||Chikako Yokoyama, Yuta Chigi, Takashi Baba, Atsushi Ohshitanai, Yumi Harada, Fumiya Takahashi, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, Three populations of adult Leydig cells in mouse testes revealed by a novel mouse HSD3B1-specific rat monoclonal antibody, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.02.100, 511, 4, 916-920, 2019.04, Leydig cells play a pivotal function in the synthesis of a male sex steroid, testosterone. The ability of the steroid production is dependent on the expression of the steroidogenic genes, such as HSD3B (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5- Δ4 isomerase). It has been established that two different types of Leydig cells, fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs), are developed in mammalian testes. FLCs and ALCs are characterized by different sets of marker gene expression. In the case of mouse Leydig cells, Hsd3b1 (Hsd3b type 1) is expressed both in FLCs and ALCs whereas Hsd3b6 (Hsd3b type 6) is expressed in ALCs but not in FLCs. However, because the antibodies established so far for HSD3B were unable to distinguish between the HSD3B1 and HSD3B6 isoforms, it remained unclear whether both of them are expressed in every ALC. Therefore, in the present study, we generated a rat monoclonal antibody specific for mouse HSD3B1. Intriguingly, this monoclonal antibody together with an antibody specific for HSD3B6 identified three populations of ALCs based on the expression levels of these HSD3Bs..
||Yuta Chigi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takashi Sado, The 5′ region of Xist RNA has the potential to associate with chromatin through the A-repeat, RNA, 10.1261/rna.062158.117, 23, 12, 1894-1901, 2017.12, X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is a long noncoding RNA that plays an essential role in X chromosome inactivation. Although Xist RNA, like common protein-coding mRNAs, is transcribed by RNA polymerase II, spliced and polyadenylated, it is retained in the nucleus and associates with the X chromosome it originates from. It has been assumed that Xist RNA recruits proteins involved in epigenetic modifications and chromatin compaction to the X chromosome. One of the major proteins constituting the nuclear matrix, hnRNP U, has been shown to be required for the association of Xist RNA with the inactive X chromosome (Xi). In this study, we found that the first 950-nt sequence of Xist RNA had the potential to associate with chromatin in a manner independent of hnRNP U. Furthermore, its chromatin association is apparently dependent on the presence of an intact A-repeat sequence, which is one of the repeats in Xist/XIST RNA conserved among many mammalian species, and has been shown to be important for Xist RNA-mediated silencing. Taking this unexpected finding and a previous study demonstrating the effect of Xist RNA lacking the A-repeat on the formation of the silent heterochromatin domain together, we suggest that the A-repeat captures chromatin near the initial loading site of Xist RNA and relocates it into the core of the heterochromatin domain..