Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Mitarai Hiromi Last modified date:2021.07.15

Assistant Professor / Department of General Dentistry / Kyushu University Hospital


Papers
1. Daigaku Hasegawa,Kana Hasegawa,Hiroshi Kaneko,Shinichiro Yoshida,Hiromi Mitarai,Mai Arima,Atsushi Tomokiyo,Sayuri Hamano, Hideki Sugii,Naohisa Wada,Tamotsu Kiyoshima,Hidefumi Maeda, MEST Regulates the Stemness of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells, Hindawi, 2020.07.
2. Sayuri Hamano Atsushi Tomokiyo Daigaku Hasegawa Asuka Yuda Hideki Sugii Shinichiro Yoshida Hiromi Mitarai Naohisa Wada Hidefumi Maeda, Functions of beta2-adrenergic receptor in human periodontal ligament cells, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 2020.07, Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are receptors of noradrenalin and adrenalin, of which there are nine different subtypes. In particular, β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is known to be related to the restoration and maintenance of homeostasis in bone and cardiac tissues; however, the functional role of signaling through β2-AR in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue has not been fully examined. In this report, we investigated that β2-AR expression in PDL tissues and their features in PDL cells. β2-AR expressed in rat PDL tissues and human PDL cells (HPDLCs) derived from two different patients (HPDLCs-2G and -3S). Rat PDL tissue with occlusal loading showed high β2-AR expression, while its expression was downregulated in that without loading. In HPDLCs, β2-AR expression was increased exposed to stretch loading. The gene expression of PDL-related molecules was investigated in PDL clone cells (2-23 cells) overexpressing β2-AR. Their gene expression and intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were also investigated in HPDLCs treated with a specific β2-AR agonist, fenoterol (FEN). Overexpression of β2-AR significantly promoted the gene expression of PDL-related molecules in 2 to 23 cells. FEN led to an upregulation in the expression of PDL-related molecules and increased intracellular cAMP levels in HPDLCs. In both HPDLCs, inhibition of cAMP signaling by using protein kinase A inhibitor suppressed the FEN-induced gene expression of α-smooth muscle actin. Our findings suggest that the occlusal force is important for β2-AR expression in PDL tissue and β2-AR is involved in fibroblastic differentiation and collagen synthesis of PDL cells. The signaling through β2-AR might be important for restoration and homeostasis of PDL tissue..
3. Hasegawa D, Wada N, Yoshida S, Mitarai H, Arima M, Tomokiyo A, Hamano S, Sugii H, Maeda H., Wnt5a suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell-like cells via Ror2/JNK signaling., J Cell Physiol. , 2018.02, Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt protein, is known to play important roles in several cell functions. However, little is known about the effects of Wnt5a on osteoblastic differentiation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Here, we examined the effects of Wnt5a on osteoblastic differentiation and associated intracellular signaling in human PDL stem/progenitor cells (HPDLSCs). We found that Wnt5a suppressed expression of bone-related genes (ALP, BSP, and Osterix) and alizarin red-positive mineralized nodule formation in HPDLSCs under osteogenic conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a Wnt5a-related receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2), was expressed in rat PDL tissue. Interestingly, knockdown of Ror2 by siRNA inhibited the Wnt5a-induced downregulation of bone-related gene expression in HPDLSCs. Moreover, Western blotting analysis showed that phosphorylation of the intracellular signaling molecule, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was upregulated in HPDLSCs cultured in osteoblast induction medium with Wnt5a, but knockdown of Ror2 by siRNA downregulated the phosphorylation of JNK. We also examined the effects of JNK inhibition on Wnt5a-induced suppression of osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLSCs. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125 inhibited the Wnt5a-induced downregulation of bone-related gene expression in HPDLSCs. Additionally, SP600125 inhibited the Wnt5a-induced suppression of the alizarin red-positive reaction in HPDLSCs. These results suggest that Wnt5a suppressed osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLSCs through Ror2/JNK signaling. Non-canonical Wnt signaling, including Wnt5a/Ror2/JNK signaling, may function as a negative regulator of mineralization, preventing the development of non-physiological mineralization in PDL tissue..
4. Daigaku Hasegawa, Naohisa Wada, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hiromi Mitarai, Mai Arima, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Sayuri Hamano, Hideki Sugii, Hidefumi Maeda, Wnt5a suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell-like cells via Ror2/JNK signaling, Journal of Cellular Physiology, 10.1002/jcp.26086, 233, 2, 1752-1762, 2018.02, Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt protein, is known to play important roles in several cell functions. However, little is known about the effects of Wnt5a on osteoblastic differentiation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Here, we examined the effects of Wnt5a on osteoblastic differentiation and associated intracellular signaling in human PDL stem/progenitor cells (HPDLSCs). We found that Wnt5a suppressed expression of bone-related genes (ALP, BSP, and Osterix) and alizarin red-positive mineralized nodule formation in HPDLSCs under osteogenic conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a Wnt5a-related receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2), was expressed in rat PDL tissue. Interestingly, knockdown of Ror2 by siRNA inhibited the Wnt5a-induced downregulation of bone-related gene expression in HPDLSCs. Moreover, Western blotting analysis showed that phosphorylation of the intracellular signaling molecule, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was upregulated in HPDLSCs cultured in osteoblast induction medium with Wnt5a, but knockdown of Ror2 by siRNA downregulated the phosphorylation of JNK. We also examined the effects of JNK inhibition on Wnt5a-induced suppression of osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLSCs. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125 inhibited the Wnt5a-induced downregulation of bone-related gene expression in HPDLSCs. Additionally, SP600125 inhibited the Wnt5a-induced suppression of the alizarin red-positive reaction in HPDLSCs. These results suggest that Wnt5a suppressed osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLSCs through Ror2/JNK signaling. Non-canonical Wnt signaling, including Wnt5a/Ror2/JNK signaling, may function as a negative regulator of mineralization, preventing the development of non-physiological mineralization in PDL tissue..
5. Hamano S, Tomokiyo A, Hasegawa D, Yoshida S, Sugii H, Mitarai H, Fujino S, Wada N, Maeda H., Extracellular Matrix from Periodontal Ligament Cells Could Induce the Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Like Cells., Stem Cells Dev. , 2018.01, The periodontal ligament (PDL) plays an important role in anchoring teeth in the bone socket. Damage to the PDL, such as after severe inflammation, can be treated with a therapeutic strategy that uses stem cells derived from PDL tissue (PDLSCs), a strategy that has received intense scrutiny over the past decade. However, there is an insufficient number of PDLSCs within the PDL for treating such damage. Therefore, we sought to induce the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into PDLSCs as an initial step toward PDL therapy. To this end, we first induced iPS cells into neural crest (NC)-like cells. We then captured the p75 neurotrophic receptor-positive cells (iPS-NC cells) and cultured them on an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by human PDL cells (iPS-NC-PDL cells). These iPS-NC-PDL cells showed reduced expression of embryonic stem cell and NC cell markers as compared with iPS and iPS-NC cells, and enrichment of mesenchymal stem cell markers. The cells also had a higher proliferative capacity, multipotency, and elevated expression of PDL-related markers than iPS-NC cells cultured on fibronectin and laminin (iPS-NC-FL cells) or ECM produced by human skin fibroblast cells (iPS-NC-SF cells). Overall, we present a culture method to produce high number of PDLSC-like cells from iPS cells as a first step toward a strategy for PDL regeneration..
6. Nozu A, Hamano S, Tomokiyo A, Hasegawa D, Sugii H, Yoshida S, Mitarai H, Taniguchi S, Wada N, Maeda H., Senescence and odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells., J Cell Physiol., 10.1002/jcp.26905, 234, 1, 849-859, 2018.01, Cellular senescence has been suggested to be involved in physiological changes of cytokine production. Previous studies showed that the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is higher in the blood of aged people compared with that of young people. So far, the precise effects of TNF-α on the odontoblastic differentiation of pulp cells have been controversial. Therefore, we aimed to clarify how this cytokine affected pulp cells during aging. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were cultured until reaching the plateau of their growth, and the cells were isolated at actively (young HDPCs; yHDPCs) or inactively (senescent HDPCs; sHDPCs) proliferating stages. sHDPCs expressed senescence-related molecules while yHDPCs did not. When these HDPCs were cultured in an odontoblast-inductive medium, both young and senescent cells showed mineralization, but mineralization in sHDPCs was lower compared with yHDPCs. However, the administration of TNF-α to this culture medium altered these responses: yHDPCs showed downregulated mineralization, while sHDPCs exhibited significantly increased mineralization. Furthermore, the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), a receptor of TNF-α, was significantly upregulated in sHDPCs compared with yHDPCs. Downregulation of TNFR1 expression led to decreased mineralization of TNF-α-treated sHDPCs, whereas restored the reduction in TNF-α-treated yHDPCs. These results suggested that sHDPCs preserved the odontoblastic differentiation capacity and TNF-α promoted odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs with the progress of their population doublings through increased expression of TNFR1. Thus, TNF-α might exert a different effect on the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs depending on their proliferating activity. In addition, the calcification of pulp chamber with age may be related with increased reactivity of pulp cells to TNF-α..
7. Sayuri Hamano, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Daigaku Hasegawa, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hideki Sugii, Hiromi Mitarai, Shoko Fujino, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda, Extracellular Matrix from Periodontal Ligament Cells Could Induce the Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Like Cells, Stem Cells and Development, 10.1089/scd.2017.0077, 27, 2, 100-111, 2018.01, The periodontal ligament (PDL) plays an important role in anchoring teeth in the bone socket. Damage to the PDL, such as after severe inflammation, can be treated with a therapeutic strategy that uses stem cells derived from PDL tissue (PDLSCs), a strategy that has received intense scrutiny over the past decade. However, there is an insufficient number of PDLSCs within the PDL for treating such damage. Therefore, we sought to induce the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into PDLSCs as an initial step toward PDL therapy. To this end, we first induced iPS cells into neural crest (NC)-like cells. We then captured the p75 neurotrophic receptor-positive cells (iPS-NC cells) and cultured them on an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by human PDL cells (iPS-NC-PDL cells). These iPS-NC-PDL cells showed reduced expression of embryonic stem cell and NC cell markers as compared with iPS and iPS-NC cells, and enrichment of mesenchymal stem cell markers. The cells also had a higher proliferative capacity, multipotency, and elevated expression of PDL-related markers than iPS-NC cells cultured on fibronectin and laminin (iPS-NC-FL cells) or ECM produced by human skin fibroblast cells (iPS-NC-SF cells). Overall, we present a culture method to produce high number of PDLSC-like cells from iPS cells as a first step toward a strategy for PDL regeneration..
8. Hiromi Mitarai, Naohisa Wada, Daigaku Hasegawa, Shinichiro Yoshida, Mai Arima, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Sayuri Hamano, Suguru Serita, Hiroyuki Mizumachi, Hidefumi Maeda, Transgelin mediates transforming growth factor-β1-induced proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells., Journal of periodontal research., 10.1111/jre.12466, 52, 6, 984-993, 2017.12, BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) express transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) that regulates differentiation and proliferation, and plays key roles in homeostasis of PDL tissue. Transgelin is a cytoskeleton-associated protein with an Smad-binding element in its gene promoter region. In this study, we examined the localization and potential function of transgelin in PDL tissue and cells.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Microarray analysis of HPDLC lines (2-14, 2-23 and 2-52) was performed. Expression of transgelin in HPDLCs was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. Effects of TGF-β1 and its signaling inhibitor, SB431542, on transgelin expression in HPDLCs were examined by western blot analysis. The effects of transgelin knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on HPDLC proliferation stimulated by TGF-β1 were assessed by WST-1 assay.

RESULTS:
In microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses, the expression levels of transgelin (TAGLN) in 2-14 and 2-23 cells, which highly expressed PDL markers such as periostin (POSTN), tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) and type I collagen A1 (COL1A1), was significantly higher than those in 2-52 cells that expressed PDL markers weakly. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of transgelin in rat PDL tissue and HPDLCs. In HPDLCs, TGF-β1 treatment upregulated transgelin expression, whereas inhibition of the type 1 TGF-β1 receptor by SB431542 suppressed this upregulation. Furthermore, TAGLN siRNA transfection did not promote the proliferation of HPDLCs treated with TGF-β1. The expression levels of CCNA2 and CCNE1, which regulate DNA synthesis and mitosis through the cell cycle, were also not upregulated in HPDLCs transfected with TAGLN siRNA.

CONCLUSION:
Transgelin is expressed in PDL tissue and might have a role in HPDLC proliferation induced by TGF-β1 stimulation..
9. Mizumachi H, Yoshida S, Tomokiyo A, Hasegawa D, Hamano S, Yuda A, Sugii H, Serita S, Mitarai H, Koori K, Wada N, Maeda H., Calcium-sensing receptor-ERK signaling promotes odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells., Bone, 2017.08, Activation of the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has crucial roles in skeletal development and bone turnover. Our recent study has identified a role for activated CaSR in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells. Furthermore, odontoblasts residing inside the tooth pulp chamber play a central role in dentin formation. However, it remains unclear how CaSR activation affects the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). We have investigated the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs exposed to elevated levels of extracellular calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr), and the contribution of CaSR and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) to this process. Immunochemical staining of rat dental pulp tissue demonstrated that CaSR was expressed at high levels in the odontoblastic layer, moderate levels in the sublayer, and low levels in the central pulp tissue. Although normal HDPCs expressed low levels of CaSR, stimulation with Ca or Sr promoted both CaSR expression and odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs along with increased expression of odontoblastic makers. These effects were inhibited by treatment with a CaSR antagonist, whereas treatment with an L-VDCC inhibitor had no effect. Additionally, knockdown of CaSR with siRNA suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs, whereas CaSR antagonist treatment or CaSR knockdown blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed mineralization of Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs. These results suggest that elevated concentrations of extracellular Ca and Sr induce odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs through CaSR activation and the ERK1/2 phosphorylation..
10. Hiroyuki Mizumachi, Shinichiro Yoshida, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Daigaku Hasegawa, Sayuri Hamano, Asuka Yuda, Hideki Sugii, Suguru Serita, Hiromi Mitarai, Katsuaki Koori, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda, Calcium-sensing receptor-ERK signaling promotes odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells, Bone, 10.1016/j.bone.2017.05.012, 101, 191-201, 2017.08, Activation of the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has crucial roles in skeletal development and bone turnover. Our recent study has identified a role for activated CaSR in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells. Furthermore, odontoblasts residing inside the tooth pulp chamber play a central role in dentin formation. However, it remains unclear how CaSR activation affects the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). We have investigated the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs exposed to elevated levels of extracellular calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr), and the contribution of CaSR and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) to this process. Immunochemical staining of rat dental pulp tissue demonstrated that CaSR was expressed at high levels in the odontoblastic layer, moderate levels in the sublayer, and low levels in the central pulp tissue. Although normal HDPCs expressed low levels of CaSR, stimulation with Ca or Sr promoted both CaSR expression and odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs along with increased expression of odontoblastic makers. These effects were inhibited by treatment with a CaSR antagonist, whereas treatment with an L-VDCC inhibitor had no effect. Additionally, knockdown of CaSR with siRNA suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs, whereas CaSR antagonist treatment or CaSR knockdown blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed mineralization of Ca- and Sr-treated HDPCs. These results suggest that elevated concentrations of extracellular Ca and Sr induce odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs through CaSR activation and the ERK1/2 phosphorylation..
11. Suguru Serita, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Daigaku Hasegawa, Sayuri Hamano, Hideki Sugii, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mizumachi, Hiromi Mitarai, Satoshi Monnouchi, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda, Transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 inhibits odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells, Archives of Oral Biology, 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.02.018, 78, 135-143, 2017.06, Objective The aim of this study was to investigate transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 (βig-h3) expression in dental pulp tissue and its effects on odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). Design A rat direct pulp capping model was prepared using perforated rat upper first molars capped with mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Human DPCs (HDPCs) were isolated from extracted teeth. βig-h3 expression in rat dental pulp tissue and HDPCs was assessed by immunostaining. Mineralization of HDPCs was assessed by Alizarin red-S staining. Odontoblast-related gene expression in HDPCs was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Expression of βig-h3 was detected in rat dental pulp tissue, and attenuated by direct pulp capping, while expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased in exposed pulp tissue. βig-h3 expression was also detected in HDPCs, with reduced expression during odontoblastic differentiation. The above cytokines reduced βig-h3 expression in HDPCs, and promoted their mineralization. Recombinant βig-h3 inhibited the expression of odontoblast-related genes and mineralization of HDPCs, while knockdown of βig-h3 gene expression promoted the expression of odontoblast-related genes in HDPCs. Conclusions The present findings suggest that βig-h3 in DPCs may be involved in reparative dentin formation and that its expression is likely to negatively regulate this process..
12. Shinichiro Yoshida, Naohide Yamamoto, Naohisa Wada, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Daigaku Hasegawa, Sayuri Hamano, Hiromi Mitarai, Satoshi Monnouchi, Asuka Yuda, Hidefumi Maeda, GDNF From Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Treated With Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Promotes Neurocytic Differentiation of PC12 Cells, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 10.1002/jcb.25662, 118, 4, 699-708, 2017.04, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is known to mediate multiple biological activities such as promotion of cell motility and proliferation, and morphogenesis. However, little is known about its effects on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Recently, we reported that GDNF expression is increased in wounded rat PDL tissue and human PDL cells (HPDLCs) treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we investigated the associated expression of GDNF and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in wounded PDL tissue, and whether HPDLCs secrete GDNF which affects neurocytic differentiation. Rat PDL cells near the wounded area showed intense immunoreactions against an anti-GDNF antibody, where immunoreactivity was also increased against an anti-IL-1β antibody. Compared with untreated cells, HPDLCs treated with IL-1β or tumor necrosis factor-alpha showed an increase in the secretion of GDNF protein. Conditioned medium of IL-1β-treated HPDLCs (IL-1β-CM) increased neurite outgrowth of PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells. The expression levels of two neural regeneration-associated genes, growth-associated protein-43 (Gap-43), and small proline-rich repeat protein 1A (Sprr1A), were also upregulated in IL-1β-CM-treated PC12 cells. These stimulatory effects of IL-1β-CM were significantly inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against GDNF. In addition, U0126, a MEK inhibitor, inhibited GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. These findings suggest that an increase of GDNF in wounded PDL tissue might play an important role in neural regeneration probably via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 699–708, 2017..
13. Serita S, Tomokiyo A, Hasegawa D, Hamano S, Sugii H, Yoshida S, Mizumachi H, Mitarai H, Monnouchi S, Wada N, Maeda H., Transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 inhibits odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells., Arch Oral Biol, 2017.02, OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 (βig-h3) expression in dental pulp tissue and its effects on odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs).
DESIGN:

A rat direct pulp capping model was prepared using perforated rat upper first molars capped with mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Human DPCs (HDPCs) were isolated from extracted teeth. βig-h3 expression in rat dental pulp tissue and HDPCs was assessed by immunostaining. Mineralization of HDPCs was assessed by Alizarin red-S staining. Odontoblast-related gene expression in HDPCs was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS:

Expression of βig-h3 was detected in rat dental pulp tissue, and attenuated by direct pulp capping, while expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased in exposed pulp tissue. βig-h3 expression was also detected in HDPCs, with reduced expression during odontoblastic differentiation. The above cytokines reduced βig-h3 expression in HDPCs, and promoted their mineralization. Recombinant βig-h3 inhibited the expression of odontoblast-related genes and mineralization of HDPCs, while knockdown of βig-h3 gene expression promoted the expression of odontoblast-related genes in HDPCs.
CONCLUSIONS:

The present findings suggest that βig-h3 in DPCs may be involved in reparative dentin formation and that its expression is likely to negatively regulate this process..
14. Yoshida S, Wada N, Hasegawa D, Miyaji H, Mitarai H, Tomokiyo A, Hamano S, Maeda H., Semaphorin 3A Induces Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Stem Cells., J Dent Res, 2016.10, In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study..
15. Shinichiro Yoshida, Naohisa Wada, Daigaku Hasegawa, H. Miyaji, Hiromi Mitarai, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Sayuri Hamano, Hidefumi Maeda, Semaphorin 3A induces odontoblastic phenotype in dental pulp stem cells, Journal of Dental Research, 10.1177/0022034516653085, 95, 11, 1282-1290, 2016.10, In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study..
16. Hasegawa D, Wada N, Maeda H, Yoshida S, Mitarai H, Tomokiyo A, Monnouchi S, Hamano S, Yuda A, Akamine A., Wnt5a Induces Collagen Production by Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Through TGFβ1-Mediated Upregulation of Periostin Expression., J Cell Physiol, 2015.11, Wnt5a, a member of the noncanonical Wnt proteins, is known to play important roles in the development of various organs and in postnatal cell functions. However, little is known about the effects of Wnt5a on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. In this study, we examined the localization and potential function of Wnt5a in PDL tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Wnt5a was expressed predominantly in rat PDL tissue. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that human PDL cells (HPDLCs) expressed Wnt5a and its receptors (Ror2, Fzd2, Fzd4, and Fzd5). Removal of occlusal pressure by extraction of opposing teeth decreased Wnt5a expression in rat PDL tissue, and the expression of Wnt5a and its receptors in HPDLCs was upregulated by exposure to mechanical stress. Stimulation with Wnt5a significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of HPDLCs. Furthermore, Wnt5a suppressed osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLCs cultivated in osteogenic induction medium, while it significantly enhanced the expression of PDL-related genes, such as periostin, type-I collagen, and fibrillin-1 genes, and the production of collagen in HPDLCs cultivated in normal medium. Both knockdown of periostin gene expression by siRNA and inhibition of TGFβ1 function by neutralizing antibody suppressed the Wnt5a-induced PDL-related gene expression and collagen production in HPDLCs. Interestingly, in HPDLCs cultured with Wnt5a, TGFβ1 neutralizing antibody significantly suppressed periostin expression, while periostin siRNA had no effect on TGFβ1 expression. These results suggest that Wnt5a expressed in PDL tissue plays specific roles in inducing collagen production by PDL cells through TGFβ1-mediated upregulation of periostin expression..
17. Daigaku Hasegawa, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hiromi Mitarai, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Satoshi Monnouchi, Sayuri Hamano, Asuka Yuda, Akifumi Akamine, Wnt5a Induces Collagen Production by Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Through TGFβ1-Mediated Upregulation of Periostin Expression, Journal of cellular physiology, 10.1002/jcp.24950, 230, 11, 2647-2660, 2015.11, Wnt5a, a member of the noncanonical Wnt proteins, is known to play important roles in the development of various organs and in postnatal cell functions. However, little is known about the effects of Wnt5a on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. In this study, we examined the localization and potential function of Wnt5a in PDL tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Wnt5a was expressed predominantly in rat PDL tissue. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that human PDL cells (HPDLCs) expressed Wnt5a and its receptors (Ror2, Fzd2, Fzd4, and Fzd5). Removal of occlusal pressure by extraction of opposing teeth decreased Wnt5a expression in rat PDL tissue, and the expression of Wnt5a and its receptors in HPDLCs was upregulated by exposure to mechanical stress. Stimulation with Wnt5a significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of HPDLCs. Furthermore, Wnt5a suppressed osteoblastic differentiation of HPDLCs cultivated in osteogenic induction medium, while it significantly enhanced the expression of PDL-related genes, such as periostin, type-I collagen, and fibrillin-1 genes, and the production of collagen in HPDLCs cultivated in normal medium. Both knockdown of periostin gene expression by siRNA and inhibition of TGFβ1 function by neutralizing antibody suppressed the Wnt5a-induced PDL-related gene expression and collagen production in HPDLCs. Interestingly, in HPDLCs cultured with Wnt5a, TGFβ1 neutralizing antibody significantly suppressed periostin expression, while periostin siRNA had no effect on TGFβ1 expression. These results suggest that Wnt5a expressed in PDL tissue plays specific roles in inducing collagen production by PDL cells through TGFβ1-mediated upregulation of periostin expression..