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Noriko Seguchi Last modified date:2019.12.07

Associate Professor / Basic Structure of Human Societies
Department of Environmental Changes
Faculty of Social and Cultural Studies


Graduate School


E-Mail
Homepage
http://out-of-eurasia.jp/en/members/program/b03/index.html
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (2019-2023)
Integrative Human Historical Science of "Out of Eurasia" :Exploring the Mechanisms of the Development of CivilizationーB03 Genetic diversity and physical changes associated with human dispersal and the development of complex societies

The aim of this project is to explain the genetic diversity and physical change associated with population dispersal and migration. The project will specifically examine how this relates to the development of complex societies, i.e., the formation of civilizations. This project includes collaboration with archaeologists, and it elucidates timings and routes of human dispersal from Asia, including the Japanese archipelago, to the Americas and Oceania. Using biological anthropological data, genetic data, and ancient DNA, it explicates population structure and history and how gene flow and genetic drift between and within populations took place. This project analyzes physical morphology, explores population structure and population demography, and evaluates how health status was influenced by parasites and infectious diseases among the ancient populations in these geographic areas. In addition, this project searches for candidates for genes of adaptation and cognitive abilities that enabled populations to expand to new frontiers. In order to explore all of those research questions, we apply the following approaches: A) integrative research using skeletal biology and genetics; and B) collaborative work utilizing psychology and genetics.

[A] 1) Our project group aims to recover human dispersal and population history from Eurasia to the New World and Oceania using 3-dimensional craniofacial shape data and DNA analysis by a next generation sequencer. 2) We explore physical changes and morphological diversity due to humans adapting to various climatic environments during migration. 3) Climatic changes influenced food resources and population sizes associated with the expansion of human habitats. Consequently, those changes impacted human health status due to epidemic infectious disease events. Therefore, we reconstruct past health status using dental and skeletal stress markers, and estimate human population structure and demography. We also analyze parasitic, viral, and bacterial infectious diseases in the past utilizing a next generation sequencer. Integrating all these results, we aim to reconstruct (a) changes in food intake and nutritional status, past epidemic events of infectious diseases, population structure and demography, and morphological and genetic changes associated with the history of agriculture, the formation of states and nations, and urbanization. (b) Then, we try to explicate causes of the collapse/decline of ancient civilizations in the post-Columbian era.

[B] We search for candidate genes for “novelty seeking” using an animal model and explore the genetic polymorphism of “novelty seeking” and cognitive ability that led humans to disperse and migrate to new frontiers. This approach may lead to the discovery of genes related to the formation of cultures by humans. .
Phone
092-802-5605
Academic Degree
Ph.D. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA
Field of Specialization
Biological Anthropology
Outline Activities
I have been continuing research on Paleoamericans in North America and South America and their relationships with the Asian continent, such as the Jomon people. I am also working on testing evolutionary mechanisms for patterns of craniofacial morphology in order to distinguish between neutral forces and selective forces of evolution. We investigated ecogeographic significance of human postcranial diversity using postcranial bones in Bergmann’s and Allen’s perspective. Currently, I engaged the research on I also explore the issue of race and gender in the history of biological anthropology in general and in Japanese physical anthropology in particular. Believing that scientific biases through the history of physical anthropology were always influenced by and supportive of political ideologies, I strongly feel the necessity to discern and reexamine anthropological theorizing related to problematic issues such as racism, nationalism, imperialism, and sexism.
Research
Research Interests
  • Genetic diversity and physical changes associated with human dispersal and development of complex societies
    keyword : Human dispersal and health history, Epigenetics, genetic diversity, genetics of psyhological and behavior, adaptation and evolution
    2019.08~2024.03.
  • Cross-boundary Studies of Rethinking of Global Studies from the Indigenous people's points of views
    keyword : Indigenous people, Research ethics, The repatritaiton of human remains of indigenous populations
    2018.07~2021.03.
  • Global History of Health Project - East Asia Module
    keyword : Global Health, Bioarchaeology
    2017.10.
  • 3D data acquisition for bioarchaeology, forensic anthropology, and archaeology
    keyword : 3D Mesh data, 3D data acquisition
    2017.10~2019.06.
  • 3D data acquisition technology; in bioarchaeological and archaeological contexts
    keyword : virtual model processing protocols, alignment methods, actual data acquisition techniques, basic technological protocols, consideration of variation in research design
    2017.06~2018.12.
  • Interdisciplinary research on the processes and mechanisms of racialization
    keyword : Race, the processes of racializaion
    2016.06~2021.03.
  • A accuracy test between semilandmark data taken by 3D digitizer and 3D virtual models
    keyword : 3D digitizer, 3D virtual model, semilandmarks
    2015.09~2016.12.
  • International research on human skeletal remains using 3D laser scanner:Implications for applications of digital morphometorics
    keyword : 3D laser scanner, craniofacial morphology, Pelvic morphology
    2013.03~2020.03.
  • Invalidity of biological "race" concept
    The issue of race and gender in the history of biological anthropology
    The issue of "Ainu"
    keyword : Problems of "race" Gender Ainu
    2002.01~2014.12.
  • A.We set out to test whether craniofacial morphology is simply an artifact of neutral genetic processes or is affected by differences in climate.
    Are the observed cranial patterns:
    1. Due to natural selection and shaped by differences in climate?
    2. Due to neutral processes (i.e., drift)?
    3. Due to gene flow?
    4. Test “isolation by distance” model
    5. Provide a framework for distinguishing between neutral forces and selective forces (natural selection) of evolution.
    6. Guide to improve our use of quantitative craniofacial traits for reconstructing population history and phylogeny.

    B. A study of postcranial indices, ratios and body mass versus eco-geographical variables in an assessment of phenotypic adaptation to climatic conditions.

      
    keyword : Craniofacial morphology neutral traits natural selection Postcranials
    2009.06~2014.12.
  • Craniofacial Morphometircs
    Dental anthropology
    Human Biodiversity
    Human dispersal and population history in East, Northeast, Central Asia, North and South America, and Europe

    keyword : Biological Anthropology Human bio diversity Population history 
    2000.04~2015.12.
Current and Past Project
  • Advances in three-dimensional technology have impacted the field of biological anthropology, archaeology, and the use of geometric morphometrics. This book explores a best-practices data acquisition method for recording landmark and semi-landmark data on fragile archaeological human remains.
    As a handbook to the collection and processing of 3-D scanned data, this book will be a tool for scholars interested in pursuing research projects with 3-D models. The chapters will enhance the reader’s understanding of the technology with consideration of virtual model processing protocols, alignment methods, introduction to actual data acquisition techniques, basic technological protocols, and consideration of variation in research design as associated with biological anthropology and archaeology.
  • Recent advancements in three-dimensional technology have impacted the field of biological anthropology and the use of geometric morphometrics. Three-dimensional digitizers such as Microscribe serve as excellent tools for collecting landmark and semi-landmark data. However, Microscribe requires direct access to skeletal materials, which is a problem on several levels. For instance, recording semi-landmark data over curved areas of bone can compromise poorly preserved specimens. Additionally, access to archaeological skeletal collections can often be impeded by restrictions mandated by the curation authority. This project explores a best-practices data acquisition method for recording semi-landmark data on fragile archaeological human remains, with a case study centered on Japan.

    For this purpose, we chose the curvature of the maxillary alveolar process as well as traditional craniofacial landmarks. Curve data were taken from 3D virtual cr anial models from three collections spanning historical and modern population samples from Japan using Stratovan Checkpoint software. For comparison, we collected 3D coordinate data on modern Japanese skulls using a Microscribe digitizer.

    Our study incorporates an assessment of the validity of landmark data acquired by Microscribe versus Checkpoint software. However, considering the difficulties of direct collection of curve data, using the Microscribe on actual skulls can present challenges.

    We demonstrate the process of acquiring curve data on virtual cranial models by using Checkpoint software, which improves data quality and benefits research by: 1) improving accuracy when identifying landmarks corresponding to maximum width and length; and 2) visualizing curve data allows for the determination of data quality and necessary adjustments.
Academic Activities
Books
1. Noriko Seguchi, Beatrix Dudzik, Mary-Margaret Murphy, Anna Prentiss, Kengo Ohno, Yoshinori Kawakubo, Shiori, Yonemoto, Stefan Schlager, Will Archer, Darya Presnyakova, 3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology, Academic Press, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-02320-0, 2019.06, [URL], 3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology serves as a guide for students and researchers that are interested in the use of geometric morphometric analyses in forensic and bioarcheological contexts. Digitizing and imaging methods that allow for the collection of three-dimensional (3D) data have vastly expanded and improved analytical methods for exploring shape and morphological diversification. The 3D approach is becoming a significant toolkit in biological/forensic anthropology and archaeology as the application of geometric morphometrics to the study of the human skeleton allows for in-depth analysis of morphological variation in several dimensions simultaneously. Simply put, these approaches allow for examination of skeletal dimensions outside of the vertical and horizontal planes that are used in traditional studies of skeletal metrics. The chapters provided in this book offer clear definitions and explanations of different types of 3D data, to include 3D digitizer, landmarks and semilandmarks, scan data derived from 3D scanners, CT, and digital mesh models created from scan data. Craniofacial data acquisition and data analysis is the main focus of this text, but a brief tutorial on data acquisition and analysis of lithic artifacts is also provided. We offer best-practices of data acquisition methods for recording landmark and semi-landmark data on human crania, to include fragile archaeological human remains. The reader’s understanding of geometric morphometrics will be enriched by descriptions and tutorials on the technology used for virtual model processing protocols, alignment methods, data acquisition techniques, basic technological protocols, and variations in research design within different subfields of biological anthropology and archaeology..
2. Noriko Seguchi, Mary-Margaret Murphy, Shiori Yonemoto, Chapter Six-Validity Assessment : Validity testing of mixed data by multiple devices, methods, and observers in "3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology", Academic Press, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-02320-0, Pages 103-130, 2019.06, This chapter will outline validity testing of the use of mixed data, where a sample is comprised of 3D data collected using more than one methodology. It examines intraobserver error between landmark data acquisition using a Microscribe and landmark data acquisition using the program Stratovan Checkpoint (Stratovan Corporation, Davis, CA) on 3D mesh models. This chapter discusses whether these two types of landmark data can be combined together, and it concludes that landmark data have a sufficiently low “margin of error” under a well-designed experiment. It also discusses the observation that semilandmark data have a significant observer error on the “difficult to capture” curve of crania collected using Microscribe. This chapter demonstrates that the difficulty of visualization and collection using Microscribe is markedly higher and when compared with the virtual data collection method, virtual data collection results in a truer, more accurate set of data for analysis..
3. Mary-Margaret Murphy, Noriko Seguchi, Chapter Two - Digital model sample—Scanning and processing protocol in "3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology ", Academic Press, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-02320-0, Pages 17-45, 2019.06, This chapter is a brief introduction to the virtual environment for working with three-dimensional data. The chapter will introduce terminology, software and file formats, various alignment methods, surface scanner data collection, a discussion of source of error on data collection on surface scan, and processing of the mesh model. Software topics include open source software and commercial software for model processing and data management. Because the methods of data capture and model processing varies between technologies and different equipment, this chapter also discusses how to capture surface data in cross-compatible formats, data management, processing mesh data, cleaning data, and decimation of the data for open source software and commercial software. To tie this together for research design, this chapter also suggests “workflow” for surface scan data collection for the beginners, as well as model processing protocols..
4. Noriko Seguchi, Beatrix Dudzik, Mary-Margaret Murphy, Anna M. Prentiss, Chapter One - Introduction in "3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology ", Academic Press, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-02320-0, Pages 1-16, 2019.06, This introduction covers the following topics: the history of various scanned data and three-dimensional (3D) technologies within biological anthropology, which includes bioarchaeology, forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, archaeology, and medical sciences, as well as the benefits of 3D projects and collaboration. This introduction advocates for the advantages researchers can derive from making collaborative efforts such as sharing, combining data sets, and cooperating remotely. It also outlines the contents of each chapter contained in this text..
5. Beatrix Dudzik, Noriko Seguchi and Anna M. Prentiss, Chapter Nine - Conclusions in "3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology ", Academic Press, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-02320-0, Pages 175-180, 2019.06, The Conclusions chapter provides a summary of the content themes throughout each of the chapters in the text. It provides context regarding how the various types of 3D data can be used to answer research questions and briefly summarizes examples and case studies used in the text. This final chapter also highlights the potentials of interdisciplinary collaborations using 3D technology within the fields of biological anthropology and archeology..
6. C. Loring Brace, Noriko Seguchi, A.R. Nelson, Q. Pan, Hideyuki Umeda, M. Wilson, M.L. Brace, The Ainu and Jomon Connection, Texas A & M Press, USA, Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton. Edited by Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz. Texas A&M Press, College Station. pp.463-471., 2014.09, When the craniofacial dimensions of the 9300-year-old Kennewick specimen from the southern part of the State of Washington are compared to ancient and recent human craniofacial samples from both sides of the Pacific Ocean, it is clear that Kennewick is more closely related to the earliest inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere than the latter are to its immediate pre-Columbian residents. Not only that, Kennewick clearly ties more closely to the recent Ainu of Japan and coastal northeast Asia and to their evident ancestors — the prehistoric Jōmon — than to any other population. The Jōmon, as the direct descendants of the Paleolithic inhabitants of northeast Asia, have an antiquity greater than that of the first inhabitants of the New World. The planked-canoe technology that the Ainu inherited from their Jōmon forebears allowed them to make use of deep-sea mammals and fish, and it also provided the capability of the Jōmon to spread across the coast of Beringia and down the western edge of the Americas more than 12,500 years ago on the one hand, and, more recently, out into Oceania as the first inhabitants of Polynesia on the other. With the melting of the Late Pleistocene glaciers providing an ice-free corridor between the North American Laurentide and Cordilleran ice masses, Jōmon-derived people, aided by the use of birch-bark canoes, could come from the Beringian north and spread east across the swamp-lake-and-stream country to the south of the melting glaciers. Craniofacial data clearly show that subsequent entrants into the Western Hemisphere did not have the same Asian roots as the first or Jōmon-derived arrivals..
7. Deconstructing scientific discourse by the conservatives: the debate over gender differences from the perspective of biological anthropology .
Reports
1. Conrad Quintyn, Noriko Seguchi, An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus eco-geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists, and Kumejima Islanders of Japan. Supplement for Biomedical Advances (ISSN 2573-0355), the Editors' Picks, Biomedical Advances, Editors' Picks ISSN 2573-0355, 2018.04, [URL].
2. @Noriko Seguchi and Conrad B Quintyn, How Evolutionary Forces, Development Constraints And A Changing Climate Influenced Genetic Drift, Science Trends, 2018.01, [URL].
3. Skeletal Biological Perspective on Human Variation .
4. Noriko Seguchi, Christina Heiner, Differences in the prevalence of tuberculosis mortality among the Ainu and the Ethnic Japanese during the early twentieth Century:socio-economic and political structural influences (p.13-28), 人種表象の日本型グローバル研究 平成24年度研究報告書  平成22年度ー平成26年度科学研究費補助金 基盤研究S 課題番号:22222003  京都大学人文科学研究所, 2013.03.
5. Noriko Seguchi, Christina Heiner, Differences in prevalence of tuberculosis mortality among the Ainu and the ethnic Japanese during the early twenties Century:Socio-Economic and Political structural influences (p30−52), 人種表象の日本型グローバル研究 平成23年度研究報告書 平成22年度ー平成26年度科学研究費補助金 基盤研究S 課題番号:22222003  京都大学人文科学研究所, 2012.03.
6. The Kennewick man and the Jomon. National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo News, July issue.
7. Seguchi N, Drawing the Borders: Sexual, Racial, and National Boundaries Today, Tomorrow, and Forever, Working Paper Series, No. 34. Institute for Research on Women and Gender, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1998.07.
Papers
1. C. Loring Brace, A. Russell Nelson, Noriko Seguchi, Hiroaki Oe, Leslie Sering, Pan Qifeng, Li Yongyi, Dashtseveg Tumen, Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants
A comparative craniofacial view, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10.1073/pnas.171305898, 98, 17, 10017-10022, 2001.08, Human craniofacial data were used to assess the similarities and differences between recent and prehistoric Old World samples, and between these samples and a similar representation of samples from the New World. The data were analyzed by the neighbor-joining clustering procedure, assisted by bootstrapping and by canonical discriminant analysis score plots. The first entrants to the Western Hemisphere of maybe 15,000 years ago gave rise to the continuing native inhabitants south of the U.S.-Canadian border. These show no close association with any known mainland Asian population. Instead they show ties to the Ainu of Hokkaido and their Jomon predecessors in prehistoric Japan and to the Polynesians of remote Oceania. All of these also have ties to the Pleistocene and recent inhabitants of Europe and may represent an extension from a Late Pleistocene continuum of people across the northern fringe of the Old World. With roots in both the northwest and the northeast, these people can be described as Eurasian. The route of entry to the New World was at the northwestern edge. In contrast, the Inuit (Eskimo), the Aleut, and the Na-Dene speakers who had penetrated as far as the American Southwest within the last 1,000 years show more similarities to the mainland populations of East Asia. Although both the earlier and later arrivals in the New World show a mixture of traits characteristic of the northern edge of Old World occupation and the Chinese core of mainland Asia, the proportion of the latter is greater for the more recent entrants..
2. C. Loring Brace, Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Sherry C. Fox, A. Russell Nelson, Sotiris K. Manolis, Pan Qifeng, The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze age to European craniofacial form, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10.1073/pnas.0509801102, 103, 1, 242-247, 2006.01, Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other. The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. Basques and Canary Islanders are clearly associated with modern Europeans. When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it..
3. Ryan W. Schmidt, Noriko Seguchi, Jennifer L. Thompson, Chinese immigrant population history in North America based on craniometric diversity, Anthropological Science, 10.1537/ase.100128, 119, 1, 9-19, 2011.07, In this study, Chinese immigrant population history and structure was assessed using craniometric diversity in two historic cemeteries located in North America. Analyses addressed questions of population history, migration, and geographic origin for Chinese immigrants to the United States in the late 1800s. Craniometric diversity was assessed by the use of the R-matrix method on 19 metric traits in 62 male Chinese immigrant individuals. Using a population genetic model (Relethford- Blangero), our results indicate a low level of genetic diversity for these Chinese immigrants. Principal coordinate plots and neighbor-joining trees based on the morphological distances transformed from the R-matrix showed that the Chinese immigrant sample clusters closest to known East Asian populations. Further, we substantiate the biological origin for the Chinese immigrants as coming from South China. A historical reading suggests that the majority of Chinese emigrating to the United States departed and were born in southern China. Biological distances for the Chinese immigrants are more similar to samples from Guangdong Province and surrounding areas than to regions in North China. Identification bricks (grave markers) recovered during excavation in Nevada revealed two individuals born in Tai'shan, a city located along the Pearl River Delta and west of Hong Kong, a port used by Westerners during the late 19th century and used as a point of departure for many emigrating from mainland China. This evidence supports the historical and archaeological record and confirms the use of craniofacial variability to answer questions of population history and structure. This study is the first to assess Chinese immigrant population history using biological data..
4. Noriko Seguchi, Ashley Mckeown, Ryan Schmidt, Hideyuki Umeda, C. Loring Brace, An alternative view of the peopling of South America
Lagoa Santa in craniometric perspective, Anthropological Science, 10.1537/ase.090921, 119, 1, 21-38, 2011.05, In this study, we compare the craniofacial morphology of four Sumidouro skulls and one Lund skull of paleo South Americans from Lagoa Santa, Brazil, with worldwide prehistoric and recent human craniofacial metric data, and suggest an alternative view of the migration history of early South America. Affiliations of samples and individuals were examined by the principal coordinate plot generated by Relethford and Blangero's R-matrix method, the neighbor-joining method based on genetic distance generated from the same R-matrix, and Mahalanobis distances and typicality probabilities. For these analyses, we examined certain variables claimed to have been influenced by the environment, such as maximum cranial length and maximum cranial breadth. Although the number of craniometric variables seems to influence the results of the analysis, it appeared to not obscure the ancestral and descendant relationships and regional kin relationships greatly in the instance of this study. Using Howells' worldwide comparative dataset but without the Jomon sample, previous research had suggested that Brazilian Paleoamericans, the Lagoa Santa, were probably closely related to Australian Aborigines and Africans as opposed to Native Americans and Northeast Asians. On the other hand, using multivariate statistics, our results show that Lagoa Santa individuals exhibit stronger morphological affinities with the prehistoric Jomon of Japan, archaic Americans of Indian Knoll Kentucky, Windover Florida, and Tennessee, and recent Tierra del Fuegans of South America, than with the Melanesians and Australians. Moreover, Jomon, Lagoa Santa, and archaic North Americans all display close relationships and ties to each other. This suggests that the early inhabitants of South America were probably not related to Australo-Melanesians, but rather to the Late Pleistocene descendants of Northeast Asians such as the Jomon. Also, they are related to the archaic North American populations and recent Central and South Americans..
5. C. Loring Brace, Noriko Seguchi, A. Russell Nelson, Pan Qifeng, Hideyuki Umeda, Margaret Wilson, Mary L. Brace, The Ainu and Jōmon connection, Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton, 463-471, 2014.01.
6. Yasuko Takezawa, Kazuto Kato, Hiroki Oota, Timothy Caulfield, Akihiro Fujimoto, Shunwa Honda, Naoyuki Kamatani, Shoji Kawamura, Kohei Kawashima, Ryosuke Kimura, Hiromi Matsumae, Ayako Saito, Patrick E. Savage, Noriko Seguchi, Keiko Shimizu, Satoshi Terao, Yumi Yamaguchi-Kabata, Akira Yasukouchi, Minoru Yoneda, Katsushi Tokunaga, Human genetic research, race, ethnicity and the labeling of populations
Recommendations based on an interdisciplinary workshop in Japan, BMC Medical Ethics, 10.1186/1472-6939-15-33, 15, 1, 2014.04, Background: A challenge in human genome research is how to describe the populations being studied. The use of improper and/or imprecise terms has the potential to both generate and reinforce prejudices and to diminish the clinical value of the research. The issue of population descriptors has not attracted enough academic attention outside North America and Europe. In January 2012, we held a two-day workshop, the first of its kind in Japan, to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in the humanities, social sciences, medical sciences, and genetics to begin an ongoing discussion of the social and ethical issues associated with population descriptors. Discussion. Through the interdisciplinary dialogue, we confirmed that the issue of race, ethnicity and genetic research has not been extensively discussed in certain Asian communities and other regions. We have found, for example, the continued use of the problematic term, "Mongoloid" or continental terms such as "European," "African," and "Asian," as population descriptors in genetic studies. We, therefore, introduce guidelines for reporting human genetic studies aimed at scientists and researchers in these regions. Conclusion: We need to anticipate the various potential social and ethical problems entailed in population descriptors. Scientists have a social responsibility to convey their research findings outside of their communities as accurately as possible, and to consider how the public may perceive and respond to the descriptors that appear in research papers and media articles..
7. Ryan W. Schmidt, Noriko Seguchi, Craniofacial variation of the Xiongnu Iron Age nomads of Mongolia reveals their possible origins and population history, Quaternary International, 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.11.035, 405, 110-121, 2016.06, This paper examines Iron Age Mongolia during a time when nomadic tribes created the world's first steppe empire in Inner Asia. These aggregated tribes, known as Xiongnu (3rd century BC to the 2nd century AD), came to define steppe polity construction, later used by the Mongol Empire under the reign of Genghis Khan. They moved extensively over the eastern steppe and interacted, both in trade and intermarriage, with peoples from southern Siberia to Xinjiang. However, the Xiongnu as a people are relatively unknown to scholars, as they did not possess a written language. This study assesses Xiongnu population history and biological structure by analyzing craniofacial diversity via geometric morphometrics. Twenty-four coordinate cranial landmarks were used to test relationships among groups in the region and infer potential biological origins. The Relethford-Blangero R-matrix method was used to test hypotheses of phenotypic variation resulting from microevolutionary processes. This study hypothesizes biological continuity among Xiongnu individuals extending into modern Mongolian populations. Alternatively, long-range gene flow from adjacent geographic regions might suggest a complex population structure among the Xiongnu indicative of multiple populations controlling administrative functions. Results indicate the Xiongnu were potentially composed of at least two biologically distinct groups. Individuals from the elite cemetery of Borkhan Tolgoi (Egiin Gol) share their ancestry with a Bronze Age population from western Mongolia, and possibly, to a later migration of Turks, who came to rule the eastern steppe from the 6th to 8th centuries AD. The Xiongnu also evidence biological similarity with nomads from the Mongol Empire during the medieval period and modern Mongolians, as well as modern and ancient Central Asian, Chinese, and Siberian groups. These results are similar to ancient DNA studies that suggest a mix of Eastern and Western Eurasian haplogroups in the Xiongnu while also achieving consensus with models of steppe polity formation proposed by archaeologists who suggest local ties to extra-local groups through interactive exchange networks..
8. Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku, An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus eco-geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists, and Kumejima Islanders of Japan, American Journal of Human Biology, 10.1002/ajhb.23015, 29, 5, 2017.09, Objectives: We explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000–2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500–1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600–1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that variation in limb proportions seen in Jomon, Yayoi, and Kumejima is a complex interaction of genetic adaptation; development and allometric constraints; selection, gene flow and genetic drift with changing cultural factors (i.e., nutrition) and climate. METHODS: The skeletal data (1127 individuals) were subjected to principle components analysis, Manly's permutation multiple regression tests, and Relethford-Blangero analysis. RESULTS: The results of Manly's tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with latitude, and minimum and maximum temperatures while limb proportions were not significantly correlated with these climatic variables. Principal components plots separated “climatic zones:” tropical, temperate, and arctic populations. The indigenous Jomon showed cold-adapted body proportions and warm-adapted limb proportions. Kumejima showed cold-adapted body proportions and limbs. The Yayoi adhered to the Allen-Bergmann expectation of cold-adapted body and limb proportions. Relethford-Blangero analysis showed that Kumejima experienced gene flow indicated by high observed variances while Jomon experienced genetic drift indicated by low observed variances. CONCLUSIONS: The complex interaction of evolutionary forces and development/nutritional constraints are implicated in the mismatch of limb and body proportions..
9. Ryan W Schmidt, Noriko Seguchi, Jomon Culture and the peopling of the Japanese archipelago: advancements in the fields of morphometrics and ancient DNA, Japanese Journal of Archaeology, 2, 34-59, 2014.12, Archaeological investigation of the Jomon Culture is extensive and well supported among the
Japanese public. The distinct pottery that characterizes the Jomon has been well documented
and physical anthropological description of skeletal remains in Japan has a long and extensive
history. However, questions remain of Jomon peoples origins, biological contribution to modern
Japanese and biological relationship to the agriculturalist people associated with the Yayoi
culture. Morphological analyses of Jomon skeletal material have suggested ambiguous origins
and inter-regional heterogeneity has been observed based on craniofacial variation. Ancient
DNA of skeletal remains associated with the Jomon Culture indicates possible distinct genetic
lineages associated with various locations throughout greater East and Southeast Asia. Here,
we review the relevance of using ancient DNA and morphometrics to answer some of the above
questions and challenge models based on the assumption that archaeological culture is equal
to a shared biological history. Recent literature is reviewed and summarized in order to give
the reader an idea of how basic assumptions of biological ancestry can be questioned using
these new data. We end our discussion by suggesting further avenues of study and prospective
research questions that could be asked in light of these new technologies..
10. Yasuko Takezawa, Kazuo Kato, Hiroki Oota, Timothy Caulfield, Akihiro Fujimoto, Shunwa Honda, Naoyuki Kamatani, Shoji Kawamura, Kohei Kawashima, Ryosuke Kimura, Hiromi Matsumae, Ayako Saito, Patrick E Savage, Noriko Seguchi, Keiko Shimizu, Satoshi Terao, Yumi Yamaguchi-Kabata, Akira YASUKOUCHI, Minoru Yoneda, Katsushi Tokunaga, Human genetic research, race, ethnicity and the labeling of populations: recommendations based on an interdisciplinary workshop in Japan, BMC Medical Ethics, 10.1186/1472-6939-15-33, 15, BMC Med Ethics. 2014 Apr 23;15(1):33., 2014.04, [URL], BackgroundA challenge in human genome research is how to describe the populations being studied. The use of improper and/or imprecise terms has the potential to both generate and reinforce prejudices and to diminish the clinical value of the research. The issue of population descriptors has not attracted enough academic attention outside North America and Europe. In January 2012, we held a two-day workshop, the first of its kind in Japan, to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in the humanities, social sciences, medical sciences, and genetics to begin an ongoing discussion of the social and ethical issues associated with population descriptors.DiscussionThrough the interdisciplinary dialogue, we confirmed that the issue of race, ethnicity and genetic research has not been extensively discussed in certain Asian communities and other regions. We have found, for example, the continued use of the problematic term, ?Mongoloid? or continental terms such as ?European,? ?African,? and ?Asian,? as population descriptors in genetic studies. We, therefore, introduce guidelines for reporting human genetic studies aimed at scientists and researchers in these regions.ConclusionWe need to anticipate the various potential social and ethical problems entailed in population descriptors. Scientists have a social responsibility to convey their research findings outside of their communities as accurately as possible, and to consider how the public may perceive and respond to the descriptors that appear in research papers and media articles..
11. Noriko Seguchi, Christina Heiner, Differences in prevelence of Tuberculosis mortality among the Ainu and the Ethnic Japanese during the early Twentieth Century: Socio-Economic and political structural influences, 人種表象の日本型グローバル研究、平成24年度研究成果報告書  京都大学人文科学研究所, 14-28, 2013.03, The Ainu are an indigenous people currently residing in present day Hokkaido, Japan. During the Meiji Period (1868-1912), the Ainu suffered persecution and were the targets of the Japanese government assimilation and cultural extinction policies. Governmental policies such as the Aboriginal Protection Act of 1899 not only restricted many aspects of Ainu cultural identity but ultimately lead to deteriorating health for the Ainu. Striped of their cultural identity, denied access to traditional subsistence practices, malnourished and starving Ainu populations faced continual epidemics from various infectious diseases. Tuberculosis in particular emerged in epidemic proportions among Ainu populations in the early part of the twentieth century.
This paper relies upon records taken by the Japanese government between 1909 and 1911 among Ainu village populations and some bioarchaeological studies. While the Japanese government and other medical authorities often explained epidemic tuberculosis as a cultural and heredity trait, this work seeks to explain how unfavorable political and social conditions contributed to a high prevalence of tuberculosis and mortality among Ainu individuals.
This paper reveals that it was under unfavorable conditions that diseases such as tuberculosis flourished soon affecting entire communities and becoming a leading killer of death among the Ainu. Issues of economic and environmental poverty, however, were disguised by “racially” based discourses that associated tuberculosis with an “uncivilized” lifestyle and genetic traits. Clearly, such a high rate of tuberculosis deaths was rooted in social, political and economic conditions that the Ainu populations had become to know during the 19th and 20th centuries..
12. Seguchi N, McKeown A, Schmidt R, Umeda H, Brace CL, An alternative view of the peopling of South America: Lagoa Santa in craniometric perspective, Anthropological Science, 119, 1, 21-38, 2011.04, [URL], これまで、南アメリカの初期先住民は東アジア集団よりも、オーストラリア、メラネシア、アジア南部の集団との近縁関係深いと根強く主張されてきた。しかしこれらの研究には北東アジアや東アジアの先史集団の頭蓋骨計測データが含まれておらず、また、近縁関係を検討する上で支障となりうる環境の影響を受けやすい形態データも使用され分析されてきた。我々は、この論文では東アジア・北東アジア先史集団である縄文人、また、北アメリカの初期先住民のデータも含め、南アメリカ・ブラジルの初期先住民ととの遺伝的関係を検討した。そして、単に従来からの手法を踏襲するのではなく、人類集団間の関係を探る上では必須の基礎的分析である環境の影響を受けにくい形態要素の抽出し、最新の統計学的分析(R-マトリックス法)とを組み合わせ分析を行った。この手法を用いて、南アメリカの初期先住民と北東アジア先史集団との近縁性を明らかにした。.
13. Schmidt R , Seguchi N, Thompson J, Chinese immigrant population history in North America based on craniometric diversity, Anthropological Science, 119, 1, 9-19, 2011.04, [URL], 北アメリカネバダ州の19世紀後半から20世紀初期の中国人移民の墓から発掘された遺骨を最新の統計手法であるRマトリックス法、レレスフォード・ブランジェロ法を用い、中国人移民の出自を分析した。その結果、発掘された遺骨と南部中国人との近縁性が示唆された。当時の歴史的記録文書によると、移民してきた中国人の多くは南部中国からアメリカ合衆国に来たと記されており、また、香港の西地域を表記する出土品も発掘されており、我々の頭蓋骨計測データによる分析結果でも発掘された遺骨は、北中国人よりも南部中国人との近縁性がみられ、歴史的記録と結果が一致した。.
14. Brace CL, Seguchi, N, Brace ML, Exploring the Kennewick Connection, Kennewick Man: Perspectives on the Ancient One. (eds) Claire Smith, Larry Zimmerman, Joe Watkins and Dorothy Lippert, 153-168, The Left Coast Press in Australia, 2008.11.
15. Nelson AR, Seguchi N, Brace CL, Craniometric Affinities and Early Skeletal Evidence for Origins, Environment, origins, and population, Handbook of North American Indians series. (ed) Douglas Ubelaker, 3, 679-684, Smithsonian Institution. Washington D.C., 2007.10.
16. C. Loring Brace, A. Russell Nelson, Noriko Seguchi, Hiroaki Oe, Leslie Sering, Pan Qifeng, Li Yongyii, and Dashtseveg Tumen, Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: A comparative craniofacial view, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 98, 17, 10017-10022, 2001.08, [URL], Human craniofacial data were used to assess the similarities and
differences between recent and prehistoric Old World samples,
and between these samples and a similar representation of
samples from the New World. The data were analyzed by the
neighbor-joining clustering procedure, assisted by bootstrapping
and by canonical discriminant analysis score plots. The first
entrants to the Western Hemisphere of maybe 15,000 years ago
gave rise to the continuing native inhabitants south of the
U.S.–Canadian border. These show no close association with any
known mainland Asian population. Instead they show ties to the
Ainu of Hokkaido and their Jomon predecessors in prehistoric
Japan and to the Polynesians of remote Oceania. All of these also
have ties to the Pleistocene and recent inhabitants of Europe and
may represent an extension from a Late Pleistocene continuum
of people across the northern fringe of the Old World. With roots
in both the northwest and the northeast, these people can be
described as Eurasian. The route of entry to the New World was
at the northwestern edge. In contrast, the Inuit (Eskimo), the
Aleut, and the Na-Dene speakers who had penetrated as far as the American Southwest within the last 1,000 years show more similarities to the mainland populations of East Asia. Although both the earlier and later arrivals in the New World show a mixture of traits characteristic of the northern edge of Old World occupation and the Chinese core of mainland Asia, the proportion of the latter is greater for the more recent entrants..
17. Brace CL and Seguchi N, 「人種」は社会的構築物か生物学的リアリティか, Jinshu Gainen no Fuhensei wo Tou: Shokuminchi shugi, Kokumin Kokka, Tsukurareta Shinwa/ Is Race a Universal Idea?: Colonialism, Nation-States, and a Myth Invented. Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan., pp. 44-83, 2003.03.
18. Brace CL, Seguchi N, Quintyn CB, Fox SC, Nelson AR, Sotiris KM, Pan Q, The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 1, 242-247, 2006.01, [URL], Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive
significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an
indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically
related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial
measurements of a series of human populations are used to
generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all
modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia
to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the
Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other. The
surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze
Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants,
although the prehistoricmodern ties are somewhat more apparent
in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic
Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was
assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. Basques
and Canary Islanders are clearly associated with modern Europeans.
When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in
with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here
support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into
the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic
diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas,
derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the
agricultural life way and the people who had brought it..
Works, Software and Database
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Presentations
1. Noriko Seguchi, "Repatriation of Ainu remains and the responsibilities of Japanese physical anthropology: what are real contributions to the Ainu community?" in A panel "Harkening Voices of the Other: Ethics and Struggles for Repatriation of Human Remains on the Margins of Japan", The 118th Annual Meeting of American Anthropological Association, 2019.11, [URL], The future of Japanese physical anthropology has been in flux since the Ainu began pressing for the repatriation of their ancestors’ remains, which were unethically collected throughout the twentieth century by Japanese researchers and stored in universities. While Ainu do not want scientists to treat their ancestors’ remains as objects of scientific study, physical anthropologists claim that such remains are significant for their work because their research results can prove the Ainu’s indigeneity and contribute to establishing the “ethnic identity” of the Ainu. Does researching the origins of the Ainu help the Ainu community? Some Ainu community members expect physical/genetic anthropologists to ask groups for their consent to be studied, while many Ainu people do not want to reveal their identity as Ainu. Can collaborative work with Ainu and physical anthropologists to repatriate these remains help Ainu descendants? Can the procedures involved in linking modern Ainu with the remains of their ancestors be traumatizing? In this talk, the discrepancies between Ainu and Japanese physical anthropologists regarding the definition of “indigeneity” and the treatment of human remains are examined. It explores how some statements by physical anthropologists are misleading and how physical anthropologists can build bridges by understanding the culturally sensitive contributions that the Ainu support, and recommends ways that physical anthropologists can build collaborative relationships with Ainu to bridge the gap between groups. A consideration of these issues may lead the field of Japanese physical anthropology to the decolonization process..
2. Yoshinobu Ota, Noriko Seguchi, Mitsuho Ikeda, Mai, Ishihara, Chip Colwell, Joe Watkins, Harkening Voices of the Other: Ethics and Struggles for Repatriation of Human Remains on the Margins of Japan, The 118th Annual Meeting of American Anthropological Association, 2019.11, [URL], This panel is an exploration of the limits and new possibilities that may emerge from anthropological reflections on how to remain responsive and ethical to the indigenous voices that demand repatriation of human remains as they echo in the twenty-first century Japan: the Ainu and the Ryukyuans, in particular. It is linked with another panel, “Struggles for Repatriating Indigenous Remains inside Japan,” organized by ann-elise lewallen and Koji Deriha.
Indigenous human remains stored in Japanese national universities have recently become the foci of contestation as several lawsuits that had demanded returning those bones have been settled out of court, while other lawsuits are still pending. These increasingly vocal demands for social justice on the part of the indigenous peoples in Japan have already forced anthropologists toward not only responding to these demands but also searching ways to become ethical to the indigenous peoples while keeping in clear view the inescapable legacy of (settler) colonialism that constitutes the present historical conjuncture.
The panel addresses such issues as how memories of historical injustice might deeply impair the present relations among the Ainus and non-Ainus; how it is possible to envision ethics not only attuned the indigenous demands, often varied and frequently divided, but also capable of transforming anthropological practices; how collaborative endeavor in science might become possible as responses to repatriation demands; how does the idea of indigeneity might circulate throughout Japan as the issue of repatriation of human remains has surfaced not only among the Ainus but also among the Ryukyuans.
Noriko Seguchi, a biological anthropologist, foresees the collaborative research as a model of ethical scientific practices. Mai Ishihara, a part-Ainu anthropologist, brings to surface multiple voices in the Ainu struggles for repatriating human remains, a feature often overlooked in heated debates by supporters of repatriation. Yoshinobu Ota, an anthropologist, proposes an ethics of listening as a way to restore the future relations, so far often divided and contradictory, among the indigenous and non-indigenous peoples in Japan. Mitsuho Ikeda, an anthropologist, discusses the legal barriers that make it difficult for the descendants to repatriate ancestral human remains stolen from the tombs of local kings during the era of Ryukyu Kingdom.
Two distinguished discussants, Dr. Joe Watkin and Dr. Chip Colwell, who will guide local issues of repatriation of human remains in Japan to wider global concerns for ethics and responsibilities in anthropological practices as we struggle to redefine their relations with the indigenous presence articulated both in political and moral terms..
3. Hirotaka TOMITA, Noriko SEGUCHI, Health inequality as seen in human skeletal remains in early modern period in Japan, The 88th Annual Meeting of American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2019.03, This study focuses on the influence of early life stress on later life experiences using human skeletal remains from the Edo Period (1603-1868) in western Japan. A total of 265 skeletal remains from the Kyushu region in Western Japan were used. Linear enamel hypoplasia on mandibular canines, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, was analyzed, paired with age at death estimation from adult skeletal remains. The Edo period society was feudal, with a rigid hierarchical social system. During this time, there was different treatment by gender due to gender role divisions based on Confucian beliefs. This study aims to identify how early life stress might correlate with longevity: 1) are the enamel defects associated with changes in adult mortality; and 2) are there significant sex-specific differences in early life stress experiences and adult mortality? The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess 1) the relationship between enamel growth disruption and age at death; and 2) sex differences in stress events and survivorship in later life. Results suggest sex difference in survivorship, with more stress in early life being associated with increased survivorship in males in the case in Japan. In the Kaizenji site, which contains individuals who belonged to the samurai class, results show significantly reduced survivorship in females who experienced early life stress events relative to males. These results can be interpreted to show that females showed reduced survivorship due to different treatment based on gender during the Edo Period..
4. Noriko Seguchi, The controversies surrounding Ainu skeletal remains-an overview, Open Forum at Law School at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, 2018.09, Ainu rights advocates have been requesting since the early 1980s the repatriation of Ainu skeletal remains that had been unethically collected by Japanese researchers. However, universities and the government declined to return them, while physical anthropologists argued that returning them would mean that valuable scientific knowledge would be lost along with the opportunity to conduct further studies when new techniques became available. In the fall of 2016, the repatriation process of Ainu skeletal remains finally started at Hokkaido University and Sapporo Medical University. Several problems have arisen: the repatriation guideline direct that the remains should be returned to lineal descendants, which is a challenge without identification records; and the Ainu object to a recent study of Ainu mitochondrial DNA by Adachi et al, claiming that this paper did not address ethical considerations. In this talk, I address the current controversies surrounding the repatriation of Ainu human remains and discuss research ethics and the future of anthropology..
5. @Noriko Seguchi, The controversies surrounding Ainu skeletal remains, indigenous rights, and research ethics, Center for Japanese Studies Seminar Series, Co-sponsered with the Department of Anthropology, 2018.09, Ainu rights advocates have been request-ing since the early 1980s the repatriation of Ainu skeletal remains that had been unethi-cally collected by Japanese researchers. However, universities and the government declined to return them, while physical an-thropologists argued that returning them would mean that valuable scientific knowledge would be lost along with the opportunity to conduct further studies when new techniques became available. In the fall of 2016, the repatriation process of Ainu skeletal remains finally started at Hokkaido University and Sapporo Medical University. Several problems have arisen: the repatriation guideline direct that the re-mains should be returned to lineal descend-ants, which is a challenge without identifi-cation records; and the Ainu object to a re-cent study of Ainu mitochondrial DNA by Adachi et al, claiming that this paper did not address ethical considerations. In this talk, I address the current controversies surrounding the repatriation of Ainu hu-man remains and discuss research ethics and the future of anthropology..
6. @Noriko Seguchi, The repatriation of Ainu skeletal remains and ethical considerations, モンタナ州立大学 社会学人類学部の招聘講演, 2018.09.
7. Over a quarter of a century has passed since the start of the repatriation of indigenous remains in the United States. Initially, there was hostility and confusion between indigenous peoples and the universities/museums who were holding the remains. However, the repatriation process has benefited biological anthropology and has become an important component of the field because it has aided in the implementation of a uniform set of standards for the study of human osteology, innovated new methodologies, improved curation facilities, and created a more ethical science. During the past 28 years, the joint repatriation process has led to universities/museums and descendant communities teaching and learning from each other, and there has been progress towards reconciliation. There is hope. Currently, the future of Japanese indigenous studies has been in flux since the Ainu have been requesting the repatriation of their ancestors’ remains that were unethically collected by Japanese researchers and stored in universities throughout the twentieth century. While the situation in Japan is in many respects different from that in the United States, anthropologists who have inherited this negative history must be concerned with what to do to bridge the gap between the Ainu and anthropologists. This talk addresses the responsibilities of physical anthropologists and the future of this field of anthropology..
8. Noriko Seguchi and Hirotaka Tomita, Access to human skeletal remains collections and research opportunities in Japan, Global History of Health Project: Health, Disease, and Lifestyle, 2018.05, A number of human skeletal remains from the prehistoric Jomon Period to modern times are available for study in Japan. However, only a few institutions post information or a database of their collections on-line. Also, it is rare to find English language on-line pages. Most institutions, university, national, and local museums are open to researchers from all over the world. However, some institutions do not allow undergraduate students to access skeletal remains. Some institutions require a research proposal and the completion of a request form about their research, as well as asking for signatures on institutional forms agreeing to follow the guidelines for each institution. However, only a few institutions prepare such research request forms in English. Although the major national universities and the National Science Museum in Japan have personnel who can communicate in English, a local archaeological museum may not have any personnel able to perform the translations and they may expect researchers to speak and write in Japanese.
In addition, foreign researchers must keep in mind that access to archaeological skeletal collections can often be impeded by restrictions mandated by the curation authority because specimens might be in a poor state of preservation. Also, Japan does have an act like the USA’s NAGPRA, designed to protect indigenous graves yet. Thus, there are restrictions on materials connected with indigenous populations of Japan.
In this talk, we will highlight which collections biological anthropologists can access for research; provide a few examples of the compositions in some institutions; and discuss the types of information they possess. How to access those collections is introduced and highlighted..
9. BRIAN D. PADGETT, NORIKO SEGUCHI, Gender disparity in nasal fractures during the Yayoi period of Japan, The 87th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2018.04, [URL], Research on the role of women in past societies has been addressed with growing frequency recently, rectifying an oversight in the history of anthropology. Such research has included violence directed at women, as certain patterns of osseous trauma can indicate lethal versus non-lethal intent, and thus suggest whether or not the assailant was a member of the same community. A recent re-examination of human skeletal remains in Japan dated to the prehistoric Yayoi Period revealed a discrepancy in the number of nasal fractures between adult males and females. Among the observed remains, female skeletons exhibited a higher number of nasal fractures compared to male skeletons. Patterns of fracture suggest blunt force trauma. Observed trauma among postcranial remains varied. Nasal fractures are most often caused by direct impact, and are considered reliable evidence for patterns of non-lethal violent intragroup conflict resolution. The studied assemblages rep resent a comprehensive sample of archaeological sites from northern Kyushu and western Honshu. The subject of this study has long been overlooked in the records of Japanese archaeology. The conclusions contribute to the reconstruction of the reality of the people of the Yayoi period, and helps to clarify the role of women in the development of early Japan..
10. @NORIKO SEGUCHI, @CONRAD B. QUINTYN, A Craniofacial and Postcranial Survey of North and South American Inhabitants from the Perspective of Possible Old World Ancestors, World Archaeological Congress 8, at Kyoto, 2016.09, [URL], This study analyzes variations in craniofacial and postcranial morphology of inhabitants in the Americas, with comparison to the prehistoric Jomon of Japan, other East and Northeast Asians, and worldwide skeletal samples, in order to understand morphological variation and migration to the Americas. Data suggest New World groups show diverse brachial and crural indices with generally wide body breadth. In particular, our results indicate that Windover and Lagoa Santa samples show similar phenotypic traits to Jomon samples that they are almost contemporary with. Further, our results suggest study samples' American ancestors passed through a cold filter in the Beringian Arctic..
11. 瀬口 典子, Murphy, Mary-Margaret, Dudzik, Beatrix, 米元 史織, Practical reality of taking semi-landmark data on archaeological human remains, The 85th Annual Meeting, American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2016.04, Recent advancements in three-dimensional technology have impacted the field of biological anthropology and the use of geometric morphometrics. Three-dimensional digitizers such as Microscribe serve as excellent tools for collecting landmark and semi-landmark data. However, Microscribe requires direct access to skeletal materials, which is a problem on several levels. For instance, recording semi-landmark data over curved areas of bone can compromise poorly preserved specimens. Additionally, access to archaeological skeletal collections can often be impeded by restrictions mandated by the curation authority. This project explores a best-practices data acquisition method for recording semi-landmark data on fragile archaeological human remains, with a case study centered on Japan.
For this purpose, we chose the curvature of the maxillary alveolar process as well as traditional craniofacial landmarks. Curve data were taken from 3D virtual cranial models from three collections spanning historical and modern population samples from Japan using Stratovan Checkpoint software. For comparison, we collected 3D coordinate data on modern Japanese skulls using a Microscribe digitizer.
Our study incorporates an assessment of the validity of landmark data acquired by Microscribe versus Checkpoint software. However, considering the difficulties of direct collection of curve data, using the Microscribe on actual skulls can present challenges.
We demonstrate the process of acquiring curve data on virtual cranial models by using Checkpoint software, which improves data quality and benefits research by: 1) improving accuracy when identifying landmarks corresponding to maximum width and length; and 2) visualizing curve data allows for the determination of data quality and necessary adjustments.
This study is funded by the Interdisciplinary Program in Education and Projects in Research Development, Kyushu University, Japan (2014-26304)..
12. @NORIKO SEGUCHI , @MARY-MARGARET MURPHY, @SHIORI YONEMOTO, and @BEATRIX DUDZIK, Practical reality of taking semi-landmark data on archaeological human remains, The 85th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2016.04, Recent advancements in three-dimensional technology have impacted the field of biological anthropology and the use of geometric morphometrics. Three-dimensional digitizers such as Microscribe serve as excellent tools for collecting landmark and semi-landmark data. However, Microscribe requires direct access to skeletal materials, which is a problem on several levels. For instance, recording semi-landmark data over curved areas of bone can compromise poorly preserved specimens. Additionally, access to archaeological skeletal collections can often be impeded by restrictions mandated by the curation authority. This project explores a best-practices data acquisition method for recording semi-landmark data on fragile archaeological human remains, with a case study centered on Japan.
For this purpose, we chose the curvature of the maxillary alveolar process as well as traditional craniofacial landmarks. Curve data were taken from 3D virtual cranial models from three collections spanning historical and modern population samples from Japan using Stratovan Checkpoint software. For comparison, we collected 3D coordinate data on modern Japanese skulls using a Microscribe digitizer.
Our study incorporates an assessment of the validity of landmark data acquired by Microscribe versus Checkpoint software. However, considering the difficulties of direct collection of curve data, using the Microscribe on actual skulls can present challenges.
We demonstrate the process of acquiring curve data on virtual cranial models by using Checkpoint software, which improves data quality and benefits research by: 1) improving accuracy when identifying landmarks corresponding to maximum width and length; and 2) visualizing curve data allows for the determination of data quality and necessary adjustments.
This study is funded by the Interdisciplinary Program in Education and Projects in Research Development, Kyushu University, Japan (2014-26304)..
13. Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Variation in body and limb proportions between Early and Archaic Americans and the prehistoric Jomon of Japan, The 84th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology, 2015.03, In this study, we explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000–2,500 BP); Lagoa Santa, South American (9,000-7,000 BP); Windover, North American (6,000-5,000 BC); Indian Knoll, North American (5000–4000 BP), Santa Cruz Islanders, California (Late Prehistoric 1500-1100 AD); and historic Tierra del Fuego with 11 geographically diverse skeletal samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Americas.
Manly’s permutation regression tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with minimum and maximum temperatures, but not with latitude and longitude. Limb proportions were not significantly correlated with these climatic variables. Principal components plots of body and limb proportions separate “climatic zones:” tropical, temperate, and arctic populations. The New World groups show diverse phenotypes. The principal component plots indicate that Jomon and Lagoa Santa show similar phenotypic proportions: relatively wider body and heat adapted limb proportions. Tierra del Fuego displays cold adapted body and limb proportions.
Body proportions of Jomon, Lagoa Santa, Santa Cruz, Windover, and Tierra del Fuego are similar. Interestingly, body and limb proportions of Lagoa Santa, Jomon, and archaic Americans are different compared to Australians. Our previous study show that Jomon exhibit close craniometric affinities with Lagoa Santa and archaic North Americans and distant craniometric affinities with Australians, contra to Neves et al. who suggest that Lagoa Santa is more closely related to Australians. These data suggest that the ancestors of Jomon were important in the peopling of the New World.

Supported by Burton Williams Endowment Award, International Research Fund, University of Montana; Career Center for Women Researchers Fund, Kyushu University; College of Liberal Arts, Research and Disciplinary Grants, Bloomsburg University..
14. In 1996, one of the oldest and best-preserved human skeletons in the United States was discovered on the banks of the Columbia River near Kennewick in the State of Washington, and has come to be known as Kennewick Man. In this paper, the origins of the 9,300 year old Kennewick individual and his early Holocene contemporaries in the Americas are explored. The results of our craniofacial metric analysis indicate that Kennewick Man shows a greater similarity with the Ainu, the prehistoric Jomon of Japan, and Polynesians, than with any other human samples in the world. The Jomon samples that show similarity with Kennewick Man are also similar to prehistoric inhabitants of the North American Northwest coast, Paleoamerican samples from Brazil, and the indigenous peoples of the southern end of South America. These results suggest that the ancestor of the Jomon in the Late Pleistocene of the northeast and eastern coast of Asia might be an important source for the first known inhabitants of the western hemisphere and might have migrated to North America and dispersed to South America..
15. @Noriko Seguchi, @Conrad Quyntin, @Hirofumi Takamuku, #Shiori Yonemoto, An assessment of phenotypic adaptation of the prehistoric Jomon hunter-gatherers and the Yayoi agriculturalists of Japan: A study of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus eco-geographical variables, The 83rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2014.04, Human body size and shape exhibit considerable global variation and these follow Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule. Body and limb proportions may shed light on human evolution and ancestral climatic adaptation. In this study, we explore variation in body and limb proportions between Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000-2,500 BP) and Yayoi agriculturalists (2,500-1,700BP) of Japan with 12 geographically diverse samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North and South America. Brachial-crural indices; femur head breadth-femur length ratio; femur head breadth-lower limb length ratio; and body mass are used as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation. Data were subjected to principal components analysis and Manly’s permutation regression tests. The principal component analysis of body proportions and limb proportions were used to interpret how those indices, ratios, and body mass contribute to phenotypic adaptation. The results of Manly tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with latitude, minimum and maximum temperatures, while limb proportion were not significantly correlate with these climatic variables. Principal components plots separated “climatic zones”: tropical populations, temperate populations, and arctic populations. Yayoi people who were recent migrants from Northeast Asia belong to the temperate populations. They show cold-adapted body and limb proportions. On the other hand, the indigenous Jomon show cold-adapted body proportions and warm-adapted limb proportions. As one considers the past climate of Late Pleistocene and Holocene East/Northeast Asia, it could be interpreted that the Jomon may have achieved cold-adapted physiques, and then adapted to a warmer climate before or after migrations to Japan..
16. @Beatrix Dudzik、@Noriko Seguchi,, Testing the Dual-Structure Hypothesis for the Colonization of the Japanese Archipelago: Evidence from Southern Japan., The 83rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2014.04, This study builds upon previous research that has investigated cranial variation of prehistoric Japanese populations. Examination of the cranial base and neurocranium was employed to test the Dual-Structure hypothesis, which posits that admixture rather than replacement occurred between the prehistoric Jomon and Eneolithic Yayoi cultures. While prior research has elucidated much of the population and migration history of Japan as a whole using facial dimensions, less emphasis has been placed on the examination of skeletal samples representative of specific geographic areas and temporal continuity.This study examines metric cranial variability utilizing the skeletal collection housed at Kyushu University, which houses samples from Kyushu Island and nearby locales that represent a nearly temporally continuous sequence from the prehistoric Jomon culture to the Medieval period. Additionally, this region-specific sample allows for testing of the dual-structure hypothesis, while building upon recent findings that suggest the neurocranium is a better predictor of population affinity.This preliminary study indicates that the removal of facial landmarks and concentration on dimensions associated with the vault and base provide differential results and alternate interpretations regarding admixture between the Jomon and Yayoi populations. These results support the hypothesis that the cranial vault may provide better resolution for population affinity, as well as provide support for population continuity in the context of prehistoric southern Japan..
17. Noriko Seguchi, Hiroshi Takamuku, Conrad B. Quintyn, A study of postcranial indices, ratios and body mass versus eco-geographical variables in an assessment of phenotypic adaptation to climatic conditions.
, the 82nd Annual meeting of American Association of Physical Anthropologists. , 2013.04, Human body size and shape exhibit considerable global variation. According to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule, populations in cold climate exhibit larger body and smaller/shorter extremities than populations in hot climate. As such, skeletal limb size proportions may shed light on human evolution and climatic adaptation. In this perspective, we investigate ecogeographic significance of human postcranial diversity.
We used brachial-crural indices; femur head breadth-femur length ratio; femur head breadth-lower limb length ratio; and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation among 11 historic and recent sample groups from Africa, Europa, South Asia, East Asia, and North America.
Data were subjected to principal components analysis and Manly’s non-parametric correlation tests. The non-parametric correlations were tested between pc scores, indices, ratios, body mass, and ecogeographic variables: latitude, longitude, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature. Significance was calculated after 10,000 permutations in a two-tail test (α = 0.05).
Principal components plots exhibit geographic clines from South to North. The first principal component scores (loadings especially for body mass and femur head breadth to femur length ratio) shows weak but statistically significant correlations with latitude and minimum temperature, and a very weak but statistically significant correlation with maximum temperature. Only crural index shows a strong and statistically significant correlation with latitude when variables are tested separately. All significant weak correlations between the regressions of PC scores and latitude, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature indicate some trends in the data for a potential selective mechanism or adaptive pathway occurring in the indices, ratio and body mass.

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18. , [URL].
19. The Concept of Race in Medical and Public Health Research.
20. Spreading the knowledge: physical anthropology and working with descendant communities.
21. Recent Trends within the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Membership in Academic Society
  • Dental Anthropology Association
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  • American Association of Physical Anthropologists
  • Anthropological Society of Nippon
  • American Anthropological Association
Educational
Educational Activities
Biological Anthropology (Human variation and Evolution)
Introduction to Physical Anthropology
Issues in Field work B
Women's studies and Men's stuides
Social
Professional and Outreach Activities
Jilin University International Research Center for Bioarchaeology Academic Committee
Appointed as a Honorary Research Fellow, The International Research Center for Bioarchaeology, School of Archaeology, Jilin University, China (Nov. 2018 to 2023)
Appointed as a Faculty Affiliate in the Anthropology Department at the University of Montana, Missoula. (from Oct. 11, 2012 to Sept. 30, 2019).