Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
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Hideo Nagashima Last modified date:2019.07.05

Graduate School
Other Organization
Administration Post
Vice President

Research and Education Center for Advanced Energy Materials, Devices, and Systems, Kyushu University .
Home page of Research and Education Center of Carbon Resources. .
NagashimaLab .
Academic Degree
D. of Engineering
Country of degree conferring institution (Overseas)
Field of Specialization
Organometallic Chemistry, Molecular Catalysis, Synthetic Organic and Polymer Chemistry
ORCID(Open Researcher and Contributor ID)
Total Priod of education and research career in the foreign country
Outline Activities
【Research Activity】A major research field is organometallic chemistry and molecular catalysis. Metal compounds containing carbon-metal bonds, so called as "organometallic compounds", have been actively investigated in related to reagents and catalysts in organic and polymer synthesis and precursors of advanced materials. Organometallic chemistry is now recognized as an interdisciplinary field containing organic, inorganic, and physical chemistry, and active research on synthesis, properties, and reactivity of new compounds have been carried out experimentally and theoretically. Typical research projects are following:
(1) Iron-catalyzed reactions in organic and polymer synthesis.
a) Iron-catalyzed controlled practical radical polymerization (cooperative research with industries)
b) Mechanistic studies on the iron-catalyzed coupling reactions
c) Iron-catalyzed hydrosilane reduciton of amides
(2) Ruthenium clusters capable of activating hydrosilanes leading to efficient organic and polymer synthesis
a) Efficient and selective reduction of carbonyl compounds including carboxylic acids, esters, and amides
b) Proximity effects of dual Si-H groups to accelerate the catalytic hydrosilylation: mechanisms and applications
c) Reduction of carboxamides with PMHS leading to self-separation of catalyst and reductant
d) Silane induced polymerization of cyclic ethers, siloxanes, and vinyl ethers.
e) Expansion of these silane-mediated reactions to catalysis of other transition metals.
(3) Synthesis and properties of new transition metal compounds
a) Development of highly reactive organoruthenium amidinates and their application to catalysis
b) Titanium and nickel catalysts for olefin polymerization (Post-metallocene catalysts)
c) Titanium and zirconium phosphinoamides as a metalloligand of late transition metals
d) photo-reactive organometallic molecules potentially capable of properties as organometallic photoswitch.
4) Transition metal nanoparticles dispersed in polymers and nanocarbon fibers: Synthesis, catalysis, and other properties.
a) Catalysis in Polysiloxane Gel
b) Nanometal particles dispersed in hyperbranched polymers. Preparation and catalysis
c) Nanometal particles on carbon nanofibers
d) Preparation of organometallic complexes and catalysis based on Element Strategy Initiative
【Education】 Contribution to education of Graduate School of Engineering Sciences (Department of Molecular and Materials Sciences (Master course, Doctoral course)) and education of Energy Sciences and Engineering (School of Engineering) .
【Administration】 Director of Analytical Center of Kyushu University (2006), Director of Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering (2007~2013), Director of Research and Education Center of Carbon Resources (2009-2010), Director of Research and Education Center of Energy Materials, Devices, and Systems (2013-2017), Support member of president of Kyushu University (2007~2009), Vice president (2011~2013, 2017~present)
Research Interests
  • New iron complexes for catalysis: catalyst design, synthesis, reactions, and reaction mechanisms
    keyword : paramagnetic, bioelement, iron, catalyst and catalysis
    2006.03Organomeatllic complexes are immobilized into the polysiloxane gel, and the formed metal-containing gel is applied to reusable molecular catalysts. Concept of "reactions in gel" is established, and practical synththetic methods based on this concept are developed..
  • Preparation of organic nanoparticles and their applcation to functional materials including catalysts
    keyword : organic nanoparticle, functional materials, catalysis
    2006.03Organomeatllic complexes are immobilized into the polysiloxane gel, and the formed metal-containing gel is applied to reusable molecular catalysts. Concept of "reactions in gel" is established, and practical synththetic methods based on this concept are developed..
  • Molecular catalysis in polymer gels leading to environmentally benign organic and polymer synthesis
    keyword : polymer gels, molecular catalysis, process chemistry, reusable catalysts
    2004.03Organomeatllic complexes are immobilized into the polysiloxane gel, and the formed metal-containing gel is applied to reusable molecular catalysts. Concept of "reactions in gel" is established, and practical synththetic methods based on this concept are developed..
  • Transition metal nanoparticles on carbon nanofibers: syntheis and application to catalysis
    keyword : nanocarbn fiber, nanometal particles, catalysis
    2004.04Nano-scale transition metal clusters are bound to the surface of carbon nanofibers. The new metal-carbon materials are active towards catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic comounds and other catalytic transformation of organic and polymer compounds..
  • Development of hydrosilane-mediated reactions by catalysis of transition metals: Foundamentals and applications to organic and polymer synthesis.
    keyword : transition metal complexes, hydrosilanes, organic synthesis, polymer synthesis
    1997.04Exploration of reactive organometallic clusters and their catalysis is actively investigated. Reactive organoruthenium clusters have been synthesized and characterized. The clusters are useful for facile activation of a Si-H bond of organosilanes, and application of this activation process to catalysis has provided (1) catalytic hydrosilylation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, (2) catalytic reduction of carboxylic acids, esters, and amides, and (3) silane-induced polymerization of cyclic ethers, cyclic siloxanes, and vinyl ethers. The reactions (2) are useful for practical methods in organic synthesis, whereas the polymerizations (3) are unique for synthesis of polymers with relatively narrow MWD bearing organosilyl end group, which is useful for further chemical transformation of the formed polymers. Mechanistic studies were carried out, revealing the involvement of cluster intermediates in the catalytic cycle..
  • Organometallic complexes for catalytic olefin polymerization
    keyword : Olefin polymerization, organometallic complexes, catalysis
    1997.08~2008.03Molecular catalysts active for olefin polymerization have been investigated by using titanium, zirconium, or nickel complexes having auxiliary ligands containing nitrogen atom. Two types of sulfonamide ligands are useful for the ligands of titanium and zirconium, and the resulting complexes, which are synthesized and characterized, exhibit moderate catalytic activity towards ethylene polymerization in the presence of methylaluminoxane. Nickel isocyanide complexes, and metallacyclic complexes derived from the nickel isocyanides, have been newly synthesized and characterized. They are also useful for ethylene polymerization..
  • Transition metal catalyzed radical reactions
    keyword : transition metal catalysts, radical reactions, living polymerization, iron
    1997.04Molecular catalysts active for radical cyclization and radical polymerization have been investigated. The conventional copper-amine catalyst systems, which were discovered by us in 1989, and newly developed ruthenium amidinate complexes (see, our research project 4) are active towards radical cyclization of N-allyl polyhaloacetamides leading to pyrrolidinone derivatives including those having alkaloid skeletons. Application of the latter catalysts to radical polymerization is also investigated..
  • Highly reactive ruthenium amidinate complexes: foundamentals and applications.
    keyword : ruthenium amidinate complexes
    1999.04~2008.10Mono- and dinuclear ruthenium amidinate complexes have been developed with the purpose of exploration of highly reactive molecular catalysts. Two types of mononuclear ruthenium amidinates have been synthesized and characterized, which have 16 valence electrons and coordinatively unsaturated nature. The complexes are highly active towards various two electron donor ligands, organic oxidants, and diazo compounds. They are also reactive with certain transition metal species; the reaction gives a new dinuclear ruthenium amidinate, which is a good precursor for coordinatively unsaturated diruthenium amidinates. Besides unique structures of these dinuclear complexes, their high reactivity contributes to finding their catalysis; catalytic chemical transformation of allylic compounds, radical cyclization of N-polyhaloacetamides (research 3) and polymerization initiated by organic halide initiators..
  • New heterobimetallic complexes: foundamentals and applications
    keyword : heterobimetallic complexes
    2001.04Two new reactions leading to synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes containing titanium and other transition metals have been developed. One reaction is titanium(III)-complexes induced metal-metal bond cleavage of metal carbonyl dimers, which results in formation of Ti-Mo, Ti-W, Ti-Ru, and Ti-Co heterobimetallic complexes. The other is formation of Ti-Pt and Ti-Pd heterobimetallic complexes having a bridging phosphoamide ligands. These new complexes are expected to have cooperative reactivity of dual metals in one organometallic molecules for capture of organic substrates, and reactions and catalysis of these new complexes are now under study..
  • Photoreactive organometallic complexes
    keyword : Photoreactive organometallic complexes
    2001.04~2006.03Thermally reversible photoisomerization of dinuclear organometallic complexes have been investigated. Diiron or diruthenium carbonyl complexes bound to bridging acenaphthylene or azulene ligands are one of the target, of which two haptotropic isomers are interconverted both thermally and photochemically. A diiron complex bonding to acenaphthylene is a special complex showing complete reversal of the isomer ratios between the thermal and photochemical processes in both solution and solid states. In particular, the photo/ thermal cycle can be repeated over ten times in solid sample dispersed in a KBr pellet, which is monitored by IR detection. A principle of other organometallic photoswitch has been proposed in a photo-assisted formation of a Ti-Ru heterobimetallic complex shown in research 5, in which the Ti-Ru complex is formed photochemically with decrease of magnetism due to the Ti(III) species, whereas thermal reverse reaction occurs in the dark..
Current and Past Project
  • The author is a project leader of "New Iron Catalysis in Organic Synthesis" in "Creation of Innovative Functions of Intelligent Materials on the Basis of Element Strategy" (CREST, JST) in 2011-2017.
  • The author is a project leader of "New Iron Catalysis in Organic Synthesis" in "Creation of Innovative Functions of Intelligent Materials on the Basis of Element Strategy" (CREST, JST) in 2011-2017.
  • The authors contribute to the project, "Exploration of reactive organometallic clusters and catalysis" (CREST, JST, project leader Prof. Hiroharu Suzuki, Tokyo Tech.) in 1997-2001, as a group leader of "cluster catalysis group".
Academic Activities
1. 永島 英夫, アルケンのヒドロシリル化用触媒研究の最新動向, 触媒学会, 触媒年鑑 「触媒技術の動向と展望」 2018 創立 60 周年記念号、pp。73-83., 2018.05.
2. 永島 英夫, 西形孝司, 砂田 祐輔, Arada, Chaiyanurakkul, Iron Promoted Reduction Reactions in The Chemistry of Organoiron Compounds (Patai), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, pp. 325-377 (2014) 10.1002/9780470682531.pat0659, 2014.02, Pataiシリーズの有機鉄化合物の化学の中の1章を担当.
3. Hideo Nagashima, “Facile Hydrogenation of Acenaphthylenes and Azulenes on the Face of a Triruthenium Carbonyl Moiety: Discovery of Specific Reactions on the Cluster Providing Unique Insight for Cluster Catalysis”, Springer, in K. Kirchner, H. Weissensteiner eds. “Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis”, 2001.01.
1. Yusuke Sunada, Hajime Ogushi, Taiji Yamamoto, Shoko Uto, Mina Sawano, Atsushi Tahara, Hiromasa Tanaka, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hideo Nagashima, Disilaruthena- and Ferracyclic Complexes Containing Isocyanide Ligands as Effective Catalysts for Hydrogenation of Unfunctionalized Sterically Hindered Alkenes, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 10.1021/jacs.8b00812, 140, 11, 4119-4134, 2018.03, Disilaferra- and disilaruthenacyclic complexes containing mesityl isocyanide as a ligand, 3′ and 4′, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and crystallography. Both 3′ and 4′ showed excellent catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of alkenes. Compared with iron and ruthenium carbonyl analogues, 1′ and 2′, the isocyanide complexes 3′ and 4′ were more robust under the hydrogenation conditions, and were still active even at higher temperatures (∼80 °C) under high hydrogen pressure (∼20 atm). The iron complex 3′ exhibited the highest catalytic activity toward hydrogenation of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted alkenes among currently reported iron catalysts. Ruthenium complex 4′ catalyzed hydrogenation under very mild conditions, such as room temperature and 1 atm of H2. The remarkably high catalytic activity of 4′ for hydrogenation of unfunctionalized tetrasubstituted alkenes was especially notable, because it was comparable to the activity of iridium complexes reported by Crabtree and Pfaltz, which are catalysts with the highest activity in the literature. DFT calculations suggested two plausible catalytic cycles, both of which involved activation of H2 assisted by the metal-silicon bond through σ-bond metathesis of late transition metals (oxidative hydrogen migration). The linear structure of M C≡N - C (ipso carbon of the mesityl group) played an essential role in the efficient hydrogenation of sterically hindered tetrasubstituted alkenes..
2. Yusuke Sunada, Hideo Nagashima, Disilametallacyclic chemistry for efficient catalysis, Dalton Transactions, 10.1039/c7dt01275f, 46, 24, 7644-7655, 2017.07, This article discusses two new features of disilametallacyclic chemistry that contribute to the development of efficient catalytic reactions in organic synthesis. The first is disilametallacyclic intermediates in the hydrosilane reduction of carbonyl compounds. Experimental and theoretical studies on disilaplatinacycles suggested that the H2Pt(iv)Si2 species generated by oxidative addition of 1,2-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene behaves as a highly reactive hydride to reduce amides to amines. This mechanism via disilametallacyclic intermediates explains the efficient hydrosilane reduction of carbonyl compounds with α,ω-bifunctional hydrosilanes catalyzed by other transition metals. The second is hydrogenation of alkenes by disilaferra- or disilaruthenacyclic complexes as catalyst precursors. A new mechanism not involving the conventional oxidative addition of H2 was suggested from DFT calculations, in which activation of the H-H bond occurs in the metal-silicon bond of the disilametallacyclic intermediate. Disilametallacyclic intermediates contribute to efficient catalytic reactions through this σ-CAM (σ-complex assisted mechanism) type mechanism..
3. Konoka Hoshi, Atsushi Tahara, Yusuke Sunada, Hironori Tsutsumi, Ryoko Inoue, Hiromasa Tanaka, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hideo Nagashima, α-CAM mechanisms for the hydrogenation of alkenes by cis- and trans- disilametallacyclic carbonyl complexes (M = Fe, Ru, Os)
Experimental and theoretical studies, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 10.1246/bcsj.20170004, 90, 5, 613-626, 2017.05, The hydrogenation of alkenes catalyzed by disilametallacyclic carbonyl complexes of iron, ruthenium or osmium was studied experimentally and theoretically. The disilaruthenacycle 2 with two CO ligands in the trans-configuration was prepared, characterized, and its ability to catalyze hydrogenation was studied. Similar to the corresponding iron analogue 1 in which the CO ligands are in the cis-configuration, 2 contains a H2MSi4 core with SiHSi SISHA (secondary interaction of silicon and hydrogen atoms) and catalyzed the hydrogenation of several alkenes under mild conditions. DFT calculations of 1 and 2 with cis- and trans-CO configurations (cis-1, trans-1, cis-2 and trans-2) revealed that the mechanism of ethylene hydrogenation comprises three catalytic cycles, and a key step involves the H-H bond of H2 being activated by an M-Si bond through oxidative hydrogen migration. These mechanisms are a variety of α-CAM (complex-assisted metathesis) mechanisms. Further calculations suggest that these catalytic cycles can apply to the catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene by osmium analogues of 1 and 2 (cis-3 and trans-3). Some of the elementary reactions in the cycles are dependent on the metal, and the osmium complexes show different performance from the iron and ruthenium analogues due to the characteristic natures of the third-row transition metals..
4. Hideo Nagashima, Catalyst design of iron complexes, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 10.1246/bcsj.20170071, 90, 7, 761-775, 2017.01, Despite worldwide interest from synthetic chemists, the rational design of catalytically active organoiron species remains problematic. While noble metal catalysis proceeds through diamagnetic low-spin intermediates, iron species are often in the high or intermediate spin states, which are paramagnetic and difficult to analyze. Possible spin change during catalysis also complicates the problem. This report describes two extremes for the catalyst design of iron complexes. One involves diamagnetic 14-electron iron(II) species useful for two-electron chemistry often seen in noble metal catalysis. The disilaferracyclic carbonyl complex 4 is a good catalyst precursor, and shows good catalytic performance for the hydrogenation and hydrosilylation of alkenes, and the hydrosilane reduction of carbonyl compounds. Based on DFT calculations, mechanisms involving ·-CAM (sigma-complex-assisted metathesis) for the hydrogenation and hydrosilane reduction are suggested. Further catalyst design inspired by the success of 4 led to the discovery of iron and cobalt catalyst systems composed of metal carboxylates and isocyanide ligands leading to a practical substitute for industrially useful platinum catalysts for hydrosilylation with hydrosiloxanes. The second approach involves paramagnetic 16-electron iron (II) catalyst species. A series of "(R3TACN)FeX2" complexes were prepared and found to be good catalysts for atom transfer radical polymerization, giving rise to well-controlled polymerization of styrene, methacrylates, and acrylates with high activity. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily removed from the polymer and was reusable. Mechanistic studies of iron-catalyzed crosscoupling reactions in collaboration with Nakamura and Takaya opened a new approach to the catalyst design of unknown spin states by using new analytical methods for paramagnetic species in the solution state..
5. Atsushi Tahara, Hiromasa Tanaka, Yusuke Sunada, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hideo Nagashima, Theoretical Study of the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Alkenes by a Disilaferracyclic Complex
Can the Fe-Si σ-Bond-Assisted Activation of H-H Bonds Allow Development of a Catalysis of Iron?, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 10.1021/acs.joc.6b01961, 81, 22, 10900-10911, 2016.11, The mechanisms associated with the hydrogenation of alkenes catalyzed by the iron complex Fe(cis-CO)2{o-(SiMe2)2C6H4}2(H)2 (1) were investigated by DFT calculations. The complex 1 has a structure in which the iron center is bonded to four silicon atoms and two hydrides. Secondary Si···H···Si interactions were also observed. The exchange of a 1,2-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene ligand with ethylene and hydrogen gives a disilaferracycle bearing η2-(CH2=CH2) and η2-H2 ligands. The catalytic cycle initiated from the disilaferracycle involves cleavage of a H-H linkage assisted by an Fe-Si bond to form Fe-H and η1-(H-Si) moieties (step 1), hydrogen migration from the Fe-H group to the η2-(CH2=CH2) ligand which accomplishes the insertion of ethylene into the Fe-H bond (step 2), and reaction of the resulting β-agostic ethyl moiety with the η2-(H-Si) group to form ethane on the iron atom (step 3). The octahedral geometry of 1 as well as the presence of π-acidic CO ligands and Fe-Si σ-bonds contributes to all of the catalytic intermediates and the transition states being in the low-spin state. Steps 1 and 3 correspond to the σ-complex-assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) mechanisms proposed by Perutz and Sabo-Etienne, suggesting that these mechanisms can assist in the design of iron-based hydrogenation catalysts operating under mild conditions..
6. Hideo Nagashima, 野田 大輔, Yusuke Sunada, Atsushi Tahara, Non-Precious-Metal Catalytic Systems Involving Iron or Cobalt Carboxylates and Alkyl Isocyanides for Hydrosilylation of Alkenes with Hydrosiloxanes, Journal of American Chemical Society, 138, 8, 2480-2483, 2016.03.
7. Hideo Nagashima, So-ichiro Nakanishi, Yusuke Sunada, Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization by Solvent-stabilized (Me3TACN)FeX2: A Practical Access to Reusable Iron(II) Catalysts, Polymer Chemistry, 7, 5, 1037-1048, 2016.03.
8. Hideo Nagashima, Atsushi Tahara, Yusuke Sunada, YUKIHIRO MOTOYAMA, Hironori Tsutsumi, Catalyst Design of Vaska-Type Iridium Complexes for Highly Efficient Synthesis of π-Conjugated Enamines, Organometallics, 34, 20, 4895-4907, 2015.08.
9. Hideo Nagashima, Daisuke Noda, Yusuke Sunada, Hiroe Soejima, Hironori Tsutsumi, Combinatorial Approach to the Catalytic Hydrosilylation of Styrene Derivatives: Catalyst Systems Composed of Organoiron(0) or (II) Precursors and Isocyanides, Organometallics, 34, 12, 2896-2906, 2015.08.
10. Hideo Nagashima, Gao Lei, Keisuke Kojima, Transition Metal Nanoparticles Stabilized by Ammonium Salts of Hyperbranched Polystyrene: Effect of Metals on Catalysis of the Biphasic Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Arenes, Tetrahedron, 71, 37, 6414-6423, 2015.07.
11. Hideo Nagashima, Efficient Transition Metal-Catalyzed Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives with Hydrosilanes and Hydrosiloxanes, Afforded by Catalyst Design and the Proximity Effect of Two Si-H Groups, Synlett, 10.1055/s-0034-1379989, 26, 866-890, 2015.03.
12. Hideo Nagashima, Yusuke Sunada, Ryohei Haige, Kyohei Otsuka, So-ichiro Kyushin, “A ladder polysilane as a template for folding palladium nanosheets”, , Nat. Commun., DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3014, 4, 3014/1-3014/7, 2013.05, 世界最大のパラジウムナノシートの合成.
13. Hideo Nagashima, Takashi Nishikata, N-Alkylation of Tosylamides Using Esters as Primary- and Tertiary-Alkyl Sources Mediated by Hydrosilanes Activated by a Ruthenium Catalyst, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 51, 5363-5366, 2012.06, ルテニウム触媒でヒドロシランを活性化することにより、エステルをアルキル源とするトシルアミドのN-アルキル化反応を達成した。.
14. T. Sue, Y. Sunada, H. Nagashima, Zirconium(IV) Tris(phosphinoamide) Complexes as the Tripod-type Metalloligand: A Novel Route to Zr-M (M = Cu, Mo, Pt) Heterobimetallic Complexes., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2007.05.
15. S. Niibayashi, H. Hayakawa, R. –H. Jin, H. Nagashima, Reusable and environmentally friendly ionic trinuclear iron complex catalyst for atom transfer radical polymerization., Chem. Commun., 2007.02.
16. K. Tsuchiya, H. Kondo, H. Nagashima, Ring Expansion of a Platinacyclopropane to a Platinacyclopentane by Double Insertion of Isocyanides into Pt-C Bonds., Organometallics, 26, 1044-1051, 2007.01.
17. H. Nagashima, T. Sue, T. Oda, A. Kanemitsu, T. Matsumoto, Y. Motoyama, Y. Sunada, Dynamic Titanium Phosphinoamides as Unique Bidentate Phosphorus Ligands for Platinum, Organometallics, 25, 1987-1994, 2006.03.
18. Motoyama, Y.; Mitsui, K.; Ishida, T.; Nagashima, H., “Self-Encapsulation of Homogeneous Catalyst Species into Polymer Gel Leading to a Facile and Efficient Separation System of Amine Products in the Ru-Catalyzed Reduction of Carboxamides with Polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS).”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 10.1021/ja0544531, 127, 38, 13150-13151, 127, 13150-13151, 2005.08.
19. Motoyama, Y; Gondo, M; Masuda, S; Iwashita, Y; Nagashima, H,, “A cationic diruthenium amidinate, [(eta(5)-C5Me5)Ru(mu(2)-i-PrN=C(Me)Ni-Pr)Ru(eta(5)-C5Me5)](+), as an efficient catalyst for the atom-transfer radical reactions”,, CHEMISTRY LETTERS, 10.1246/cl.2004.442, 33, 4, 442-443, 33(4), 442-443, 2004.01.
Educational Activities
Graduate School of Engineering Sciences
1999 Department of Molecular Engineering
2000- Department of Molecular and Materials Sciences

School of Engineering
2000-2012 Department of Energy Science and Engineering
Professional and Outreach Activities
Joint Research with Industries: 4(2006) 3(2007) 3(2008), 2009(1), 2010(1), 2011(1),2012(1)
Technical Advisor for Industries: 1(2007), 1(2008), 2(2009), 1(2010)
International Colaboration: Vienna Institute of Technology, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Mahidon Univ., Ajou Univ., National Sun Yet-Sen Univ..