Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
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Kimiyo Kikuchi Last modified date:2018.03.07

Institute of Decision Science for Sustainable Society (IDS3) .
Academic Degree
Field of Specialization
International Health, Maternal and Child Health, HIV
Academic Activities
1. Kikuchi K, Ansah E, Okawa S, Shibanuma A, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Oduro A, Quansah-Asare G, Hodgson A, Jimba M, Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLoS ONE, 10: e0139288, 10, 9, e0139288, 2016.09, [URL], BACKGROUND:
Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood) and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care). However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.
We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.
Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%). Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%).
Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the reduction of neonatal and perinatal deaths. Although maternal deaths were not significantly reduced, composite measures of all mortality were. Thus, the evidence is sufficient to scale up this intervention package for the improvement of MNCH outcomes..
2. Kikuchi K, Ansah E, Okawa S, Shibanuma A, Gyapong M, Owusu-Agyei S, Oduro A, Quansah-Asare G, Hodgson A, Jimba M, Ghana’s Ensure Mothers and Babies Regular Access to Care (EMBRACE) program: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial, Trials, 10.1186/s13063-014-0539-3, 16, 22, 2015.01, [URL], BACKGROUND:
The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals call for improving maternal and child health status. Their progress, however, has been minimal and uneven across countries. The continuum of care is a key to strengthening maternal, newborn, and child health. In this context, the Japanese government launched the Ghana Ensure Mothers and Babies Regular Access to Care (EMBRACE) Implementation Research Project in collaboration with the Ghanaian government. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process and effects of an intervention to increase the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health status in Ghana.
We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial using an effectiveness-implementation hybrid design in Dodowa, Kintampo, and Navrongo, Ghana. We will provide an intervention package to women living in randomly allocated intervention clusters. The study population is women of reproductive age between the ages of 15 and 49 years. The package includes: 1) use of a new continuum of care card, 2) continuum of care orientation for health workers, 3) 24-hour health facility retention of mothers and newborns after delivery, and 4) postnatal care by home visits. We will measure maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes for both intervention and implementation impacts. The intervention outcomes are continuum of care completion rate, rate of postnatal care within 48 hours, complication rate requiring mothers' and newborns' hospitalizations, and perinatal and neonatal mortality. The implementation outcomes are intervention coverage of the target population, intervention adoption and fidelity, implementation cost, and sustainability.
In this trial, we will investigate how successful continuum of care can contribute to improving maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes. If successful, this model will then be implemented further in Ghana and other neighboring countries.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90618993 . Registered on 3 September 2014..
3. Kikuchi K, Poudel KC, Muganda J, Sato T, Mutabazi T, Muhaylmpundu R, Majyambere A, Nyonsenga SP, Sase E, Jimba M, What makes orphans in Kigali, Rwanda, non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy? Perspectives of their caregivers, Journal of the International AIDS Society, 10.7448/IAS.17.1.19310, 3, 17, 19310, 2014.01, [URL], INTRODUCTION:
Every year, approximately 260,000 children are infected with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. The timely initiation and high level of maintenance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are crucial to reducing the suffering of HIV-positive children. We need to develop a better understanding of the background of children's ART non-adherence because it is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to explore the background related to ART non-adherence, specifically in relation to the orphan status of children in Kigali, Rwanda.
We conducted 19 focus group discussions with a total of 121 caregivers of HIV-positive children in Kigali. The primary data for analysis were verbatim transcripts and socio-demographic data. A content analysis was performed for qualitative data analysis and interpretation.
The study found several contextual factors that influenced non-adherence: among double orphans, there was psychological distance between the caregivers and children, whereas economic burden was the primary issue among paternal orphans. The factors promoting adherence also were unique to each orphan status, such as the positive attitude about disclosing serostatus to the child by double orphans' caregivers, and feelings of guilt about the child's condition among non-orphaned caregivers.
Knowledge of orphan status is essential to elucidate the factors influencing ART adherence among HIV-positive children. In this qualitative study, we identified the orphan-related contextual factors that influenced ART adherence. Understanding the social context is important in dealing with the challenges to ART adherence among HIV-positive children..
4. Kikuchi K, Poudel KC, Muganda J, Majyambere A, Otsuka K, Sato T, Mutabazi T, Nyansenga SP, Muhayimpundu R, Jimba M, Yasuoka J, High Risk of ART Non-Adherence and Delay of ART Initiation among HIV Positive Double Orphans in Kigali, Rwanda, PLoS ONE, 10.1371/journal.pone.0041998, 7, 7, e41998, 2012.01, [URL], Background

To reduce HIV/AIDS related mortality of children, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical in the treatment of HIV positive children. However, little is known about the association between ART adherence and different orphan status. The aims of this study were to assess the ART adherence and identify whether different orphan status was associated with the child’s adherence.


A total of 717 HIV positive children and the same number of caregivers participated in this cross-sectional study. Children’s adherence rate was measured using a pill count method and those who took 85% or more of the prescribed doses were defined as adherent. To collect data about adherence related factors, we also interviewed caregivers using a structured questionnaire.


Of all children (N = 717), participants from each orphan category (double orphan, maternal orphan, paternal orphan, non-orphan) were 346, 89, 169, and 113, respectively. ART non-adherence rate of each orphan category was 59.3%, 44.9%, 46.7%, and 49.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated that maternal orphans (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12–0.80), paternal orphans (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14–0.89), and non-orphans (AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.99) were less likely to be non-adherent compared to double orphans. Double orphans who had a sibling as a caregiver were more likely to be non-adherent. The first mean CD4 count prior to initiating treatment was 520, 601, 599, and 844 (cells/ml), respectively (p<0.001). Their mean age at sero-status detection was 5.9, 5.3, 4.8, and 3.9 (year old), respectively (p<0.001).


Double orphans were at highest risk of ART non-adherence and especially those who had a sibling as a caregiver had high risk. They were also in danger of initiating ART at an older age and at a later stage of HIV/AIDS compared with other orphan categories. Double orphans need more attention to the promote child’s adherence to ART..