|Kazuo UEDA||Last modified date：2021.09.13|
Reseacher Profiling Tool Kyushu University Pure
Country of degree conferring institution (Overseas)
Field of Specialization
Psychology of Hearing (Psychoacoustics), Perceptual Psychology, Experimental Psychology
ORCID(Open Researcher and Contributor ID)
Total Priod of education and research career in the foreign country
The current research themes are the following: (1) perception of degraded speech, including checkerboard speech, interrupted speech, locally time-reversed speech, noise-vocoded speech, and mosaic speech, (2) Irrelevant sound effect on short-term memory, (3) multivariate analyses of speech, (4) multivariate analyses of choral music, etc. Some of them are collaborative works with Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Germany, and University of British Columbia, Canada. He had been a member of the Perceptual Psychology Unit of the governmental "Center of Excellence" (COE) program entitled "Design of Artificial Environments on the Basis of Human Sensibility," Kyushu University, since 2003. He joined a membership of "Center for Applied Perceptual Research," since its foundation in 2010. The Center developed into "Research Center for Applied Perceptual Science" in 2013. He supervises some undergraduate and graduate students. He teaches Psychology of Hearing, Auditory Perception and Cognition, Perceptual Psychology, Science of Auditory and Visual Perception, etc. He had taught Psychology, Perceptual Psychology, Experimental Design, etc. at Kyoto Prefectural University. He has experienced managements in publishing and research meetings at the Acoustical Society of Japan and at the Japanese Society for Music Perception and Cognition. He experienced one of the topic editors in Frontiers in Psychology from 2019 to 2020. From 2018 to 2019, he served as one of the Vice Presidents of the International Society for Psychophysics. Since 2019, he has been the President of the International Society for Psychophysics.
Research InterestsMembership in Academic Society
- Perception of degraded speech
keyword : checkerboard speech, interrupted speech, locally time-reversed speech, noise-vocoded speech, mosaic speech
- Irrelevant sound effects
keyword : irrelevant sound effects, serial recall, speech intelligibility
- Perceptual restoration of interrupted speech
keyword : perceptual restoration, interrupted speech
- Multilingual comparison about perception of locally time-reversed speech
keyword : intelligibility, time reversal, time window
- Factor analyses of critical-band-filtered speech and perception of noise-vocoded speech
keyword : Power fluctuation, frequency bands, noise-vocoded speech
2007.04Facotr analyses of critical-band-filtered speech.
- Short-term memory of speech and non-speech
keyword : auditory short-term memory
1992.04Short-term auditory memory for speech and nonspeech..
- Irrelevant speech effect was investigated with locally time-reversed speech, employing both German native participants and Japanese native participants. The results of the investigation has been published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America [Ueda, K., Nakajima, Y., Kattner, F., and Ellermeier, W. (2019). "Irrelevant speech effects with locally time-reversed speech: Native vs non-native language," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 145(6), 3686-3694].
- Perception of locally time-reversed speech is investigated. A paper has been published (Ueda et al., 2017).
- A series of experiments is planned to use results from Ueda & Naka jima (2008) in order to produce speech which is degraded in systematical ways. Speciﬁcally, noise-vocoded speech shall be produced that lacks the spectral ﬁne-structure of the original recording, and that permits to systematically vary the number of frequency channels used in the synthesis. Furthermore, conventional critical-band based synthesis methods shall be compared with ones that partition the audible frequency range into ’meaningful’ units as determined by Ueda, Naka jima & Araki (2009). Finally, input signals other than noise may be used for the vocoder. The stimuli thus generated may serve as interfering background in ’irrelvant speech’ type paradigms as studied by Ellermeier & Zimmer (1997) or Zimmer, Ghani & Ellermeier (2008). The results may elucidate what makes sounds ’speech-like’ and what are the acoustical properties that produce the greatest degree of memory impairment in the irrelevant sound paradigm. Simultaneously they serve to validate the concept of speech-based auditory universals proposed by Ueda et al. (2009). Several aural presentations and poster presentations were conducted (e.g., Ueda, Nakajima, Doumoto, Ellemeier, and Kattner, 2011; Ellemeier, Kattner, Ueda, Nakajima, and Doumoto, 2012). The first output of our collaboration in a referee journal was published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ( Ellermeier, Kattner, Ueda, Doumoto, and Nakajima, 2015).
|1.||Ueda, K., Kawakami, R., and Takeichi, H., Checkerboard speech vs interrupted speech: Effects of spectrotemporal segmentation on intelligibility, JASA Express Letters, 10.1121/10.0005600, 1, 7, 1-7, 075204, 2021.07, [URL], The intelligibility of interrupted speech (interrupted over time) and checkerboard speech (interrupted over time-by-frequency), both of which retained a half of the original speech, was examined. The intelligibility of interrupted speech stimuli decreased as segment duration increased. 20-band checkerboard speech stimuli brought nearly 100% intelligibility irrespective of segment duration, whereas, with 2 and 4 frequency bands, a trough of 35%-40% appeared at the 160-ms segment duration. Mosaic speech stimuli (power was averaged over a time-frequency unit) yielded generally poor intelligibility (<= 10%). The results revealed the limitations of underlying auditory organization for speech cues scattered in a time-frequency domain..|
|2.||Kazuo Ueda and Ikuo Matsuo, Intelligibility of chimeric locally time-reversed speech: Relative contribution of four frequency bands, JASA Express Letters, 10.1121/10.0005439, 1, 6, 1-6, 065201, 2021.06, [URL], Intelligibility of 4-band speech stimuli was investigated (n = 18), such that only one of the frequency bands was preserved, whereas other bands were locally time-reversed (segment duration: 75-300 ms), or vice versa. Intelligibility was best retained (82% at 75 ms) when the second lowest band (540-1700 Hz) was preserved. When the same band was degraded, the largest drop (10% at 300 ms) occurred. The lowest and second highest bands contributed similarly less strongly to intelligibility. The highest frequency band contributed least. A close connection between the second lowest frequency band and sonority was suggested.|
|3.||Kazuo UEDA and Valter CIOCCA, Phonemic restoration of interrupted locally time-reversed speech: Effects of segment duration and noise levels, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 10.3758/s13414-021-02292-3, 83, 5, 1928-1934, Published online on 14 April 2021. Published in the completed journal issue on 19 June 2021., 2021.06, Intelligibility of temporally degraded speech was investigated with locally time-reversed speech (LTR) and its interrupted version (ILTR). Control stimuli comprising interrupted speech (I) were also included. Speech stimuli consisted of 200 Japanese meaningful sentences. In interrupted stimuli, speech segments were alternated with either silent gaps or pink noise bursts. The noise bursts had a level of -10, 0 or +10 dB relative to the speech level. Segment duration varied from 20 to 160 ms for ILTR sentences, but was fixed at 160 ms for I sentences. At segment durations between 40 and 80 ms, severe reductions in intelligibility were observed for ILTR sentences, compared with LTR sentences. A substantial improvement in intelligibility (30-33%) was observed when 40-ms silent gaps in ILTR were replaced with 0- and +10-dB noise. Noise with a level of -10 dB had no effect on the intelligibility. These findings show that the combined effects of interruptions and temporal reversal of speech segments on intelligibility are greater than the sum of each individual effect. The results also support the idea that illusory continuity induced by high-level noise bursts improves the intelligibility of ILTR and I sentences.|
|4.||Kazuo Ueda, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Florian Kattner, and Wolfgang Ellermeier, Irrelevant speech effects with locally time-reversed speech: Native vs non-native language, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 10.1121/1.5112774, 145, 6, 3686-3694, 2019.06, [URL], Irrelevant speech is known to interfere with short-term memory of visually presented items. Here, this irrelevant speech effect was studied with a factorial combination of 3 variables: the participants' native language, the language the irrelevant speech was derived from, and the playback direction of the irrelevant speech. We used locally time-reversed speech as well to disentangle the contributions of local and global integrity. German and Japanese speech was presented to German (n = 79) and Japanese (n = 81) participants while they were performing a serial-recall task. In both groups, any kind of irrelevant speech impaired recall accuracy as compared to a pink-noise control condition. When the participants' native language was presented, normal speech and locally time-reversed speech with short segment duration, preserving intelligibility, was the most disruptive. Locally time-reversed speech with longer segment durations and normal or locally time-reversed speech played entirely backward, both lacking intelligibility, was less disruptive. When unfamiliar, incomprehensible signal was presented as irrelevant speech, no significant difference was found between locally time-reversed speech and its globally inverted version, suggesting that the effect of global inversion depends on the familiarity of the language..|
|5.||Kazuo Ueda, Tomoya Araki, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Frequency specificity of amplitude envelope patterns in noise-vocoded speech, Hearing Research, 10.1016/j.heares.2018.06.005, 367, 169-181, 2018.08, We examined the frequency specificity of amplitude envelope patterns in 4 frequency bands, which universally appeared through factor analyses applied to power fluctuations of critical-band filtered speech sounds in 8 different languages/dialects [Ueda and Nakajima (2017). Sci. Rep., 7 (42468)]. A series of 3 perceptual experiments with noise-vocoded speech of Japanese sentences was conducted. Nearly perfect (92–94%) mora recognition was achieved, without any extensive training, in a control condition in which 4-band noise-vocoded speech was employed (Experiments 1–3). Blending amplitude envelope patterns of the frequency bands, which resulted in reducing the number of amplitude envelope patterns while keeping the average spectral levels unchanged, revealed a clear deteriorating effect on intelligibility (Experiment 1). Exchanging amplitude envelope patterns brought generally detrimental effects on intelligibility, especially when involving the 2 lowest bands (≲1850 Hz; Experiment 2). Exchanging spectral levels averaged in time had a small but significant deteriorating effect on intelligibility in a few conditions (Experiment 3). Frequency specificity in low-frequency-band envelope patterns thus turned out to be conspicuous in speech perception..|
|6.||Yoshitaka Nakajima, Mizuki Matsuda, Kazuo Ueda, and Gerard B. Remijn, Temporal Resolution Needed for Auditory Communication: Measurement with Mosaic Speech, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00149, 12, 149, 2018.04, Temporal resolution needed for Japanese speech communication was measured. A new experimental paradigm that can reflect the spectro-temporal resolution necessary for healthy listeners to perceive speech is introduced. As a first step, we report listeners' intelligibility scores of Japanese speech with a systematically degraded temporal resolution, so-called "mosaic speech": speech mosaicized in the coordinates of time and frequency. The results of two experiments show that mosaic speech cut into short static segments was almost perfectly intelligible with a temporal resolution of 40 ms or finer. Intelligibility dropped for a temporal resolution of 80 ms, but was still around 50%-correct level. The data are in line with previous results showing that speech signals separated into short temporal segments of <100 ms can be remarkably robust in terms of linguistic-content perception against drastic manipulations in each segment, such as partial signal omission or temporal reversal. The human perceptual system thus can extract meaning from unexpectedly rough temporal information in speech. The process resembles that of the visual system stringing together static movie frames of ~40 ms into vivid motion..|
|7.||Kazuo UEDA, Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, Wolfgang ELLERMEIER, Florian KATTNER, Intelligibility of locally time-reversed speech: A multilingual comparison, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-017-01831-z, 7, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01831-z, 2017.05, [URL], A set of experiments was performed to make a cross-language comparison of intelligibility of locally time-reversed speech, employing a total of 117 native listeners of English, German, Japanese, and Mandarin Chinese. The experiments enabled to examine whether the languages of three types of timing---stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed languages---exhibit different trends in intelligibility, depending on the duration of the segments that were temporally reversed. The results showed a strikingly similar trend across languages, especially when the time axis of segment duration was normalised with respect to the deviation of a talker's speech rate from the average in each language.
This similarity is somewhat surprising given the systematic differences in vocalic proportions characterising the languages studied which had been shown in previous research and were largely replicated with the present speech material. These findings suggest that a universal temporal window shorter than 20--40~ms plays a crucial role in perceiving locally time-reversed speech by working as a buffer in which temporal reorganisation can take place with regard to lexical and semantic processing..
|8.||Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, Kazuo UEDA, Shota FUJIMARU, Hirotoshi MOTOMURA, Yuki OHSAKA, English phonology and an acoustic language universal, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep46049, 7, 46049, 1-6, doi: 10.1038/srep46049, 2017.04, [URL], Acoustic analyses of eight different languages/dialects had revealed a language universal: Three spectral factors consistently appeared in analyses of power fluctuations of spoken sentences divided by critical-band filters into narrow frequency bands. Examining linguistic implications of these factors seems important to understand how speech sounds carry linguistic information. Here we show the three general categories of the English phonemes, i.e., vowels, sonorant consonants, and obstruents, to be discriminable in the Cartesian space constructed by these factors: A factor related to frequency components above 3,300 Hz was associated only with obstruents (e.g., /k/ or /z/), and another factor related to frequency components around 1,100 Hz only with vowels (e.g., /a/ or /i/) and sonorant consonants (e.g., /w/, /r/, or /m/). The latter factor highly correlated with the hypothetical concept of sonority or aperture in phonology. These factors turned out to connect the linguistic and acoustic aspects of speech sounds systematically..|
|9.||Kazuo UEDA, Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, An acoustic key to eight languages/dialects: Factor analyses of critical-band-filtered speech, Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/srep42468, 7, 42468, 1-4, doi: 10.1038/srep42468, 2017.02, [URL], The peripheral auditory system functions like a frequency analyser, often modelled as a bank of non-overlapping band-pass filters called critical bands; 20 bands are necessary for simulating frequency resolution of the ear within an ordinary frequency range of speech (up to 7,000 Hz). A far smaller number of filters seemed sufficient, however, to re-synthesise intelligible speech sentences with power fluctuations of the speech signals passing through them; nevertheless, the number and frequency ranges of the frequency bands for efficient speech communication are yet unknown. We derived four common frequency bands---covering approximately 50--540, 540--1,700, 1,700--3,300, and above 3,300 Hz---from factor analyses of spectral fluctuations in eight different spoken languages/dialects. The analyses robustly led to three factors common to all languages investigated---the low & mid-high factor related to the two separate frequency ranges of 50--540 and 1,700--3,300 Hz, the mid-low factor the range of 540--1,700 Hz, and the high factor the range above 3,300 Hz---in these different languages/dialects, suggesting a language universal..|
|10.||Takuya KISHIDA, Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, Kazuo UEDA, Gerard Remijn, Three Factors Are Critical in Order to Synthesize Intelligible Noise-Vocoded Japanese Speech, Front. Psychol., 26 April 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00517, 7, 517, 1-9, 2016.04, [URL].|
|11.||Wolfgang Ellermeier, Florian Kattner, Kazuo UEDA, Kana Doumoto, Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, Memory disruption by irrelevant noise-vocoded speech: Effects of native language and the number of frequency bands, the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4928954, 138, 3, 1561-1569, 2015.09, [URL], To investigate the mechanisms by which unattended speech impairs short-term memory performance, speech samples were systematically degraded by means of a noise vocoder. For experiment 1, recordings of German and Japanese sentences were passed through a filter bank dividing the spectrum between 50 and 7000 Hz into 20 critical-band channels or combinations of those, yielding 20, 4, 2, or just 1 channel(s) of noise-vocoded speech. Listening tests conducted with native speakers of both languages showed a monotonic decrease in speech intelligibility as the number of frequency channels was reduced. For experiment 2, 40 native German and 40 native Japanese participants were exposed to speech processed in the same manner while trying to memorize visually presented sequences of digits in the correct order. Half of each sample received the German, the other half received the Japanese speech samples. The results show large irrelevant-speech effects increasing in magnitude with the number of frequency channels. The effects are slightly larger when subjects are exposed to their own native language. The results are neither predicted very well by the speech transmission index, nor by psychoacoustical fluctuation strength, most likely, since both metrics fail to disentangle amplitude and frequency modulations in the signals.
(C) 2015 Acoustical Society of America..
|12.||Kazuo Ueda, Reiko Akahane-Yamada, Ryo Komaki, and Takahiro Adachi, Identification of English /r/ and /l/ in noise: the effects of baseline performance, Acoustical Science and Technology, 28 (4) 251-259, 2007.07.|
|13.||Ueda, K., Short-term auditory memory interference: the Deutsch demonstration revisited, Acoustical Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 6, 457-467, 2004.11.|
|14.||Ueda, K., and Akagi, M., Sharpness and amplitude envelopes of broadband noise, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 87, no. 2, 814-819, 1990.02.|
|15.||Ueda, K., and Ohgushi, K., Perceptual components of pitch: Spatial representation using a multidimensional scaling technique, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 82, no. 4, 1193-1200, 1987.10.|
|1.||Perception of checkerboard speech: Limitations in auditory organization contrasted with the organization for interrupted speech.|
|2.||Intelligibility of chimeric locally time-reversed speech: Relative contribution of four frequency bands revealed with confusion analyses.|
|3.||Combined Effects of Temporal and Spectral Segmentation on Intelligibility of Degraded Speech.|
|4.||Kazuo UEDA, Riina KAWAKAMI, Hiroshige TAKEICHI, Checkerboard speech, The 52nd Perceptual Frontier Seminar: Non-Invasive Exploration of the Brain with Visual, Tactile, and Auditory Stimuli, 2021.05, [URL], "Checkerboard speech" is a kind of degraded speech discarding 50% of original speech, to study spectrotemporal characteristics of speech perception. Here we show that 20-band checkerboard speech maintained nearly 100% intelligibility irrespective of segment duration in the range from 20 to 320 ms, whereas 2- and 4-band checkerboard speech showed a trough of 35% to 40% intelligibility between the segment durations of 80 and 160 ms (n = 2 and n = 20), and that mosaicked checkerboard speech stimuli showed less than 10% intelligibility except for the stimuli with the finest resolution (20 frequency bands and 20-ms segment duration). The results suggest close connections with the modulation power spectrums of the stimuli, a spectrotemporal interaction in speech perception, and perceptual cue integration based on temporal fine structure..|
|5.||Kazuo UEDA, Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA, Shunsuke TAMURA, Wolfgang Ellermeier, Florian Kattner, Stephan Daebler, The effect of segment duration on the intelligibility of locally time-reversed speech: A multilingual comparison, The 31st Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Fechner Day 2015, 2015.08.|
|6.||A consistent clustering of power fluctuations in British English, French, German, and Japanese.|
|7.||Critical-band-filter analyses of speech sentences: Common factors across Japanese, British English, French, and German..|
|8.||A critical-band-filtered analysis of Japanese speech sentences.|
|9.||Factor analyses of critical-band-filtered speech of British English and Japanese.|
|10.||Principal component analyses of critical-band-filtered speech.|
|11.||Critical-band-filter analysis of speech sentences: A case of British English.|
|12.||English /r/ and /l/ identification by native and non-native listeners in noise: applying screening text, signal-to-noise ratio variation, and training.|
- The Society for Bioacoustics
- The Japanese Psychonomic Society
- The International Society for Psychophysics
- The Acoustical Society of America
- The Japanese Psychological Association
- The Acoustical Society of Japan
- The Japanese Society for Music Perception and Cognition
- Twenty-five year awards, the Acoustical Society of America, 5 June 2013.
He is in charge of Perceptual Psychology, Psychometrics, Auditory Physiology, Auditory Psychology, Auditory Cognition, Acoustic Experiments I and II, and Human Science A. In addition, the Consortium of Auditory Research Laboratories in Ohashi has been holding Joint Seminars regularly, since 2001. The Consortium consists of Remijn and Ueda Laboratories. All of the laboratory members attend the Joint Seminar. Special Lectures on a specific topic are occasionally included in the Seminar, and all the professors of these laboratories give some lectures.
Professional and Outreach Activities
He has experienced managements in publishing and research meetings at the Acoustical Society of Japan and at the Japanese Society for Music Perception and Cognition. In 2017, he contributed in organizing Fechner Day 2017: the 33rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics held in Fukuoka. From 2018, he served as one of the Vice-Presidents of the International Society for Psychophysics, and from 2019, he served as the President of the Society..