||Fumihito Miura, Chihiro Uematsu, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Takashi Ito, A novel strategy to design highly specific PCR primers based on the stability and uniqueness of 3′-end subsequences, Bioinformatics, 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti716, 21, 24, 4363-4370, 2005.12, Motivation: In contrast with conventional PCR using a pair of specific primers, some applications utilize a single unique primer in combination with a common primer, thereby relying solely on the former for specificity. These applications include rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), adaptor-tagged competitive PCR (ATAC-PCR), PCR-mediated genome walking and so forth. Since the primers designed by conventional methods often fail to work in these applications, an improved strategy is required, particularly, for a large-scale analysis. Results: Based on t he structure of 'off-target' products in the ATAC-PCR, we reasoned that the practical determinant of the specificity of primers may not be the uniqueness of entire sequence but that of the shortest 3′-end subsequence that exceeds a threshold of duplex stability. We termed such a subsequence as a 'specificity-determining subsequence' (SDSS) and developed a simple algorithm to predict the performance of the primer: the algorithm identifies the SDSS of each primer and examines its uniqueness in the target genome. The primers designed using this algorithm worked much better than those designed using a conventional method in both ATAC-PCR and 5′-RACE experiments. Thus, the algorithm will be generally useful for improving various PCR-based applications..
||Fumihito Miura, Noriko Kawaguchi, Jun Sese, Atsushi Toyoda, Masahira Hattori, Shinichi Morishita, Takashi Ito, A large-scale full-length cDNA analysis to explore the budding yeast transcriptome, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10.1073/pnas.0605645103, 103, 47, 17846-17851, 2006.11, We performed a large-scale cDNA analysis to explore the transcriptome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We sequenced two cDNA libraries, one from the cells exponentially growing in a minimal medium and the other from meiotic cells. Both libraries were generated by using a vector-capping method that allows the accurate mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs). Consequently, we identified 11,575 TSSs associated with 3,638 annotated genomic features, including 3,599 ORFs, to suggest that most yeast genes have two or more TSSs. In addition, we identified 45 previously undescribed introns, including those affecting current ORF annotations and those spliced alternatively. Furthermore, the analysis revealed 667 transcription units in the intergenic regions and transcripts derived from antisense strands of 367 known features. We also found that 348 ORFs carry TSSs in their 3′-halves to generate sense transcripts starting from inside the ORFs. These results indicate that the budding yeast transcriptome is considerably more complex than previously thought, and it shares many recently revealed characteristics with the transcriptomes of mammals and other higher eukaryotes. Thus, the genome-wide active transcription that generates novel classes of transcripts appears to be an intrinsic feature of the eukaryotic cells. The budding yeast will serve as a versatile model for the studies on these aspects of transcriptome, and the full-length cDNA clones can function as an invaluable resource in such studies..
||Fumihito Miura, Noriko Kawaguchi, Mikio Yoshida, Chihiro Uematsu, Keiji Kito, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Takashi Ito, Absolute quantification of the budding yeast transcriptome by means of competitive PCR between genomic and complementary DNAs, BMC Genomics, 10.1186/1471-2164-9-574, 9, 2008.11, Background: An ideal format to describe transcriptome would be its composition measured on the scale of absolute numbers of individual mRNAs per cell. It would help not only to precisely grasp the structure of the transcriptome but also to accelerate data exchange and integration. Results: We conceived an idea of competitive PCR between genomic DNA and cDNA. Since the former contains every gene exactly at the same copy number, it can serve as an ideal normalization standard for the latter to obtain stoichiometric composition data of the transcriptome. This data can then be easily converted to absolute quantification data provided with an appropriate calibration. To implement this idea, we improved adaptor-tagged competitive PCR, originally developed for relative quantification of the 3′-end restriction fragment of each cDNA, such that it can be applied to any restriction fragment. We demonstrated that this "generalized" adaptor-tagged competitive PCR (GATC-PCR) can be performed between genomic DNA and cDNA to accurately measure absolute expression level of each mRNA in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we constructed a large-scale GATC-PCR system to measure absolute expression levels of 5,038 genes to show that the yeast contains more than 30,000 copies of mRNA molecules per cell. Conclusion: We developed a GATC-PCR method to accurately measure absolute expression levels of mRNAs by means of competitive amplification of genomic and cDNA copies of each gene. A large-scale application of GATC-PCR to the budding yeast transcriptome revealed that it is twice or more as large as previously estimated. This method is flexibly applicable to both targeted and genome-wide analyses of absolute expression levels of mRNAs..
||Fumihito Miura, Yusuke Enomoto, Ryo Dairiki, Takashi Ito, Amplification-free whole-genome bisulfite sequencing by post-bisulfite adaptor tagging, Nucleic Acids Research, 10.1093/nar/gks454, 40, 17, 2012.09, DNA methylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genomes. Hence the genome-wide distribution of 5-methylcytosine, or the methylome, has been attracting intense attention. In recent years, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has enabled methylome analysis at single-base resolution. However, WGBS typically requires microgram quantities of DNA as well as global PCR amplification, thereby precluding its application to samples of limited amounts. This is presumably because bisulfite treatment of adaptor-tagged templates, which is inherent to current WGBS methods, leads to substantial DNA fragmentation. To circumvent the bisulfite-induced loss of intact sequencing templates, we conceived an alternative method termed Post-Bisulfite Adaptor Tagging (PBAT) wherein bisulfite treatment precedes adaptor tagging by two rounds of random primer extension. The PBAT method can generate a substantial number of unamplified reads from as little as subnanogram quantities of DNA. It requires only 100 ng of DNA for amplification-free WGBS of mammalian genomes. Thus, the PBAT method will enable various novel applications that would not otherwise be possible, thereby contributing to the rapidly growing field of epigenomics..
||Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Highly sensitive targeted methylome sequencing by post-bisulfite adaptor tagging, DNA Research, 10.1093/dnares/dsu034, 22, 1, 13-18, 2015.01, The current gold standard method for methylome analysis is whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), but its cost is substantial, especially for the purpose of multi-sample comparison of large methylomes. Shotgun bisulfite sequencing of target-enriched DNA, or targeted methylome sequencing (TMS), can be a flexible, cost-effective alternative to WGBS. However, the current TMS protocol requires a considerable amount of input DNA and hence is hardly applicable to samples of limited quantity. Here we report a method to overcome this limitation by using post-bisulfite adaptor tagging (PBAT), in which adaptor tagging is conducted after bisulfite treatment to circumvent bisulfite-induced loss of intact sequencing templates, thereby enabling TMS of a 100-fold smaller amount of input DNA with far fewer cycles of polymerase chain reaction than in the current protocol. We thus expect that the PBAT-mediated TMS will serve as an invaluable method in epigenomics..
||Takao Yokoyama, Fumihito Miura, Hiromitsu Araki, Kohji Okamura, Takashi Ito, Changepoint detection in base-resolution methylome data reveals a robust signature of methylated domain landscape, BMC Genomics, 10.1186/s12864-015-1809-5, 16, 1, 2015.08, Background: Base-resolution methylome data generated by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is often used to segment the genome into domains with distinct methylation levels. However, most segmentation methods include many parameters to be carefully tuned and/or fail to exploit the unsurpassed resolution of the data. Furthermore, there is no simple method that displays the composition of the domains to grasp global trends in each methylome. Results: We propose to use changepoint detection for domain demarcation based on base-resolution methylome data. While the proposed method segments the methylome in a largely comparable manner to conventional approaches, it has only a single parameter to be tuned. Furthermore, it fully exploits the base-resolution of the data to enable simultaneous detection of methylation changes in even contrasting size ranges, such as focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in cancer methylomes. We also propose a simple plot termed methylated domain landscape (MDL) that globally displays the size, the methylation level and the number of the domains thus defined, thereby enabling one to intuitively grasp trends in each methylome. Since the pattern of MDL often reflects cell lineages and is largely unaffected by data size, it can serve as a novel signature of methylome. Conclusions: Changepoint detection in base-resolution methylome data followed by MDL plotting provides a novel method for methylome characterization and will facilitate global comparison among various WGBS data differing in size and even species origin..