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Ryosuke Kobayashi Last modified date:2023.11.22

Graduate School

 Reseacher Profiling Tool Kyushu University Pure
Academic Degree
Ph.D. (Litt.)
Field of Specialization
Research Interests
  • modern Tibetan history
    keyword : Tibet, China, Qing Dynasty, Modern East Asia
Current and Past Project
  • It proposes to undertake a study of a previously unresearched subject: the history of the Tibetan army during the period of the Buddhist government of the Dalai Lamas, known as the Ganden Phodrang, from 1642 to 1959.
Academic Activities
1. Ryosuke Kobayashi, Chapter 8. ”The Political Status of Tibet and the Simla Conference (1913–14): Translated Concepts in Modern Tibet," , OKAMOTO takashi ed., A World History of Suzerainty: A Modern History of East and West Asia and Translated Concepts, Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2019., 199-215, 2019.06.
2. Kobayashi Ryosuke, "Militarization of Dargyé Monastery: Contested Borders on the Sino-Tibetan Frontier during the Early Twentieth Century", Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie, 139-172, No. 27, 2018.12, This research examines how the Tibetan and the Chinese Governments competed for the religious authority over Kham region in the negotiations after the military conflicts between Tibet and China in the 1930s. After the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the following deterioration of the relationship between Tibet and China, the Kham region, located in Sino-Tibetan frontier, became the frontline of confrontations between the Tibetan Government and the Chinese warlords of the Sichuan Province. The previous research pointed out that amid the tension with the Sichuan warlords, the Tibetan Government exerted its spiritual and temporal authorities towards Kham society through the network of Gelukpa Monasteries, which held a wide range of influence such as religion, politics, economy, and military issues; the Dargye Monastery, an influential Gelukpa monastery in Karze, played an important role for the Tibetan Government to expand its authority over Kham, and it developed into armed conflicts over the territorial border between Tibet and China in the 1930s. Nevertheless, it has been overlooked how the Tibetan and Chinese governments negotiated on the control over the Dargye Monastery after the military conflict. In my paper, through the analysis of the Tibetan and Chinese archives concerning the Sino-Tibetan negotiation after their military conflict in Kham, I will clarify how the Chinese Government attempted to restrict and undermine the influence of the Tibetan Government through its monastic network between Central Tibet and Eastern Tibet; at the same time, how the Tibetan Government tried to justify and keep their control over the Dargye Monastery. I believe that it will offer a new insight into how the Tibetan Government had ruled Kham as well as tried to prevent Chinese advancement before the PRC established its control over Tibet in 1950s..
3. 小林亮介, The Tibet-Japan Relations in the Era of the 1911 Revolution: Tibetan Letters from the Aoki Bunkyō Archive. , Iwao Kazushi, Ikeda Takumi (eds.), The Historical Development of Tibeto-Himalayan Civilization(チベット・ヒマラヤ文明の歴史的展開), 2018, 2018.03, It is fairly well known that Japanese Buddhist monks approached the 13th Dalai Lama and members of his administration at the beginning of the 20th century. Recent studies have clarified how these monks played a significant intermediary role between Tibet and Japan, and that Japan was an important actor in competition over Tibet in the international arena while Britain and Russia played out their Great Game. However, Tibet's policy towards Japan in this period and how Tibet placed Japan within its entire diplomatic sphere have been less studied. This article analyzes
the relationship between Tibet and Japan at the beginning of the 20th century by mainly focusing on valuable Tibetan letters housed in the Aoki Bunkyō Archive at the National Museum of Ethnology in Ōsaka. These letters, composed around the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, reveal that the 13th Dalai Lama and his attendants tried to seek the aid from the Japanese government to secure Tibet's "rang btsan" which is translated as independence in the contemporary Tibetan language. I also elucidate how the Japanese government refused to support Tibet due to its policy towards China amid the 1911 revolution as well as the Japanese alliance with Britain, while Tibet's relationship with China deteriorated. Moreover, by comparing the letters to Japan with the letters to other countries such as Britain and Russia, I will show that Tibet recognized Japan as a potential country that could protect them while facing the difficulty to enlist the aid under the restriction of the Anglo-Russian Convention in 1907..
1. Ryosuke Kobayashi, Militarization of Dargyé Monastery: Contested Borders on the Sino-Tibetan Frontier during the Early Twentieth Century, "Buddhism and Violence in Asia: The Case of the Military in Tibet during the Ganden Phodrang Period (1642–1959)", 2019.11, [URL].
2. Kobayashi Ryosuke , The Ganden Phodrang Army and the Sino-Tibetan Border Conflict in 1918, The 15th International Association for Tibetan Studies Seminar in Paris, 2019, 2019.07.
3. Ryosuke Kobayashi, Zhang Yintang’s Military Reforms in 1906-1907: The Introduction of Militarism in Tibet, MILITARY CULTURE IN TIBET DURING THE GANDEN PHODRANG PERIOD (1642-1959): THE INTERACTION BETWEEN TIBETAN AND OTHER ASIAN MILITARY TRADITIONS, 2018.06.
4. Ryosuke Kobayashi, The Emerging Concept of ‘Autonomy’ in Early 20th-Century Tibet, The effect on Inner- and East Asian relations of the advent of modern international law and the end of the Qing empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 2017.09.
5. Ryosuke Kobayashi, Contested Borders in the Sino-Tibetan Frontier (1906-1914):Negotiations and Conflicts in Eastern Tibet, Association for Asian Studies (AAS): AAS in Korea, 2017.06, [URL].
Membership in Academic Society
  • The History Society of Japan
  • Japanese Association for Tibetan Studies