. Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of Portable Health Clinic for ageing Society, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International), Springer LNCS, LNCS 8530, 533-544, 2014.08, Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and af- fordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor tech- nology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly popula- tion (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
12. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Raiqul Islam, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of Portable Health Clinic for ageing Society, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International), LNCS, 8530, 533-544, 2014.06, Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and affordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor technology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly population (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
13. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Hiroaki Saito, Emran Abdullah, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Social Services on Wheels: A sustainable model to improve access in unreached communities, Proceedings of the IEEE IST-Africa, 2014.05, Unreached communities require access to fundamental social services such as healthcare, education, learning and purchasing opportunities to improve their economic sustainability. Unreached communities are characterized by informal and unsafe transport. Villagers have to travel long distances to urban centres to attain social services. In this article, we introduce an Information Communication Technology (ICT) concept called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) to provide quality transit and overcome access problems by bringing e-services directly to the community. SSW is based on a community vehicle that is as a college bus service and mobile ICT platform. SSW takes a healthcare worker, an ICT assistant and their equipment to a service point allowing villagers to access telemedicine and Internet services. SSW was tested on a rural community in Bangladesh in 2012 and 2013. A cost analysis shows that 52% of the total operating cost was covered using the existing business model. The research contributes to the discussion on sustainable ICT for Development (ICT4D)..
14. Eiko Kai, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Sozo Inoue, Nohara Yasunobu, Naoki Nakashima, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Empowering the healthcare worker using the Portable Health Clinic, Proceedings of 28th IEEE-AINA, 2014.05, We present a remote healthcare consultancy system that enables healthcare workers to identify noncommunicable diseases in unreached communities. The healthcare system combines medical sensors with mobile health and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The Portable Health Clinic fits into a briefcase and is operated by the healthcare worker. The goal of this research is to empower the healthcare worker further by allowing her to recognize spurious measurements and to make lifestyle recommendations. In this paper, we show how to process the data: combine, link and compare – captured in patient electronic health records stored in database. We applied association rule technique to find common set of rules in order to build a clinical decision support system. We also showed examples of the meaningful information from the analyzed data to build a better clinical decision support..
15. Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Zahidul Hussein Ripon, Naoki Nakashima, Targeting morbidity in unreached communities using Portable Health Clinic System, IEICE Trans. Special Issue on Information and Communication Technology for Medical and Healthcare Applications, 540-545, 2014.03, This study looks at how an e-Health System can reduce morbidity (poor health) in unreached communities. The e-Health system combines affordable sensors and Body Area Networking technology with mobile health concepts and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The health clinic is portable because all the medical devices fit inside a briefcase and are carried to unreached communities by a health assistant. Patient mor- bidity is diagnosed using software stratification algorithm and categorized according to triage color-coding scheme within the briefcase. Morbid pa- tients are connected to remote doctor in a telemedicine call center using the mobile network coverage. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are used for the medical consultancy and e-Prescription is generated. The effec- tiveness of the portable health clinic system to target morbidity was tested on 8690 patients in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh during Septem- ber 2012 to January 2013. There were two phases to the experiment: the first phase identified the intensity of morbidity and the second phase re- examined the morbid patients, two months later. The experiment results show a decrease in patients to identify as morbid among those who partici- pated in telemedicine process..
16. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Zahidul Hossein Ripon, Naoki Nakashima, Targeting morbidity in unreached communities using Portable Health Clinic System, IEICE Transaction on Communications, 10.1587/transcom.E97.B.540, E97-B, 3, 540-545, 2014.03, This study looks at how an e-Health System can reduce morbidity (poor health) in unreached communities. The e-Health system combines affordable sensors and Body Area Networking technology with mobile health concepts and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The health clinic is portable because all the medical devices fit inside a briefcase and are carried to unreached communities by a healthcare assistants. Patient morbidity is diagnosed using software stratification algorithm and categorized according to triage color-coding scheme within the briefcase. Morbid patients are connected to remote doctor in a telemedicine call center using the mobile network coverage. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are used for the medical consultancy and e-Prescription is generated. The effectiveness of the portable health clinic system to target morbidity was tested on 8690 patients in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh during September 2012 to January 2013. There were two phases to the experiment: the first phase identified the intensity of morbidity and the second phase re-examined the morbid patients, two months later. The experiment results show a decrease in patients to identify as morbid among those who participated in telemedicine process. .
17. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, GramHeath: A bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, Proceedings of EMBC 2013, 2013.07.
18. Ashir Ahmed, Sozo Inoue, Eiko Kai, Naoki Nakashima, Nohara Yasunobu, Portable Health Clinic: A Pervasive Way to Serve the Unreached Community for Preventive Healthcare, Proceedings of HCI International 2013, Published by Springer, LNCS 8028, 265-274, 2013.07.
19. Ashir Ahmed, Takuzo Osugi, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Evolution of remote health-consultancy over mobile phone, Proceedings of the 2013 IEICE, 2013.03.
20. Ashir Ahmed Akinori Ozaki Kazuo Ogata Ikuo Miyajima Takuzou Osugi, Income Generation Project for rural female Farmers using ICT (IGPF), Proceedings of e-Asia 2011, 2011.08, Greedy market strategies of agro-chemical industries have encouraged Bangladeshi farmers to work under the motto “More fertilizer, more product”. Similar misconceptions apply to the use of pesticides and food processing chemicals. At best careful and controlled use of such chemicals is required. They do not simply improve yield, nor does their use build customer-trust. In order to address this problem, our Income Generation Project for Farmers (IGPF) targets rural female farmers to generate income through the production and marketing of organic vegetables. Farmers will be using their fallow homesteads to grow vegetables under the supervision of IGPF experts and through our developed BIGBUS system. Information Communication Technology is used to train the farmers in crop selection and maintenance, and then to market and sell the products at a price to reflect the higher quality. Presently, we are working in two locations with 36 model-farmers. The produce is sold through a third-party e-commerce site. Demand among the affluent has been confirmed. In two years, we envision that the project will be a sustainable business benefitting thousands of farmers and consumers. .
21. Ashir Ahmed, Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Osugi, eCommerce for the unreached community, Proceedings of ICT 2011, 2011.07.
主要総説, 論評, 解説, 書評, 報告書等
1. Ashir Ahmed, 社会ニーズに基づく技術開発と日本への期待, 電子情報通信学会誌, 2011.01, 新たな技術を用いて製品を開発する際,開発者は市場 の要求を考慮するが,それは社会全体から見るとごく一 部からの要求にすぎない.貧困層を含む社会全体の要求 を開発者が完全に把握することは難しく,製品開発のプ ロセスにおいて社会的な問題の解決の優先順位は低い. 九州大学(九大)では様々な分野において社会ニーズに 基づいた技術及び製品の新しい開発プロセスの研究に取 り組んでいる.開発途上国を対象とした社会情報基盤の 研究開発もその一例である.本稿では,これまでの先端 技術の研究や製品開発プロセスの現状を取り上げ,社会 ニーズに基づいた開発プロセスとの差異を説明する.そ して社会ニーズに基づいた開発とは何かを検討し,九大 が開発した幾つかのプロトタイプを紹介する.更に,新 たな技術開発の流れにおける日本への期待についても述 べる. 九大が取り組む開発途上国を対象とした社会情報基盤 の研究開発は,バングラデシュを実証実験のフィールド としている.この研究のためにバングラデシュのグラミ ン・コミュニケーションズと 2007 年に協定を締結した. 2008 年 1 月,安浦寛人教授(九大理事・副学長)がバ ングラデシュを訪れ,情報通信技術(ICT)の現状を調 査した.彼はそのときの感想を次のように述べている.
「村には水道,ガス,電気などのインフラがないのに, 人々は携帯電話を利用していることに驚いた.電気のな い村では太陽エネルギーを導入している.太陽エネルギーによって携帯電話やコンピュータを動かし,海外の 情報さえも入手している.」この言葉は,途上国におけ る技術利用についての事実を端的に表現している (1).
途上国において,インフラ整備の流れは,これまで先 進国が経験したそれとは大きく異なる.途上国の人々は 先進技術の力を理解し,それを求めている.インフラや 制度が整うのをただ待つことはなく,積極的に導入し利 用を開始する.先進国では,既存の複雑なインフラに新 しい技術を適応させ,利用の法整備を行うために時間と 費用を要する.一方,インフラや法律が未整備な途上国 では,最新の技術を時間をかけずに受け入れる余地が大 いにある.そこには既存のシステムとの適合性の確認な どの問題はない.そのため途上国は,大学の研究者や企 業による先端技術を用いた製品やサービスの開発と,そ れらを実際の社会において実証実験する機会を提供でき る.
数々の技術が途上国でも製品として応用されている が,人々の生活の改善に結び付いていないことも多い. 現在,世界では約 30 億人が,1 日 2.5 ドル以下で生活 している.16 億人は電気のない暮らしをしている.ま た約 11 億人が十分な水へのアクセスができない状態に ある(2).途上国の人々が直面する問題の多くは技術に よって解決できる.では人々が不便な暮らしを強いられ ている背景にはどのような原因が隠れているのだろう か.それは技術なのか,政策か,それともマーケティン グなのか.現状を少しでも改善する余地があるかどうか を知るために,私たちは技術と製品開発プロセスに焦点 を当てる.そして,私たちが取り組んでいる社会ニーズ に基づいた製品開発の枠組みを紹介しながら,現在の開 発プロセスの弱点について検討する..
主要学会発表等
1. Ashir Ahmed, Kai Eiko, Healthcare and Social Business, Institute of Decision Science for Sustainable Society, 2014.04, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a “portable clinic” and a software tool, “GramHealth” for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of “GramHealth”. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
2. Ashir Ahmed, Technologies to achieve social goals, Second International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers, 2013.12, [URL], The UN has defined eight millennium development goals (MDGs) to be achieved by the year 2015. The goals relate to health, education, poverty and the environment. Many of these problems can be effectively solved if technologies could reach the masses. Kyushu University in Japan and Grameen Communications in Bangladesh undertook initiatives to explore this field of social needs based technology and product development. Towards this goal, we have focused on health; micro-finance, energy, agriculture and rural information broadcast issues and developed technical solutions. GramWeb as an information platform for villagers; ePassbook as an electronic gadget for the poor; $300 USD portable clinic as a means of providing health services to the doors of the unreached, are our major innovations. The overview of these projects, technical features, business models and their social impact will be discussed during the talk..
3. Ashir Ahmed, Partha P. Ghosh, Energy for small scale rural ICT centers , IMPRES2013: International Symposium on Innovative Materials for Processes in Energy Systems 2013, 2013.09, Only 40% of the world population has regular access to grid electricity. Most of these unreached people live in rural areas in developing countries. Recent penetration of ICT devices including mobile phones is contributing to the achievement of development goals in diverse and ever-expanding ways. ICT devices are used to increase the effectiveness and reach of development interventions, to enhance good governance and to lower the delivery costs of many public and private services. When used appropriately, they facilitate the creation and strengthening of new economic and social networks with the potential to advance and even transform the development process. However, ICT devices cannot function without electricity. When grid extension is not an option, a standalone or distributed power system can be installed to generate electricity at a location where the ICT devices can be recharged. Examples of small-scale, standalone power systems include generator sets powered by diesel, solar PV systems, small wind systems, and micro-hydro systems. In this study, we report the energy requirements of a telecenter and present the status and the challenges. We also display the case study results of Grameen-Shakti, an organization in Bangladesh that successfully installed 1 million solar home systems..
4. Ashir Ahmed, Sozo Inoue, Kai Eiko, Naoki Nakashima, Nohara Yasunobu, Portable Health Clinic: A pervasive way to serve the unreached community for preventive healthcare, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2013.07, One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of accessing to quality healthcare service. Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the unmet demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a portable health clinic box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a “portable clinic” and a software tool, “GramHealth” for archiving and searching patients’ past health records. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organization to observe the local adoption of the technology. We also monitored the usability of the portable clinic and verified the functionality of “GramHealth”. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data which can be considered as BigData. We have partly analyzed the data manually to find common set of rules to build a better clinical decision support. The model of analyzing the GramHealth BigData is also presented..
5. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Kai Eiko, Sozo Inoue, GramHealth: A bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2013.07, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a “portable clinic” and a software tool, “GramHealth” for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of “GramHealth”. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
6. Ashir Ahmed, takuzou ohsugi, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Evolution of remote health-consultancy over mobile phone, IEICE General Conference, 2013.03, Access to healthcare should be as local as possible. However, due to the insufficient healthcare facilities and lack of medical experts in rural and disaster areas, more than a billion people in the world remained unreached by quality healthcare services. Mobile phone became a popular tool for remote health consultancy for the unreached community too. We have designed a portable health clinic and a software tool “GramHealth” to meet the requirements of the unreached community. This paper introduces the technical challenges of the current mobile phone based health consultancy system, describes the concept of Portable clinic and GramHealth and displays experimental results obtained from villages in Bangladesh..
7. Ashir Ahmed, GramHealth: An affordable and usable healthcare system for unreached community , ITU Workshop on "E-health services in low-resource settings: Requirements and ITU role” , 2012.02.
8. Ashir Ahmed, Reaching the Unreached by ICT and Social Business, IEEE GlobeCom , 2011.12, The way that technologies have been commoditized does not serve the poor, the largest community in the world. Many problems in health, education, business, and agriculture can be solved simply if developers, managers and distributers of technologies consider the requirements of this largely unreached population. Kyushu University in Japan and Grameen Communications in Bangladesh undertook initiatives to explore the field of social-needs-based technology and product development. This article introduces some of our innovations: ePassbook as an electronic gadget; a social information platform to bring new business opportunities to rural people; a portable clinic for the unreached patients. Each of these projects has been developed with the involvement of industries, academia, government and the community which the product will serve. However, a central entity is required to effectively collaborate with all these organizations and to deploy them for the target population through social business. Our Grameen Technology Lab is a model to respond to these needs..
9. Ashir Ahmed, takuzou ohsugi, eCommerce for the unreached community, Proc. IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings (ICT 2011), 2011.07, Most people at the BOP (base of the economic pyramid, the largest but the poorest community in the world comprising 69% of world population) do not have access to e-commerce services. The way e-commerce is designed and practiced today does not enable their participation. The reasons are: their purchasing power is low, they do not have any means to make online payments, and there is no infrastructure to deliver the purchased items to their doors. To include these 4 billion people, we propose an e-commerce framework by engaging MFI resources and our recently developed ePassbook system. This paper shows how the BOP community can enjoy the benefits of the e-commerce service by using the proposed model. The advantages of making e-commerce available to the BOP are discussed, in addition to the challenges involved in implementing the model..
10. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, An Information Platform for low-literate villagers, IEEE 24th International Conference for Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2010), 2010.04, Presently, 75% of the world’s population do not have access to the Internet. Most of them are people at the BOP (Base of the Pyramid, the poorest but largest economic group in the world). Many of the efforts to popularize ICT focus on increasing villagers’ access to facilities and on training in ICT use to demonstrate the power of ICT to bring financial or social benefits. Users are viewed as information consumers only. We have developed an information platform where BOP can be both information producers and owners. In order to generate and upload web contents, the challenges observed are the villagers’ text literacy limitations, the limited capability of the devices they use, and the available network capability. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a BoP adaptation layer in the current social information infrastructure. This paper introduces the BOP adaptation layer concept, its architecture, and an example of how a low-literate village farmer can generate and upload his/her product information on the web. .
11. Ashir Ahmed, A BOP Information Platform, Impact of Base-of-the-Pyramid Ventures, 2009.11.
12. Ashir Ahmed, An information Production and Ownership Platform for BoPers, IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings (MCCSIS 2009), 2009.06.
作品・ソフトウェア・データベース等
1. Ryo Takahashi, Ashir Ahmed, A doctors handwritten prescription sample collection tool, 2018.12, The software tool collect handwritten word sample from doctors. A sample data will be stored in DB. The sample words will be displayed one by one and the doctor will write the same words. All the samples will be collected for analysis later..
2. Ashir Ahmed, Engineers from Grameen Communications, Medication Monitoring System, 2017.04, An android based tool for monitoring taking medication status of elderly people.
3. Ashir Ahmed, Jecinta Kamau and Engineers from Grameen Communications, A software module for scheduling multi-service car sharing system, 2017.04.
4. Ashir Ahmed, Engineers from Grameen Communications, GramHealth Client Application: An android based software module for remote healthcare service, 2017.04, A web-based software tool to collect and store electronic health records of people. The salient point of this software is that it is designed for the unreached community where network bandwidth is not rich. The other usable functions are- (1) it can adaptively work for both online and offline mode. It stores the collected health records locally to transmit when network is available (2) It has an effective health records viewer for busy doctors. It shows the timeline of a patient in a gyantt chart fashion to save the doctors's time..
5. Ashir Ahmed, Jecinta Kamau and Engineers from Grameen Communications, GramCar: A multiservice car sharing system for rural developing countries, 2012.06.
6. Ashir Ahmed, Engineers from Grameen Communications, GramHealth: A software for remote healthcare service, 2010.10, A web-based software tool to collect and store electronic health records of people. The salient point of this software is that it is designed for the unreached community where network bandwidth is not rich. The other usable functions are- (1) it can adaptively work for both online and offline mode. It stores the collected health records locally to transmit when network is available (2) It has an effective health records viewer for busy doctors. It shows the timeline of a patient in a gyantt chart fashion to save the doctors's time..
7. Ashir Ahmed, Koji Ishida, ePassbook, 2010.10
A software and a hardware for micro-finance institution to collect, store and display loan statements., e-Passbookは貧しい人でも入手できる電子機器で、以下の多目的な利用が可能です。
1. マイクロファイナンスの借入人用の電子通帳
2. 家族全員の健康情報・医療情報の管理端末
3. オンラインで送金や決済が可能な電子マネー端末.
8. Ashir Ahmed, Engineers from Global Communication Center, Bangladesh, Gyant chart for busy doctors, 2010.10
A gyant chart that displays the summary of patients history for the busy doctors. A doctor can view a patient's history in a short period of time. .
9. Ashir Ahmed, PBL students and engineers from Global Communication Center, BIGBUS: BOP Information Generation Broadcast and Upload System, 2010.04
A software system for the low literate villagers to upload product information to the web by using their mobile phone. , [URL], BIGBUS is an interactive voice navigation system where a BOP user (a farmer) with low-literacy and low-cost devices (such as 2G mobile phone) is able to upload her product information on the web to create a global market opportunity. A seller can also check the purchase status by accessing the web through a voice-only based mobile phone. .
10. Ashir Ahmed,
Engineers from Grameen Communications, GramWeb, 2011.04
人口が1億6千万人(2008年の時点で1億5222万1000人、世界で7番目)とも言われるバングラデシュには多くの村(2009年5月時点でグラミン銀行がサービスを提供する村の数が84,388)が存在します。本システムはその村々の全てに関するWEBサイトが存在する“1 village 1 portal”の実現を目指しています。そのために村人達自身が村の情報を収集、発信するための使い易い環境を備えています。

本システムは各村にVIE(Village Information Entrepreneurs:村の情報起業家)を養成し、彼らが村に関する情報を作成、所有することで収入を得られるようになることを目指します。

これにより、村に関する情報の透明性、正確性が向上し、村人達は情報の消費者、調査対象という立場だけでなく、情報の生産者、提供者になることも可能になるのです。また、部外者ではなく、村で生活しているVIEだからこそ気付くことのできる、村の“見えなかった”課題やその原因が発見、発掘されることも期待できます。, [URL], A Village Facebook. .
特許出願・取得
特許出願件数  1件
特許登録件数  3件
学会活動
所属学会名
Social Business Academia Network
EMBS
EIC
International Association for Development of the Information Society
IEEE
学協会役員等への就任
2016.10~2020.09, Social Business Academia Network, 理事.
2014.04~2020.10, Social Business Academia Confeence , 運営委員.
学会大会・会議・シンポジウム等における役割
2019.01.10~2019.01.12, International Conference on Robotics, Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques 2019 (ICREST 2019), Keynote Speaker.
2017.11.08~2017.11.09, Social Business Academia Conference, 座長(Chairmanship).
2018.04.26~2018.04.28, The 2nd International Conference on Healthcare, SDGs and Social Business, General Chair.
2016.05.16~2016.05.17, International Conference on Advanced information & Communication Technology, 座長(Chairmanship).
2015.11.03~2016.11.04, Social Business Academia Conference, 座長(Chairmanship).
2016.11.09~2016.11.10, Social Business Academia Conference, 座長(Chairmanship).
2014.10.05~2014.10.08, International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 座長(Chairmanship).
2015.05.28~2015.05.28, International Social Business Day, 座長(Chairmanship).
2014.06.28~2014.06.28, International Social Business Day, 座長(Chairmanship).
2012.06.28~2012.06.28, International Social Business Day, 座長(Chairmanship).
2012.10.13~2012.10.14, ICEAB 2012: 3rd International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh, 座長(Chairmanship).
2010.04.20~2010.04.23, Advance Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2010), 座長(Chairmanship).
2010.09.04~2010.09.04, International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh (ICEAB 2010), 座長(Chairmanship).
2017.02.21~2017.02.21, International Conference on Healthcare, SDGs and Social Business, Moderator.
2016.05.16~2016.05.17, International Conference on Advanced information & Communication Technology, Moderator.
2016.11.09~2016.11.10, Social Business Academia Conference, Moderator.
2015.11.03~2015.11.04, Social Business Academia Conference, Moderator.
2015.06.28~2015.06.28, Social Business Day: Technology Session, Moderator.
2014.06.28~2014.06.28, Social Business Day: Technology Session, Moderator.
2014.10.05~2014.10.08, The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2014), Session Chair.
2010.09.04~2010.09.04, International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh (ICEAB 2010), セッションチェアー.
学会誌・雑誌・著書の編集への参加状況
2012.04~2012.07, グラミンのソーシャルビジネス:世界の社会課題とどう向き合うか, 国内, 編集委員.
2009.04~2009.08, 「BOP変革する情報通信技術:バングラデシュの挑戦」 集広舎、2009年9月、ISBN:978-4-904213-06-3 C0036 , 国内, 編集委員.
学術論文等の審査
年度 外国語雑誌査読論文数 日本語雑誌査読論文数 国際会議録査読論文数 国内会議録査読論文数 合計
2017年度    
2016年度    
その他の研究活動
海外渡航状況, 海外での教育研究歴
Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, Thailand, Bangladesh, 2018.08~2018.08.
Grameen Communications, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, Bangladesh, 2015.12~2016.01.
Grameen Communications, Bangladesh, 2014.08~2014.08.
Grameen Communications, Bangladesh, 2015.02~2015.02.
ICT Ministry, India, Tara Foundation, India, Network for Information and Computer Technology (NICT), India, India, India, India, 2011.12~2011.12.
Grameen Communications, Bangladesh, 2011.06~2012.07.
外国人研究者等の受入れ状況
2017.10~2018.09, 1ヶ月以上, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh, 政府関係機関.
2018.01~2018.08, 1ヶ月以上, PEC University of Technology, India, .
2016.08~2016.08, 2週間未満, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 学内資金.
2016.10~2016.10, 2週間以上1ヶ月未満, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, 学内資金.
2016.09~2016.09, 2週間未満, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 学内資金.
2014.03~2014.03, 2週間未満, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, 科学技術振興機構.
2013.08~2014.02, 1ヶ月以上, Nokia Systems, UnitedKingdom, 民間・財団.
2014.03~2014.05, 2週間未満, Intel Corporation, UnitedStatesofAmerica, 科学技術振興機構.
2012.07~2012.07, 2週間以上1ヶ月未満, Yahoo Inc., UnitedStatesofAmerica, 学内資金.
2010.06~2010.06, 2週間未満, Author, UnitedKingdom, 科学技術振興機構.
2008.10~2008.10, 2週間未満, Grameen Communications, Bangladesh, 科学技術振興機構.
2007.10~2008.07, 1ヶ月以上, Bangladesh University of Engineering Technology, Bangladesh, 日本学術振興会.
受賞
2019 PTC Innovation Awards, PTC (Pacific Telecommunication Council), 2019.01.
Best paper presentation award, International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, 2015.04.
Runner-up paper Award, eChallenge e-2015 Conference, 2015.11.
Best Presentation Award, International Economics Development and Research Center, 2015.04.
Social System Innovation Award, International Society for Telemedicine & eHealth, 2013.09.
Best paper award, International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), 2011.07.
研究資金
科学研究費補助金の採択状況(文部科学省、日本学術振興会)
2018年度~2020年度, 基盤研究(B), 分担, Increasing awareness, health literacy, and behavior changes by addressing and managing health issues of climate and lifestyle changes in a developing country focusing on hypertension.
2018年度~2020年度, 基盤研究(C), 代表, Concept Design and Implementation of Personalized Triage to Reduce Healthcare Data Errors in Human Assisted Remote Healthcare Systems.
競争的資金(受託研究を含む)の採択状況
2014年度~2015年度, KDDI 財団, 代表, 途上国遠隔医療バックエンドサービスの研究.
2014年度~2014年度, 研究拠点形成費補助金(グローバルCOE) (文部科学省), 代表, バングラデシュの農村地域における検診履歴データベース構築の調査研究.
2013年度~2017年度, JICA 草の根技術協力事業(草の根パートナー型), 分担, ICTの高度活用によるBOP層農民の組織化支援.
2010年度~2013年度, JICA 草の根技術協力事業(草の根パートナー型), 代表, Income Generation Project for Farmers using ICT (IGPF).
2008年度~2009年度, (財)福岡県産業・科学技術振興財団, 代表, 開発途上国向け社会情報基盤システムプロトタイプの開発・実用化可能性試験.
2007年度~2009年度, 財団法人 福岡産業科学技術振興財団, 代表, 開発途上国の社会情報基盤構築に関する実用化可能性調査.
共同研究、受託研究(競争的資金を除く)の受入状況
2016.08~2018.03, 代表, Suitability of Tele-Radiology System in rural areas in developing countries.
2018.03~2018.09, 代表, Experimental Study of Mobility and Social Value by Utilizing Community BigData.
2016.06~2017.03, 代表, 途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究.
2015.09~2016.08, 代表, An Experimental Study to Investigate Creation of Community Car Based Social Values in Rural and Urban Areas in Developing Countries.
2015.08~2017.03, 代表, Suitability of Tele-Radiology System in Rural Areas in Developing Countries.
2014.06~2015.05, 代表, 途上国クルマにおける社会価値創出に関する研究.
2013.12~2014.11, 代表, バングラデシュおよび日本でのICT活用による健康・医療情報についての共同研究の可能性検討.
2013.06~2014.03, 代表, 途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の実証研究.
2012.07~2013.03, 代表, 途上国農村部におけるクルマの関わる社会価値の研究.
2012.07~2017.06, 代表, 社会情報基盤構築.
2011.07~2012.03, 代表, 開発途上国に向けた車搭載型農村向け社会情報サービスの研究
.
2010.04~2011.03, 代表, 極低圧昇圧回路を用いた自立型電源システムの適用研究.
2009.11~2010.03, 代表, 極低電圧昇圧回路を用いた自立型電源システムの適用研究.
寄附金の受入状況
2018年度, 電気通信普及財団, 「バングラデシュにおける「eヘルスワーカー」育成のためのトレーニング事業」への支援.
2018年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2017年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2017年度, 電気通信普及財団, 「バングラデシュにおける「eヘルスワーカー」育成のためのトレーニング事業」への支援.
2016年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2016年度, 電気通信普及財団, PHC (ポータブル・ヘルス・クリニック)システムの地域適応性検証のための調査研究.
2015年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2015年度, KDDI財団, 途上国遠隔医療バックエンドサービスの研究.
2014年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center , Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2014年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
2013年度, Kyushu University Yunus and Shiiki Social Business Research Center, Study on social business and its applicability on ICT based social service promotion for Unreached Community.
学内資金・基金等への採択状況
2013年度~2014年度, 九州大学教育研究プログラム・研究拠点形成プロジェクト Bタイプ, 代表, バングラデシュの農村地域における検診履歴データベース構築の調査研究.

九大関連コンテンツ

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