Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
hayashi katsuhiko Last modified date:2018.07.13

Professor / Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine / Faculty of Medical Sciences

1. Endoh M, Endo TA, Shinga J, Hayashi K, Farcas A, Ma KW, Ito S, Sharif J, Endoh T, Onaga N, Nakayama M, Ishikura T, Masui O, Kessler BM, Suda T, Ohara O, Okuda A, Klose R, Koseki H., PCGF6-PRC1 suppresses premature differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating germ cell-related genes., Elife, doi: 10.7554/eLife.21064., 2017.03, The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability. We also find a role for PCGF6 in pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryonic development. We further show that a heterodimer of the transcription factors MAX and MGA recruits PCGF6 to target loci. PCGF6 thus links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA complex to PRC1-dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in pluripotent stem cells..
2. Miyauchi H, Ohta H, Nagaoka S, Nakaki F, Sasaki K, Hayashi K, Yabuta Y, Nakamura T, Yamamoto T, Saitou M., Bone morphogenetic protein and retinoic acid synergistically specify female germ-cell fate in mice., EMBO J, 2017.11, The mechanism for sex determination in mammalian germ cells remains unclear. Here, we reconstitute the female sex determination in mouse germ cells in vitro under a defined condition without the use of gonadal somatic cells. We show that retinoic acid (RA) and its key effector, STRA8, are not sufficient to induce the female germ-cell fate. In contrast, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RA synergistically induce primordial germ cells (PGCs)/PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into fetal primary oocytes. The induction is characterized by entry into the meiotic prophase, occurs synchronously and recapitulates cytological and transcriptome progression in vivo faithfully. Importantly, the female germ-cell induction necessitates a proper cellular competence-most typically, DNA demethylation of relevant genes-which is observed in appropriately propagated PGCs/PGCLCs, but not in PGCs/PGCLCs immediately after induction. This provides an explanation for the differential function of BMP signaling between PGC specification and female germ-cell induction. Our findings represent a framework for a comprehensive delineation of the sex-determination pathway in mammalian germ cells, including humans..
3. Morohaku K, Tanimoto R, Sasaki K, Kawahara-Miki R, Kono T, Hayashi K, Hirao Y, Obata Y., Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1603817113., 2016.08, Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells..
4. Shirane K, Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Yamaji M, Satoh J, Ito S, Watanabe A, Hayashi K, Saitou M, Sasaki H., Global Landscape and Regulatory Principles of DNA Methylation Reprogramming for Germ Cell Specification by Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells., Dev Cell, doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.08.008., 2016.10, Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) activates epigenetic reprogramming for totipotency, the elucidation of which remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we uncover regulatory principles for DNA methylation reprogramming during in vitro PGC specification, in which mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are induced into epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) and then PGC-like cells (PGCLCs). While ESCs reorganize their methylome to form EpiLCs, PGCLCs essentially dilute the EpiLC methylome at constant, yet different, rates between unique sequence regions and repeats. ESCs form hypomethylated domains around pluripotency regulators for their activation, whereas PGCLCs create demethylation-sensitive domains around developmental regulators by accumulating abundant H3K27me3 for their repression. Loss of PRDM14 globally upregulates methylation and diminishes the hypomethylated domains, but it preserves demethylation-sensitive domains. Notably, female ESCs form hypomethylated lamina-associated domains, while female PGCLCs effectively reverse such states into a more normal configuration. Our findings illuminate the unique orchestration of DNA methylation and histone modification reprogramming during PGC specification..
5. Hikabe O, Hamazaki N, Nagamatsu G, Obata Y, Hirao Y, Hamada N, Shimamoto S, Imamura T, Nakashima K, Saitou M, Hayashi K., Reconstitution in vitro of the entire cycle of the mouse female germ line., Nature, doi: 10.1038/nature20104. , 2016.11, The female germ line undergoes a unique sequence of differentiation processes that confers totipotency to the egg. The reconstitution of these events in vitro using pluripotent stem cells is a key achievement in reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Here we report successful reconstitution in vitro of the entire process of oogenesis from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Fully potent mature oocytes were generated in culture from embryonic stem cells and from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from both embryonic fibroblasts and adult tail tip fibroblasts. Moreover, pluripotent stem cell lines were re-derived from the eggs that were generated in vitro, thereby reconstituting the full female germline cycle in a dish. This culture system will provide a platform for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying totipotency and the production of oocytes of other mammalian species in culture..
6. Ishikura Y, Yabuta Y, Ohta H, Hayashi K, Nakamura T, Okamoto I, Yamamoto T, Kurimoto K, Shirane K, Sasaki H, Saitou M., In Vitro Derivation and Propagation of Spermatogonial Stem Cell Activity from Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells., Cell Rep. , doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.11.026., 2016.12, The in vitro derivation and propagation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a key goal in reproductive science. We show here that when aggregated with embryonic testicular somatic cells (reconstituted testes), primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) induced from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiate into spermatogonia-like cells in vitro and are expandable as cells that resemble germline stem cells (GSCs), a primary cell line with SSC activity. Remarkably, GSC-like cells (GSCLCs), but not PGCLCs, colonize adult testes and, albeit less effectively than GSCs, contribute to spermatogenesis and fertile offspring. Whole-genome analyses reveal that GSCLCs exhibit aberrant methylation at vulnerable regulatory elements, including those critical for spermatogenesis, which may restrain their spermatogenic potential. Our study establishes a strategy for the in vitro derivation of SSC activity from PSCs, which, we propose, relies on faithful epigenomic regulation..
7. Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Hayashi K, Ohta H, Kiyonari H, Mitani T, Moritoki Y, Kohri K, Kimura H, Yamamoto T, Katou Y, Shirahige K, Saitou M., Quantitative Dynamics of Chromatin Remodeling during Germ Cell Specification from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells., Cell Stem Cell, doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2015.03.002., 2015.05, Germ cell specification is accompanied by epigenetic remodeling, the scale and specificity of which are unclear. Here, we quantitatively delineate chromatin dynamics during induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) and from there into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs), revealing large-scale reorganization of chromatin signatures including H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 patterns. EpiLCs contain abundant bivalent gene promoters characterized by low H3K27me3, indicating a state primed for differentiation. PGCLCs initially lose H3K4me3 from many bivalent genes but subsequently regain this mark with concomitant upregulation of H3K27me3, particularly at developmental regulatory genes. PGCLCs progressively lose H3K9me2, including at lamina-associated perinuclear heterochromatin, resulting in changes in nuclear architecture. T recruits H3K27ac to activate BLIMP1 and early mesodermal programs during PGCLC specification, which is followed by BLIMP1-mediated repression of a broad range of targets, possibly through recruitment and spreading of H3K27me3. These findings provide a foundation for reconstructing regulatory networks of the germline epigenome..
8. Kimura T, Kaga Y, Ohta H, Odamoto M, Sekita Y, Li K, Yamano N, Fujikawa K, Isotani A, Sasaki N, Toyoda M, Hayashi K, Okabe M, Shinohara T, Saitou M, Nakano T., Induction of Primordial Germ Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by ERK Signal Inhibition., Stem Cells, doi: 10.1002/stem.1781., 2014.10, Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are embryonic germ cell precursors. Specification of PGCs occurs under the influence of mesodermal induction signaling during in vivo gastrulation. Although bone morphogenetic proteins and Wnt signaling play pivotal roles in both mesodermal and PGC specification, the signal regulating PGC specification remains unknown. Coculture of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with OP9 feeder cells induces mesodermal differentiation in vitro. Using this mesodermal differentiation system, we demonstrated that PGC-like cells were efficiently induced from mouse ESCs by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling inhibition. Inhibition of ERK signaling by a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor upregulated germ cell marker genes but downregulated mesodermal genes. In addition, the PGC-like cells showed downregulation of DNA methylation and formed pluripotent stem cell colonies upon treatment with retinoic acid. These results show that inhibition of ERK signaling suppresses mesodermal differentiation but activates germline differentiation program in this mesodermal differentiation system. Our findings provide a new insight into the signaling networks regulating PGC specification..
9. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Mitinori Saitou, Generation of eggs from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, Nat Protoc. , 10.1038/nprot.2013.090, 8, 8, 1513-1524, 2013.08, Oogenesis is an integrated process through which an egg acquires the potential for totipotency, a fundamental condition for creating new individuals. Reconstitution of oogenesis in a culture that generates eggs with proper function from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is therefore one of the key goals in basic biology as well as in reproductive medicine. Here we describe a stepwise protocol for the generation of eggs from mouse PSCs, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). ESCs and iPSCs are first induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) that are in turn aggregated with somatic cells of female embryonic gonads, the precursors for adult ovaries. Induction of PGCLCs followed by aggregation with the somatic cells takes up to 8 d. The aggregations are then transplanted under the ovarian bursa, in which PGCLCs grow into germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes in similar to 1 month. The PGCLC-derived GV oocytes can be matured into eggs in 1 d by in vitro maturation (IVM), and they can be fertilized with spermatozoa by in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain healthy and fertile offspring. This method provides an initial step toward reconstitution of the entire process of oogenesis in vitro..
10. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Sugako Ogushi, Kazuki Kurimoto, So Shimamoto, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitinori Saitou, Offspring from Oocytes Derived from in Vitro Primordial Germ Cell-like Cells in Mice, Science, 10.1126/science.1226889, 338, 6109, 971-975, 2012.10, Reconstitution of female germ cell development in vitro is a key challenge in reproductive biology and medicine. We show here that female (XX) embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells in mice are induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs), which, when aggregated with female gonadal somatic cells as reconstituted ovaries, undergo X-reactivation, imprint erasure, and cyst formation, and exhibit meiotic potential. Upon transplantation under mouse ovarian bursa, PGCLCs in the reconstituted ovaries mature into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes, which then contribute to fertile offspring after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Our culture system serves as a robust foundation for the investigation of key properties of female germ cells, including the acquisition of totipotency, and for the reconstitution of whole female germ cell development in vitro..
11. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Hiroshi Ohta, Kazuki Kurimoto, Shinya Aramaki, Mitinori Saitou, Reconstitution of the Mouse Germ Cell Specification Pathway in Culture by Pluripotent Stem Cells, 10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.052, 146, 4 , 519-532 , 2011.08, The generation of properly functioning gametes in vitro requires reconstitution of the multistepped pathway of germ cell development. We demonstrate here the generation of primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) in mice with robust capacity for spermatogenesis. PGCLCs were generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs), a cellular state highly similar to pregastrulating epiblasts but distinct from epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). Reflecting epiblast development, EpiLC induction from ESCs/iPSCs is a progressive process, and EpiLCs highly competent for the PGC fate are a transient entity. The global transcription profiles, epigenetic reprogramming, and cellular dynamics during PGCLC induction from EpiLCs meticulously capture those associated with PGC specification from the epiblasts. Furthermore, we identify Integrin-beta 3 and SSEA1 as markers that allow the isolation of PGCLCs with spermatogenic capacity from tumorigenic undifferentiated cells. Our findings provide a paradigm for the first step of in vitro gametogenesis..
12. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Azim Surani, Self-renewing epiblast stem cells exhibit continual delineation of germ cells with epigenetic reprogramming in vitro, 10.1242/dev.037747, 136, 21, 3549-3556, 2009.11, Pluripotent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) derived from postimplantation embryos exhibit properties that are characteristically different when compared with pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from mouse blastocysts. However, EpiSCs are relatively less well characterised compared with ESCs. In particular, the relationship between EpiSCs and primordial germ cells (PGCs) is unknown, and is worthy of investigation because PGCs originate from postimplantation epiblast cells in vivo. We show that EpiSCs have an infinite capacity for generating PGCs, under conditions that sustain their pluripotency and self-renewal. These PGCs generated in vitro show appropriate transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming events and are able to develop further into late germ cells. Notably, the PGCs can, in turn, be induced to undergo dedifferentiation into pluripotent embryonic germ cells (EGCs), which resemble ESCs and not the EpiSC from which they are derived. Our observations demonstrate intrinsic reprogramming during specification of PGCs that results in the erasure of epigenetic memory of EpiSCs following reactivation of the X-chromosome, DNA demethylation and re-expression of key pluripotency genes. This study provides novel insights into the nature and properties of EpiSCs, and introduces an in vitro model system that will be useful for investigations on PGC specification and on mechanisms regulating epigenetic reprogramming in germ cells..
13. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Susana Lopes, Fuchou Tang, Azim Surani, Dynamic Equilibrium and Heterogeneity of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells with Distinct Functional and Epigenetic States, 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.027, 3, 4, 391-401, 2008.10, Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are apparently homogeneous self-renewing cells, but we observed heterogeneous expression of Stella in ESCs, which is a marker of pluripotency and germ cells. Here we show that, whereas Stella-positive ESCs were like the inner cell mass (ICM), Stella-negative cells were like the epiblast cells. These states were interchangeable, which reflects the metastability and plasticity of ESCs. The established equilibrium was skewed reversibly in the absence of signals from feeder cells, which caused a marked shift toward an epiblast-like state, while trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deactelylase, restored Stella-positive population. The two populations also showed different histone modifications and striking functional differences, as judged by their potential for differentiation. The Stella-negative ESCs were more like the postimplantation epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSCs), albeit the stella locus was repressed by DNA methylation in the latter, which signifies a robust epigenetic boundary between ESCs and EpiSCs..
14. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Susana Lopes, Masahiro Kaneda, Fuchou Tang, Petra Hajkova, Kai Lao, Donal O'Carroll, Path Das, Alexander Tarakhovsky, Eric Miska, Azim Surani, MicroRNA Biogenesis Is Required for Mouse Primordial Germ Cell Development and Spermatogenesis, 10.1371/journal.pone.0001738, 3 , 3 , e1738 , 2008.03, Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing, which are involved in multiple developmental processes in many organisms. Apart from miRNAs, mouse germ cells express another type of small RNA, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Although it has been clear that piRNAs play a role in repression of retrotransposons during spermatogenesis, the function of miRNA in mouse germ cells has been unclear.

Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we first revealed the expression pattern of miRNAs by using a real-time PCR-based 220-plex miRNA expression profiling method. During development of germ cells, miR-17-92 cluster, which is thought to promote cell cycling, and the ES cell-specific cluster encoding miR-290 to -295 (miR-290-295 cluster) were highly expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonia. A set of miRNAs was developmentally regulated. We next analysed function of miRNA biogenesis in germ cell development by using conditional Dicer-knockout mice in which Dicer gene was deleted specifically in the germ cells. Dicer-deleted PGCs and spermatogonia exhibited poor proliferation. Retrotransposon activity was unexpectedly suppressed in Dicer-deleted PGCs, but not affected in the spermatogonia. In Dicer-deleted testis, spermatogenesis was retarded at an early stage when proliferation and/or early differentiation. Additionally, we analysed spermatogenesis in conditional Argonaute2-deficient mice. In contrast to Dicer-deficient testis, spermatogenesis in Argonaute2-deficient testis was indistinguishable from that in wild type.

Conclusion/Significance: These results illustrate that miRNAs are important for the proliferation of PGCs and spermatogonia, but dispensable for the repression of retrotransposons in developing germ cells. Consistently, miRNAs promoting cell cycling are highly expressed in PGCs and spermatogonia. Furthermore, based on normal spermatogenesis in Argonaute2-deficient testis, the critical function of Dicer in spermatogenesis is independent of Argonaute2..
15. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Kayo Yoshida, Yasuhisa Matsui, A histone H3 methyltransferase controls epigenetic events required for meiotic prophase, 10.1038/nature04112, 438 , 7066 , 374-378 , 2005.11, Epigenetic modifications of histones regulate gene expression and chromatin structure(1,2). Here we show that Meisetz (meiosis-induced factor containing a PR/SET domain and zinc-finger motif) is a histone methyltransferase that is important for the progression of early meiotic prophase. Meisetz transcripts are detected only in germ cells entering meiotic prophase in female fetal gonads and in postnatal testis. Notably, Meisetz has catalytic activity for trimethylation, but not mono- or dimethylation, of lysine 4 of histone H3, and a transactivation activity that depends on its methylation activity. Mice in which the Meisetz gene is disrupted show sterility in both sexes due to severe impairment of the double-stranded break repair pathway, deficient pairing of homologous chromosomes and impaired sex body formation. In Meisetz-deficient testis, trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 is attenuated and meiotic gene transcription is altered. These findings indicate that meiosis-specific epigenetic events in mammals are crucial for proper meiotic progression..
16. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Mutsumi Yamamoto, Takuya Nojima, Ryo Goitsuka, Daisuke Kitamura, Distinct signaling requirements for D mu selection, IgH allelic exclusion, pre-B cell transition, and tumor suppression in B cell progenitors, 10.1016/S1074-7613(03)00142-0, 18 , 6 , 825-836 , 2003.06, The pre-B cell receptor triggers expansion and differentiation of pre-B cells (the pre-B cell transition), as well as inhibition Of V-H to DJ(H) recombination (allelic exclusion). The latter also accounts for counter-selection of pro-B cells expressing Dmu protein (Dmu selection). However, the signaling pathways responsible for these events remain poorly defined. Here we show complete arrest of B cell development at the pre-B cell transition in BASH/CD19 double mutant mice, indicating partial redundancy of the two B cell-specific adaptors. Allelic exclusion remained intact in the double mutant mice, whereas Dmu, selection was abolished in BASH mutant mice. Thus, distinct signals are required for these events. In addition, both mutant mice succumbed to pre-B cell leukemia, indicating that BASH and CD19 contribute to tumor suppression..
17. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Takashi Kobayashi, Takashi Umino, Ryo Goitsuka, Yasuhisa Matsui, Daisuke Kitamura, SMAD1 signaling is critical for initial commitment of germ cell lineage from mouse epiblast, 10.1016/S0925-4773(02)00237-X, 118, 1-2 , 99-109 , 2002.10, Commitment of the germ cell lineage during embryogenesis depends on zygotic gene expression in mammals, but little is known about the signaling molecules required for germ cell formation. Here we show that the intracellular signaling molecule SMAD1, acting downstream of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors, is required for the commitment of germ cell lineage from epiblast in early mouse embryos. Smad1 homozygous mutant embryos (Smad1 -/-) were generated by in-frame insertion of lacZ gene into an exon of the Smad1 gene. Most of the Smad1 -/- embryos contained no primordial germ cells (PGCs) and had short allantois, while histological analysis and in situ hybridization for the mesoderm marker genes revealed that early mesoderm induction was normal in those embryos. Smad1 expression was observed in epiblast and in visceral endoderm during gastrulation, while only a few alkaline phosphatase-positive PGCs at 7.5 and 8.5 days post coitum (E7.5 and E8.5) expressed Smad1. Phosphorylated SMAD proteins were localized in the proximal region of epiblast at E6.0-6.5, where the progenitors of PGCs and of allantois reside. Single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of Smad1, -5 and -8 were sporadic and mutually independent in proximal epiblast cells. We also found that BMP4-induced differentiation of PGCs from epiblast in vitro was fully dependent on the existence of phosphorylated SMAD1. These results indicate that SMAD1 signaling possesses a critical and non-redundant function in the initial commitment of the germ cell lineage. .
18. Katsuhiko Hayashi, Ryo Nittono, Noriaki Okamoto, Sachiyo Tsuji, Yasushi Hara, Daisuke Kitamura, The B cell-restricted adaptor BASH is required for normal development and antigen receptor-mediated activation of B cells, 10.1073/pnas.040575697, 97, 6, 2755-2760, 2000.03, B cell antigen receptor signals development, activation, proliferation, or apoptosis of B cells depending on their condition, and its proper signaling is critical for activation and homeostasis of the immune system. The B cell-restricted adaptor protein BASH (also termed BLNK/SLP-65) is rapidly phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinase Syk after BCR ligation and binds to various signaling proteins. BASH structurally resembles SLP-76, which is essential for T cell development and T cell receptor signaling. To evaluate the role for BASH in B cell development and function in vivo, we disrupted BASH alleles in embryonic stem cells by means of homologous recombination and used these cells to complement lymphocyte-incompetent blastocysts from RAG2-deficient mice. In the resultant chimeric mice, T cell development was apparently normal, but B cell development was impaired, and a normally rare population of large preB cells expressing preB cell receptor dominated in the bone marrow in place of small preB cells, although they were mostly noncycling. In addition, the mature B cell populations in the periphery and the bone marrow profoundly decreased in size, as did B-l cells in the peritoneal cavity, and serum lg was severely reduced. The BASH-deficient B cells scarcely proliferated or up-regulated B7-2 in response to BCR ligation and poorly proliferated upon CD40 ligation or lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This phenotype indicates that BASH is critical for preB cell receptor signaling inducing proliferation of large preB cells and the following differentiation. for peripheral B cell maturation, and for BCR signaling inducing activation/proliferation of B cells..