Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
HIDEMICHI FUJII Last modified date:2019.09.12

Associate Professor / Department of International Economy and Business / Faculty of Economics


Papers
1. Fujii, H., Managi, S., Trends and priority shifts in artificial intelligence technology invention: A global patent analysis, Economic Analysis and Policy, 10.1016/j.eap.2017.12.006, 58, 60-69, 2018.05.
2. Fujii, H., Okamoto, S., Kagawa, S., Managi, S., Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 10.1088/1748-9326/aa9c66, 12, 12, 2017.12.
3. Hidemichi Fujii, Kazuyuki Iwata, Andrew John Chapman, Shigemi Kagawa, Shunsuke Managi, An analysis of urban environmental Kuznets curve of CO2 emissions
Empirical analysis of 276 global metropolitan areas, Applied Energy, 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.158, 228, 1561-1568, 2018.10.
4. Hidemichi Fujii, Akihiko Shinozaki, Shigemi Kagawa, Shunsuke Managi, How Does Information and Communication Technology Capital Affect Productivity in the Energy Sector? New Evidence from 14 countries Considering the Transition to Renewable Energy System., Energies, 10.3390/en12091786, 12, 9, 2019.05.
5. Andrew John Chapman, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Multinational life satisfaction, perceived inequality and energy affordability, Nature Sustainability, 10.1038/s41893-019-0303-5, 2, 6, 508-514, 2019.06.
6. Zhang, Z., Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, How Does Commuting Behavior Change Due to Incentives? An Empirical Study of the Beijing Subway System, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 24, 17-26, 2014.05.
7. Fujii, H., Kondo, Y., Decomposition analysis of food waste management with explicit consideration of priority of alternative management options and its application to the Japanese food industry from 2008 to 2015, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.241, 188, 568-574, 2018.05.
8. Fujii, H., Managi, S., Matousek, R., Rughoo, A., Bank efficiency, productivity and convergence in EU countries: A weighted Russell directional distance model., European Journal of Finance, 10.1080/1351847X.2017.1303527, 24, 2, 135-156, 2018.05.
9. Fujii, H., Sakakura, Y., Hagiwara, A., Bostock, J., Soyano, K., Matsushita, Y., Research and development strategy of fisheries technology innovation for sustainable fishery resource management in North East Asia., Sustainability, 10.3390/su10010059, 10, 1, 2017.12.
10. Chapman, A., Fujii, H., Managi, S., Key drivers for cooperation toward sustainable development and the management of CO2 emissions: Comparative analysis of six northeast Asian countries., Sustainability, 10.3390/su10010244, 10, 1, 2018.05.
11. Tamaki, T., Nakamura, H., Fujii, H., Managi, S., Efficiency and emissions from urban transport: Application to world city-level public transportation., Economic Analysis and Policy, 10.1016/j.eap.2016.09.001, 2018.05.
12. Fujii, H., Iwata, K., Managi, S., How do urban characteristics affect climate change mitigation policies?, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.221, 168, 271-278, 2017.12.
13. Fujii, H., Managi, S., Decomposition Analysis of Water Treatment Technology Patents, WATER, 10.3390/w9110860, 9, 11, 2017.11.
14. Fujii, H., Managi, S., Wastewater Management Efficiency and Determinant Factors in the Chinese Industrial Sector from 2004 to 2014, WATER, 10.3390/w9080586, 9, 8, 2017.08.
15. Fujii, H., Sato, M., Managi, S., Decomposition Analysis of Forest Ecosystem Services Values, SUSTAINABILITY, 10.3390/su9050687, 9, 5, 2017.05.
16. Johnstone, N., Managi, S., Rodríguez, M.C., Haščič, I., Fujii, H., Souchier, M., Environmental policy design, innovation and efficiency gains in electricity generation, ENERGY ECONOMICS, 10.1016/j.eneco.2017.01.014, 63, 106-115, 2017.03.
17. Qing, Y., Kaneko, S., Fujii, H., Yoshida, Y., Do exogenous shocks better leverage the benefits of technological change in the staged elimination of differential environmental regulations? Evidence from China’s cement industry before and after the 2008 Great Sichuan Earthquake, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.210, 164, 1167-1179, 2017.06.
18. Lee. B.L., Wilson, C., Pasurka, C.A. Jr., Fujii, H., Managi, S., Sources of airline productivity from carbon emissions: an analysis of operational performance under good and bad outputs, JOURNAL OF PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS, 10.1007/s11123-016-0480-4, 47, 3, 223-246, 2017.06.
19. Fujii, H., Cao. J., Managi, S., Firm-level environmentally sensitive productivity and innovation in China, APPLIED ENERGY, 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.010, 184, 915-925, 2016.12.
20. Fujii, H., Decomposition analysis of green chemical technology inventions from 1971 to 2010 in Japan, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.123, 112, 4835-4843, 2016.01.
21. Fujii, H., Managi, S., Research and development strategy for environmental technology in Japan: A comparative study of the private and public sectors, TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE, 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.02.012, 112, 293-302, 2016.11.
22. Fujii, H., Nakagawa, K., Kagabu, M., Decomposition approach of the nitrogen generation process: empirical study on the Shimabara Peninsula in Japan, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 10.1007/s11356-016-7522-3, 23, 22, 23249-23261, 2016.11.
23. Fujii, H., Yoshida, K., Sugimura, K., Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms, SUSTAINABILITY, 10.3390/su8040351, 8, 4, 2016.04.
24. Fujii, H., Cao, J., Managi, S., Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector, REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS, 10.1111/rode.12123, 19, 1, 75-84, 2015.02.
25. Kumar, S., Fujii, H., Managi, S., Substitute or complement? Assessing renewable and nonrenewable energy in OECD countries, APPLIED ECONOMICS, 10.1080/00036846.2014.997922, 47, 14, 1438-1459, 2015.06.
26. 金子慎治,西谷公孝,藤井秀道,小松悟, 環境経営時代における環境政策と企業行動の関係に関する研究, 環境経済・政策研究, 8, 1, 61-73, 2015.06.
27. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Decomposition analysis of sustainable green technology inventions in China, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.11.013, 139, 10-16, 2019.02.
28. Jun Xie, Wataru Nozawa, Michiyuki Yagi, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Do environmental, social, and governance activities improve corporate financial performance?, Business Strategy and the Environment, 10.1002/bse.2224, 28, 2, 286-300, 2019.02.
29. Hirotaka Takayabu, Shigemi Kagawa, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, S. Eguchi, Impacts of productive efficiency improvement in the global metal industry on CO2 emissions, Journal of Environmental Management, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109261, 248, 2019.10.
30. Eucabeth Majiwa, Boon L. Lee, Clevo Wilson, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, A network data envelopment analysis (NDEA) model of post-harvest handling
the case of Kenya’s rice processing industry, Food Security, 10.1007/s12571-018-0809-0, 1-18, 2018.05, Food security is a global challenge. With rising world population and demand for food being compounded by resource and arable land constraints, raising the efficiency of food production and use has become increasingly important. While much of the research on food security is focused on farm efficiency and productivity, most neglect post-harvest (PH) handling which is critical in determining the availability of food. In this study, we employ the network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to evaluate the PH efficiency of milling, using data from Kenya’s rice processing industry. The results show lower efficiency scores when using a network DEA model, which reflects its greater discriminatory power when compared to the standard DEA approach. The study also quantified sources of productive efficiency using a fractional regression model and identified storage space and distance to market as having an impact on drying efficiency; while experience, age of mill, servicing and energy type influenced milling efficiency. The results suggest that policy makers should focus on investing in drying technologies and storage facilities to improve drying efficiency. To improve milling efficiency, policy recommendations include enhancing millers’ access to better technologies, investing in reliable sources of energy and providing PH handling workshops to reduce PH losses..
31. Tetsuya Tamaki, Kong Joo Shin, Hiroki Nakamura, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Shadow prices and production inefficiency of mineral resources, Economic Analysis and Policy, 10.1016/j.eap.2017.03.005, 57, 111-121, 2018.03, With the Millennium Development Goal focusing on the eradication of poverty in developing countries expiring in 2015, the international focus is shifting toward sustainable development. The sustainability of the natural resources that are used as energy sources and in the production of goods is a global issue that is not specific to developing nations. We contribute to the need for quantitative targets for natural resources by calculating the shadow prices and production inefficiency levels of 32 mineral resources by using a stochastic frontier analysis and panel data from 1980 to 2010 in 162 countries. In addition, we provide estimated shadow prices and production inefficiency levels up to 2020 with various levels of production restrictions. The results show the following: (1) The shadow prices and production inefficiency levels of major metals are generally higher in Asian countries than in non-Asian countries; (2) there is an upward trend in the inefficiency levels in Asian countries, whereas the inefficiency levels remain rather stable in non-Asian countries; (3) production restrictions do not guarantee an increase in shadow prices, but the magnitude of the impact of such restrictions seems to be larger in Asian countries compared to non-Asian countries; (4) production restrictions do not seem to affect production inefficiency; thus, they may not be effective in reducing gaps in production inefficiency between Asian and non-Asian countries..
32. S. C.L. Koh, T. Ibn-Mohammed, A. Acquaye, K. Feng, I. M. Reaney, K. Hubacek, Hidemichi Fujii, K. Khatab, Drivers of U.S. toxicological footprints trajectory 1998-2013, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep39514, 6, 2016.12, By exploiting data from the Toxic Release Inventory of the United States, we have established that the toxicological footprint (TF) increased by 3.3% (88.4 Mt) between 1998 and 1999 and decreased by 39% (1088.5 Mt) between 1999 and 2013. From 1999 to 2006, the decreasing TF was driven by improvements in emissions intensity (i.e. gains in production efficiency) through toxic chemical management options: cleaner production; end of pipe treatment; transfer for further waste management; and production scale. In particular, the mining sector reduced its TF through outsourcing processes. Between 2006 and 2009, decreasing TF was due to decrease in consumption volume triggered by economic recession. Since 2009, the economic recovery increased TF, overwhelming the influence of improved emissions intensity through population growth, consumption and production structures. Accordingly, attaining a less-toxic economy and environment will be influenced by a combination of gains in production efficiency through improvement in emissions mitigation technologies and changes in consumption patterns. Overall, the current analysis highlights the structural dynamics of toxic chemical release and would inform future formulation of effective mitigation standards and management protocols towards the detoxification of the environment..
33. Hidemichi Fujii, A. George Assaf, Shunsuke Managi, Roman Matousek, Did the financial crisis affect environmental efficiency? evidence from the Japanese manufacturing sector, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 10.1007/s10018-015-0127-0, 18, 2, 159-168, 2016.04, This study examined the impact of the financial crisis on the environmental and technical efficiencies of the Japanese manufacturing industry. Overall, we found that while the crisis had a negative impact on technical efficiency, it did not affect environmental efficiency—the only exception was the transportation equipment sector which improved its environmental efficiency following the crisis. Additionally, we found that capital intensity does not necessarily affect environmental efficiency. We discuss the implications of these findings and provide directions for future research..
34. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Trends in corporate environmental management studies and databases, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 10.1007/s10018-015-0132-3, 18, 2, 265-272, 2016.04, To explain why and how corporate environmental management is beneficial, it is important to provide incentives to private companies to encourage such environmental activities. This study proposes a new corporate financial and environmental dataset called the world resource table (WRT), which uses open data sources published by the Japanese government. Environmental data include Greenhouse gas emissions and toxic chemical release data. With more than 1000 annual samples, the WRT will allow empirical analyses that use productivity measures and econometric approaches. WRT will also include corporate patent data, with linkages to analytical software packages such as GAMS and R..
35. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10.1007/s11356-015-5523-2, 23, 3, 2802-2812, 2016.02, This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions..
36. Hidemichi Fujii, Corporate environmental management and environmental strategies, Basic Studies in Environmental Knowledge, Technology, Evaluation, and Strategy Introduction to East Asia Environmental Studies, 10.1007/978-4-431-55819-4_18, 245-253, 2016.01, This chapter focuses on environmental management, corporations’ approaches to pollutant emission reduction, and the introduction of incentives for corporations to reduce pollutant emissions. It also discusses the effectiveness of models of these approaches, the burden of expense, and the efficiency of these approaches. In particular, the emphasis is on pollution abatement measures in the production process, with detailed explanations of the features and differences between end-of-pipe type emission reduction measurements and cleaner production type emission reduction measurements. In addition, factor analysis models that use numerical data to calculate the amount of (and changes in) pollutant emissions are introduced..
37. Huijuan Cao, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, A productivity analysis considering environmental pollution and diseases in China, Journal of Economic Structures, 10.1186/s40008-015-0012-9, 4, 1, 2015.12, Environmental pollution and human health problems are becoming serious issues in China. This research focuses on regional differences in productive inefficiencies and attempts to clarify the determinants of inefficiency, accounting economic, environmental and health-related factors. Our dataset includes information of 29 areas in China from 2003 to 2009. We find that after accounting for environmental pollution and health impacts, the productive inefficiency of the examined areas reduced; this result holds for both the national and provincial levels. Our results imply that government efforts to improve social welfare should emphasize increases in foreign direct investment and private medical expenditures. JEL codes: I15, O44, O47, R11..
38. Carlos Barros, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, How scale and ownership are related to financial performance? A productivity analysis of the Chinese banking sector, Journal of Economic Structures, 10.1186/s40008-015-0026-3, 4, 1, 2015.12, This paper analyzes productivity with a directional distance function model by investigating convexity and non-convexity in the Chinese banking sector. Two primary findings are summarized. First, there is a distinct change in productivity between large versus small banks and public versus nationwide joint-stock banks; the economies of scale and public orientation of the Chinese economy affect the performance of nationwide joint-stock banks. Second, the number of banks that experience local versus global technological change is small, indicating that productivity changes are driven by national rather than regional dynamics, although minor regional dynamics exist in the data..
39. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors, Global Environmental Change, 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.06.005, 35, 505-513, 2015.11, To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. The resulting emissions reduction potential is 2.54 Gt-CO2 in the year 2009, with former communist countries having the largest potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the manufacturing sectors. In particular, basic material industry including chemical and steel sectors has a lot of potential to reduce CO2 emissions..
40. Michiyuki Yagi, Hidemichi Fujii, Vincent Hoang, Shunsuke Managi, Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions, Journal of Environmental Management, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.06.054, 161, 206-218, 2015.09, This study estimates the environmental efficiency of international listed firms in 10 worldwide sectors from 2007 to 2013 by applying an order-m method, a non-parametric approach based on free disposal hull with subsampling bootstrapping. Using a conventional output of gross profit and two conventional inputs of labor and capital, this study examines the order-m environmental efficiency accounting for the presence of each of 10 undesirable inputs/outputs and measures the shadow prices of each undesirable input and output. The results show that there is greater potential for the reduction of undesirable inputs rather than bad outputs. On average, total energy, electricity, or water usage has the potential to be reduced by 50%. The median shadow prices of undesirable inputs, however, are much higher than the surveyed representative market prices. Approximately 10% of the firms in the sample appear to be potential sellers or production reducers in terms of undesirable inputs/outputs, which implies that the price of each item at the current level has little impact on most of the firms. Moreover, this study shows that the environmental, social, and governance activities of a firm do not considerably affect environmental efficiency..
41. Cao Huijuan, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Environmental impact of mega events, The Economics of Green Growth New Indicators for Sustainable Societies, 10.4324/9781315745800, 228-241, 2015.06.
42. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Hiromitsu Kawahara, Voluntary industrial toxics program and performance, The Economics of Green Growth: New Indicators for Sustainable Societies, 10.4324/9781315745800, 242-262, 2015.06.
43. Kimitaka Nishitani, Shinji Kaneko, Satoru Komatsu, Hidemichi Fujii, Erratum to
How does a firm’s management of greenhouse gas emissions influence its economic performance? Analyzing effects through demand and productivity in Japanese manufacturing firms, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 10.1007/s11123-015-0432-4, 43, 2, 2015.01.
44. Hidemichi Fujii, Kazuma Edamura, Koichi Sumikura, Yoko Furusawa, Naomi Fukuzawa, Shunsuke Managi, How enterprise strategies are related to innovation and productivity change
an empirical study of Japanese manufacturing firms, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 10.1080/10438599.2014.924746, 24, 3, 248-262, 2015.01, This study analyzes the total factor productivity of 1067 Japanese manufacturing firms. In production estimation, we employ the directional distance function and Luenberger productivity indicator. Research and development strategy survey data are used to analyze the determinant factors related to improvements in innovation and productivity. Our results indicate that increasing technology and knowledge through a ‘black box’ process is related to an increase in productivity. Furthermore, the protection and management of production knowledge and expertise is a valid method of increasing global technical change..
45. Kimitaka Nishitani, Shinji Kaneko, Satoru Komatsu, Hidemichi Fujii, How does a firm’s management of greenhouse gas emissions influence its economic performance? Analyzing effects through demand and productivity in Japanese manufacturing firms, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 10.1007/s11123-014-0388-9, 42, 3, 355-366, 2014.01, This paper analyzes how a firm’s management of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions affects its economic performance. The theoretical model we derive from Cobb–Douglas production and inverse demand functions predict that in conducting GHG emissions management, a firm will enhance its economic performance because it promotes an increase in demand for its output and improves its productivity. The estimation results, using panel data on Japanese manufacturing firms during the period 2007–2008, support the view that a firm’s GHG emissions management enhances a firm’s economic performance through an increase in demand and improvement in productivity. However, the latter effect is conditional. Although a firm’s efforts to maintain lower GHG emissions improves productivity, efforts to reduce GHG emissions further does not always improve it, especially for energy-intensive firms. Because firms attempting to maintain lower GHG emissions are more likely to improve their productivity, there is a possibility that firms with high GHG emissions can also enhance economic performance by reducing their emissions in the long term, even if additional costs are incurred. In addition, better GHG emissions management increases the demand of environmentally conscious customers because a product’s life cycle GHG emissions in the upper stream of the supply chain influence those in the lower stream, and customers evaluate the suppliers’ GHG emissions management in terms of green supply-chain management..
46. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Roman Matousek, Indian bank efficiency and productivity changes with undesirable outputs
A disaggregated approach, Journal of Banking and Finance, 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.09.022, 38, 1, 41-50, 2014.01, The objective of this study is to examine technical efficiency and productivity growth in the Indian banking sector over the period from 2004 to 2011. We apply an innovative methodological approach introduced by Chen et al. (2011) and Barros et al. (2012), who use a weighted Russell directional distance model to measure technical inefficiency. We further modify and extend that model to measure TFP change with NPLs. We find that the inefficiency levels are significantly different among the three ownership structure of banks in India. Foreign banks have strong market position in India and they pull the production frontier in a more efficient direction. SPBs and domestic private banks show considerably higher inefficiency. We conclude that the restructuring policy applied in the late 1990s and early 2000s by the Indian government has not had a long-lasting effect..
47. Zheng Zhang, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, How does commuting behavior change due to incentives? An empirical study of the Beijing Subway System, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 10.1016/j.trf.2014.02.009, 24, 17-26, 2014, This study examines the impact of incentives on commuters' travel behavior based upon a questionnaire survey conducted with respect to the Beijing Subway System. Overall, we find that offering incentives to commuters, particularly fast food restaurant-related services and reduced ticket fares, has a positive influence on avoiding the morning rush hour. Furthermore, by using an interaction analysis, we discover that a flexible work schedule has an impact on commuters' behavior and the efficiency of the subway system. Finally, we recommend two possible policies to maximize the utility of the subway system and to reduce congestion at the peak of morning service: (1) a set of incentives that includes free wireless internet service with a coupon for breakfast and a discount on ticket fares before the morning peak and (2) the introduction of a flexible work schedule..
48. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Shinji Kaneko, Decomposition analysis of air pollution abatement in China
Empirical study for ten industrial sectors from 1998 to 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.059, 59, 22-31, 2013.11, This study analyzes the management of air pollutant substance in Chinese industrial sectors from 1998 to 2009. Decomposition analysis applying the logarithmic mean divisia index is used to analyze changes in emissions of air pollutants with a focus on the following five factors: coal pollution intensity (CPI), end-of-pipe treatment (EOP), the energy mix (EM), productive efficiency change (EFF), and production scale changes (PSC). Three pollutants are the main focus of this study: sulfur dioxide (SO2), dust, and soot. The novelty of this paper is focusing on the impact of the elimination policy on air pollution management in China by type of industry using the scale merit effect for pollution abatement technology change. First, the increase in SO2 emissions from Chinese industrial sectors because of the increase in the production scale is demonstrated. However, the EOP equipment that induced this change and improvements in energy efficiency has prevented an increase in SO2 emissions that is commensurate with the increase in production. Second, soot emissions were successfully reduced and controlled in all industries except the steel industry between 1998 and 2009, even though the production scale expanded for these industries. This reduction was achieved through improvements in EOP technology and in energy efficiency. Dust emissions decreased by nearly 65% between 1998 and 2009 in the Chinese industrial sectors. This successful reduction in emissions was achieved by implementing EOP technology and pollution prevention activities during the production processes, especially in the cement industry. Finally, pollution prevention in the cement industry is shown to result from production technology development rather than scale merit..
49. Nagisa Ishinabe, Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, The true cost of greenhouse gas emissions
Analysis of 1,000 global companies, PLoS One, 10.1371/journal.pone.0078703, 8, 11, 2013.11, This study elucidated the shadow price of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 1,024 international companies worldwide that were surveyed from 15 industries in 37 major countries. Our results indicate that the shadow price of GHG at the firm level is much higher than indicated in previous studies. The higher shadow price was found in this study as a result of the use of Scope 3 GHG emissions data. The results of this research indicate that a firm would carry a high cost of GHG emissions if Scope 3 GHG emissions were the focus of the discussion of corporate social responsibility. In addition, such shadow prices were determined to differ substantially among countries, among sectors, and within sectors. Although a number of studies have calculated the shadow price of GHG emissions, these studies have employed country-level or industry-level data or a small sample of firm-level data in one country. This new data from a worldwide firm analysis of the shadow price of GHG emissions can play an important role in developing climate policy and promoting sustainable development..
50. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Which industry is greener? An empirical study of nine industries in OECD countries, Energy Policy, 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.02.011, 57, 381-388, 2013.06, This study analyzed the relationship between the CO2 emissions of different industries and economic growth in OECD countries from 1970 to 2005. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and found that total CO2 emissions from nine industries show an N-shaped trend instead of an inverted U or monotonic increasing trend with increasing income. The EKC hypothesis for sector-level CO2 emissions was supported in the (1) paper, pulp, and printing industry; (2) wood and wood products industry; and (3) construction industry. We also found that emissions from coal and oil increase with economic growth in the steel and construction industries. In addition, the non-metallic minerals, machinery, and transport equipment industries tend to have increased emissions from oil and electricity with economic growth. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between GDP per capita and sectoral CO2 emissions differ among industries according to the fuel type used. Therefore, environmental policies for CO2 reduction must consider these differences in industrial characteristics..
51. Hidemichi Fujii, Kazuyuki Iwata, Shinji Kaneko, Shunsuke Managi, Corporate Environmental and Economic Performance of Japanese Manufacturing Firms
Empirical Study for Sustainable Development, Business Strategy and the Environment, 10.1002/bse.1747, 22, 3, 187-201, 2013.03, This study examines the relationship between environmental performance and economic performance in Japanese manufacturing firms. The environmental performance indicators include CO2 emissions and the aggregate toxic risk associated with chemical emissions relative to sales. Return on assets (ROA) is used as an indicator of economic performance. We demonstrate that there is a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between ROA and environmental performance calculated by aggregated toxic risk. We also find that the environmental performance increases ROA through both returns on sales and improved capital turnover. However, we observe a significant positive relationship between financial performance and environmental performance based on CO2 emissions. These findings may provide evidence for the consequences of firms' environmental behavior and sustainable development..
52. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Decomposition of Toxic Chemical Substance Management in Three U.S. Manufacturing Sectors from 1991 to 2008, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00527.x, 17, 3, 461-471, 2013.01, Summary: This study analyzes toxic chemical substance management in three U.S. manufacturing sectors from 1991 to 2008. Decomposition analysis applying the logarithmic mean Divisia index is used to analyze changes in toxic chemical substance emissions by the following five factors: cleaner production, end-of-pipe treatment, transfer for further management, mixing of intermediate materials, and production scale. Based on our results, the chemical manufacturing sector reduced toxic chemical substance emissions mainly via end-of-pipe treatment. In the meantime, transfer for further management contributed to the reduction of toxic chemical substance emissions in the metal fabrication industry. This occurred because the environmental business market expanded in the 1990s, and the infrastructure for the recycling of metal and other wastes became more efficient. Cleaner production is the main contributor to toxic chemical reduction in the electrical product industry. This implies that the electrical product industry is successful in developing a more environmentally friendly product design and production process..
53. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Determinants of eco-efficiency in the Chinese industrial sector, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 10.1016/S1001-0742(14)60619-7, 25, S1, 2013.01, This study measures productive inefficiency within the context of multi-environmental pollution (eco-efficiency) in the Chinese industrial sector. The weighted Russell directional distance model is applied to measure eco-efficiency using production technology. The objective is to clarify how external factors affect eco-efficiency. The major findings are that both foreign direct investment and investment for pollution abatement improve eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutant substances. A levy system for wastewater discharge improves eco-efficiency as measured by wastewater pollutant substances. However, an air pollutant levy does not significantly affect eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutants..
54. Kimitaka Nishitani, Shinji Kaneko, Hidemichi Fujii, Satoru Komatsu, Are firms' voluntary environmental management activities beneficial for the environment and business? An empirical study focusing on Japanese manufacturing firms, Journal of Environmental Management, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.054, 105, 121-130, 2012.08, In this paper, to clarify whether a firm's voluntary approach to environmental protection is beneficial for both the environment and business, we analyze whether a firm's voluntary implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) simultaneously reduces its environmental impacts and improves its productivity. Using data on Japanese manufacturing firms for 2002-2008, we find empirical support for the view that the implementation of an EMS simultaneously reduces environmental impacts and improves productivity, and that a reduction in environmental impacts also improves productivity. However, in the context of this relationship, the direct effect of implementing an EMS on productivity is conditional. If various other activities designed to improve productivity implemented in response to market discipline are also taken into account, the effect of implementing an EMS is hidden by the effects of these activities. This implies that voluntary environmental management activities are merely a minor component of these activities. Therefore, the relationship between the implementation of an EMS and productivity improvement is not strong, although implementing an EMS indirectly improves productivity by reducing environmental impacts..
55. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Productive inefficiency analysis and toxic chemical substances in US and Japanese manufacturing sectors, Asian Business and Management, 10.1057/abm.2012.8, 11, 3, 291-310, 2012.07, Corporate social responsibility is imperative for manufacturing companies to achieve sustainable development. Under a strong environmental information disclosure system, polluting companies are disadvantaged in terms of market competitiveness, because they lack an environmentally friendly image. The objective of this study is to analyze productive inefficiency change in relation to toxic chemical substance emissions for the United States and Japan and their corresponding policies. We apply the weighted Russell directional distance model to measure companies productive inefficiency, which represents their production technology. The data encompass 330 US manufacturing firms observed from 1999 to 2007, and 466 Japanese manufacturing firms observed from 2001 to 2008. The article focuses on nine high-pollution industries (rubber and plastics; chemicals and allied products; paper and pulp; steel and non-ferrous metal; fabricated metal; industrial machinery; electrical products; transportation equipment; precision instruments) categorized into two industry groups: basic materials industries and processing and assembly industries. The results show that productive inefficiency decreased in all industrial sectors in the United States and Japan from 2001 to 2007. In particular, that of the electrical products industry decreased rapidly after 2002 for both countries, possibly because of the enforcement of strict environmental regulations for electrical products exported to European markets. [-] [-] [-] [-] [-] [-]..
56. Kimitaka Nishitani, Shinji Kaneko, Hidemichi Fujii, Satoru Komatsu, Effects of the reduction of pollution emissions on the economic performance of firms
An empirical analysis focusing on demand and productivity, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.06.021, 19, 17-18, 1956-1964, 2011.11, This paper analyzes whether the reduction of pollution emissions improves a firm's economic performance through the increase in sales to environmentally conscious customers and the cost reductions associated with the improvement in productivity. Because the selection of the control (end-of-pipe) or prevention (cleaner production) approach differently influences the effect through the improvement in productivity, this is also considered. Using panel data for Japanese manufacturing firms over the period 2002-2008, the findings indicate that firms that have reduced their pollution emissions can increase their economic performance through the increase in demand for their products and an improvement in productivity. However, the latter is conditional, and so the prevention approach is preferred..
57. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, Hiromitsu Kawahara, The pollution release and transfer register system in the U.S. and Japan
An analysis of productivity, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.01.010, 19, 12, 1330-1338, 2011.08, This study analyzes Total Factor Productivity (TFP), which includes all categories of productivity. Our measure investigates productivity in the context of the provision and dissemination of environmental information policies. We investigated data on the emission of toxic chemical substances for the U.S. and Japanese manufacturing firms, including 386 firms for the period 1999-2007 and 466 firms for the period 2001-2008. The results show that productivity improved in all nine industrial sectors and that pollution levels were high in the U.S. and Japan from 2001 to 2007. In particular, the electronics industry improved rapidly after 2002 in both countries, which may be attributed to the enforcement of RoHS and the REACH directive in Europe. As a result of these stringent policies on toxic chemical emissions, the U.S. and Japanese firms, many of which export to the European market, have strong incentives to reduce their toxic chemical emissions..
58. Hidemichi Fujii, Shinji Kaneko, Shunsuke Managi, Changes in environmentally sensitive productivity and technological modernization in China's iron and steel industry in the 1990s, Environment and Development Economics, 10.1017/S1355770X10000173, 15, 4, 485-504, 2010.08, Technological modernization is widely believed to contribute positively both to economic development and to environmental and resource conservation, through improvements in productivity and strengthening of business competitiveness. However, this may not always be true, particularly in the short term, as it requires substantial investments and may impose financial burdens on firms undertaking such investments. This study empirically examines the effects of technological modernization in China's iron and steel industry in the 1990s on conventional economic productivity (CEP) and environmentally sensitive productivities (ESPs). We employ a directional distance function that can handle multiple inputs and outputs to compute relative production efficiencies. We apply these models to the data covering 27 iron and steel firms in China between 1990 and 1999-a period when the Chinese iron and steel industry modernized rapidly. We find that ESPs have continuously improved, even in the period when the CEP declined..
59. Shinji Kaneko, Hidemichi Fujii, Naoya Sawazu, Ryo Fujikura, Financial allocation strategy for the regional pollution abatement cost of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions in the thermal power sector in China, Energy Policy, 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.005, 38, 5, 2131-2141, 2010.05, This study explores empirical evidence for two hypotheses through a macro productivity analysis using the nonparametric directional distance function approach applied to the thermal power sector. The first hypothesis is that the marginal abatement cost has significantly declined in recent years mainly due to domestic flue gas desulfurization technology in China, which has become available at a reasonable cost. The second is the existence of a certain budget scale, which, with policy intervention, would have significant outcomes. These hypotheses are successfully addressed through the findings that the marginal abatement cost in 2006 had declined by half since 2003 and that the strategic allocation of 10 billion yuan for SO2 emissions abatement would result in an additional 550,000 tonnes of SO2 reductions..
60. Shinji Kaneko, Shunsuke Managi, Hidemichi Fujii, Tetsuya Tsurumi, Does an environmental Kuznets curve for waste pollution exist in China?, International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 9, 1-2, 4-19, 2009, China is an emerging and leading world economy. The pace of economic change has been tremendously rapid since the beginning of economic reforms. Despite the importance of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and environmental problems in China, no previous study has tested the EKC in China because of the difficulty in obtaining data and the need to adjust the data. The focus of this paper is to test the EKC in China using province level data over the period 1992-2003. This study applies non-parametric techniques to estimate the relationship between income and the environmental quality of wastewater, air pollution and solid waste..
61. Hidemichi Fujii, Shunsuke Managi, An evaluation of inclusive capital stock for urban planning, Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 10.1002/ehs2.1243, 2, 10, 2016.10, Rapid urbanization has caused significant problems, and sustainable city design can play an important role in solving these problems under limited budgets and resources. Previous studies have proposed city evaluation indicators that can suggest appropriate urban designs. However, these indicators do not clearly consider economic theory, which is crucial for understanding accumulation of urban capital stock by the flows from daily urban activities. This study proposes a research framework based on economic theory for evaluating urban sustainability; this framework uses the inclusive wealth index (IWI) concept to examine inclusive urban capital stock. It examines the advantages of using the IWI as a city evaluation indicator along with data envelopment analysis and a decomposition analysis framework. We use data for 20 Japanese ordinance‐designated cities for an empirical study to demonstrate a proposed approach for evaluating inclusive urban capital. The developed research application evaluates each city's relative superiority in terms of capital accumulation and identifies those factors determining changes in capital flows via changes in efficiency, priority, and scale. The combination of these results can be helpful to decision makers seeking to increase urban capital by considering reference city information and relative superiority..