||Toru Asahina, Kosuke Nakagiri, Yuji Shiotsuka, Tetsuji Etoh, Ryoichi Fujino, Nonomi Suzuki, Christopher D. McMahon, Hideyuki Takahashi, Physiological Responses of Japanese Black Calves to Supplementation with Sodium Butyrate in Milk Replacer, Food & Nutrition Journal, 10.29011/2575-7091. 100083, 2018.06, Genetic factors are important for meat quality in cattle and gene expression may be determined by epigenetic control. This may involve Histone Deacetylases (HDACs), which suppress or enhance gene expression, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, produced from butyric acid), which inhibits HDAC activity and increases gene expression. This study aimed to determine how supplementing Japanese Black calves with sodium butyrate in milk replacer affects the relationship between plasma BHBA, HDAC activity in tissues, and blood metabolites. Eight Japanese Black female calves were randomly assigned to two groups of four animals each (control group, and supplementation with sodium butyrate group; NaB). Calves in both groups were fed milk replacer containing 26% Crude Protein (CP), 25.5% Crude Fat (CF), and 116% Total Digestible Nutrients (TDNs), and all calves received calf starter and hay ad libitum. Sodium butyrate was administered to the calves in the NaB group at daily doses of 3 g (from 3 to 30 days of age), 5 g (from 31 to 60 days of age), and 7 g (from 61 to 90 days of age). The supplementation of Japanese Black calves with sodium butyrate in milk replacer decreased plasma concentrations of BHBA..
||H Takahashi, Y Suzuki, JS Mohamed, T Gotoh, SL Pereira, SE Alway, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases autophagy signaling in resting and unloaded plantaris muscles but selectively suppresses autophagy protein abundance in reloaded muscles of aged rats, Experimental Gerontology, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2017.02.075, 92, 56-66, 2017.06, We have previously found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, reduced apoptotic signaling and improved muscle recovery in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension (HS). In this study, we investigated if EGCg altered autophagy signaling in skeletal muscle of old rats in response to HS or reloading after HS. Fischer 344 x Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 months) were given 1 ml/day of purified EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or the same sample volume of the vehicle by gavage. One group of animals received HS for 14 days and the second group of rats received 14 days of HS, then the HS was removed and they were allowed to recover by ambulating normally around the cage for two weeks. EGCg decreased a small number of autophagy genes in control muscles, but it increased the expression of other autophagy genes (e.g., ATG16L2, SNCA, TM9SF1, Pink1, PIM-2) and HS did not attenuate these increases. HS increased Beclinl, ATG7 and LC3-II/I protein abundance in hindlimb muscles. Relative to vehicle treatment, EGCg treatment had greater ATG12 protein abundance (35.8%, P < 0.05), but decreased Beclinl protein levels (-101.1%, P < 0.05) after HS. However, in reloaded muscles, EGCg suppressed Beclinl and LC3-II/I protein abundance as compared to vehicle treated muscles. EGCg appeared to "prime" autophagy signaling before and enhance autophagy gene expression and protein levels during unloading in muscles of aged rats, perhaps to improve the clearance of damaged organelles. However, EGCg suppressed autophagy signaling after reloading, potentially to increase the recovery of hindlimb muscles mass and function after loading is restored. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved..
||P Ouanh, H Takahashi, H Ma, Y Shiotsuka, A Matsubara, T Sugino, C McMahon, T Etoh, R Fujino, M Furuse, T Gotoh, Effects of nutritional status on hormone concentrations of the somatotropin axis and metabolites in plasma and colostrum of Japanese Black cows, Animal Science Journal, 10.1111/asj.12686 , 88, 4, 643-652, 2017.04, We aimed to determine the effects of nutritional status on concentrations of somatotropic axis hormones (growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)), insulin and metabolites (glucose, total protein and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA)) in the plasma and colostrum in late antepartum cows. Eight pregnant Japanese Black cows were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n=4 per group). Control cows (CON) received 100% of their nutritional requirements until parturition, whereas restricted group cows (RES) received 60% of their nutritional requirements. Blood samples were taken during the antepartum period, and blood and colostrum samples were collected on days 0, 1, and 3 after calving. Compared to the CON group, the RES group had higher concentrations of GH and NEFA in plasma, but significantly lower concentrations of glucose and insulin in plasma. The concentrations of GH in plasma after calving were significantly higher, but total plasma protein was significantly lower in RES than in CON cows. Compared to the CON group, the RES group had significantly higher concentrations of GH in colostrum, but significantly lower total concentrations of protein in colostrum. Concentrations of IGF-1 were not different between the two groups. These findings suggest that maternal nutritional status during late gestation influences concentrations of GH and total protein in the blood and colostrum of Japanese Black cows.
||Hideyuki Takahashi, Atsuko Matsubara, Akira Saito, Ouanh Phomvisith, Akari Shiga, Ha T Mai, Toshihisa Sugino, Christopher D McMahon, Tetsuji Etoh, Yuji Shiotsuka, Ryoichi Fujino, M Furuse, T Gotoh, Higher intake of milk-replacer pre-weaning enhances post-weaning insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in Japanese Black cattle, Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology, 10.4172/2157-7579.1000409, 8, 1, 409, 2017.01, Alterations in early pre-natal nutrition of Japanese Black calves influence the glucose and lipid metabolism after weaning. However, the effects of early nutritional status on the endocrine system in later life stages in Japanese Black cattle are unknown. This study examined how post-weaning plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and blood insulin, which are hormones affecting growth and meat quality, and metabolites were affected by feeding 1800 g versus 500 g of milk replacer to Japanese Black cattle (5 per group) during nursing. Up to weaning (90 days post-birth), all calves received calf starter and hay ad libitum, and post-weaning, they received a concentrate feed and hay ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of GH and IGF-1 were greater at weaning in the high-milk-replacer group (P<0.1 and P<0.01, respectively), and elevated IGF-1 concentrations persisted until the study end (210 d) (P<0.05), suggesting that the levels were sustained independent of the influences of both GH and nutrient intake. Blood insulin and metabolites (plasma glucose, beta hydroxybutyric acid, and non-esterified fatty acids) were not significantly different between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that feeding calves a high volume of milk replacer during nursing will increase IGF-1 secretion well beyond weaning..
||A Matsubara, H Takahashi, A Saito, A Nomura, K Sithyphone, CD McMahon, R Fujino, Y Shiotsuka, T Etoh, M Furuse, T Gotoh, Effects of a high milk intake during the pre-weaning period on nutrient metabolism and growth rate in Japanese Black cattle, Animal Science Journal, 10.1111/asj.12547, 87, 9, 1130-1136, 2016.09, This study aimed to determine the effects of feeding an increased volume of high-fat milk during the early post-natal life on metabolite concentrations in the blood, the expression of key genes regulating intermediary metabolism in the skeletal muscles, and the rate of growth of Japanese Black cattle. All calves were fed a high-fat milk replacer (crude protein, 26%; crude fat, 25.5%; total dissolved nitrogen, 116%). Control calves (n = 4) were nursed with 500 g milk replacer until 3 months of age (mo), whereas calves in the experimental group (n = 4) were nursed with 1,800 g milk replacer until 3 mo, and then the volume was gradually reduced until 5 mo. Body weight was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group at 7 mo. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the experimental group. Expression of glucose-transporter-4 mRNA was lower, whereas that of glucose transporter 1, cluster of differentiation 36, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b mRNA was significantly higher in the M. longissimus thoracis of the experimental group. Nutritional status during early post-natal life appears to strongly influence the growth rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in Japanese Black cattle..
||H Takahashi, K Sato, T Yamaguchi, M Miyake, H Watanabe, Y Nagasawa, E Kitagawa, S Terada, M Urakawa, M. T. Rose, C. D. MacMahon, K Watanabe, S Ohwada, T Gotoh, H Aso, Myostatin alters glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese shorthorn cattle, Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 48, 62-68, 2014.02, ミオスタチンのエネルギー代謝に及ぼす影響を明らかにするため、ミオスタチンを欠損した草原短角牛ならびにミオスタチンが発現している日本短角種牛の骨格筋を用いて、グルコース輸送担体であるGLUT1、GLUT4のmRNA発現、グルコース取り込みに関与するインスリン受容体mRNA発現ならびに脂肪酸輸送担体であるCD36、CPT-1 mRNA発現をリアルタイムPCR法により解析をした。その結果、ミオスタチン欠損した草原短角牛の骨格筋では、インスリン依存型グルコース輸送担体であるGLUT4mRNA発現が上昇していることが明らかとなった。また、脂質代謝については、血中の遊離脂肪酸濃度が草原短角牛で低いことが明らかとなった。
次に、草原短角牛ならびに日本短角種牛骨格筋筋芽細胞を用いて、筋管への分化誘導後0時、24時ならびに72時間後に同様の遺伝子発現を解析した。その結果、草原短角牛筋芽細胞では、筋分化後72時間においてGLUT4mRNA発現が上昇することが明らかとなり、 一方で、インスリン受容体、GLUT1mRNA発現は両種の間に差はなかった。 以上のことより、ミオスタチンはGLUT4発現を介してグルコース代謝を亢進することが考えられ、さらにその作用はインスリン感受性を上昇させることにより行われる可能性が示唆された。.
||Takahashi H., Kurose Y., Suzuki Y., Kojima M., Yamaguchi T., Yoshida Y., Azuma Y., Sugino T., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Hasegawa Y and Kobayashi S., Changes in blood pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin levels in response to feeding in sheep., Journal of Animal Science, 2010.06.
||Takahashi H., Kurose Y., Suzuki Y., Kojima M., Yamaguchi T., Yoshida Y., Ogino M., Hodate K., Azuma Y., Sugino T., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Hasegawa Y and Kobayashi S., Ghrelin differentially modulates the GH secretory response to GHRH between the fed and fasted state in sheep., Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 2009.12.