Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
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Yasuko Koga Last modified date:2022.11.07

Associate Professor / Environmental Engineering, Planning and Design Section
Department of Architecture and Urban Design
Faculty of Human-Environment Studies

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Academic Degree
Doctor of Engineering
Field of Specialization
Building Environmental Engineering, Illuminating Engineering
Outline Activities
Current research topics are multi-objective optimization design of the building envelope, applications of the computer vision to designing and controlling the indoor visual environment, and post-occupancy evaluation of the building environment and use of the data.
International standardization activities for the building environment design and indoor lighting design: Expert/Project leader/Liaison representative in ISO/TC163, TC205 (since 2008) and TC274 (since 2018).
International research activities in Division 3 "Interior Environment and Lighting Design" of the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) since 1991 and research projects on daylighting and electric lighting (Tasks 31, 50 and 61) in the Solar Heating & Cooling Programme of the IEA (International Energy Agency).
Research Interests
  • Applications of the virtual reality in indoor visual environment design
    keyword : VR, visual information, illuminated environment, colour, image analysis
  • Assessment of the view quality through windows in buildings
    keyword : building environment design, building envelope, window, view, multipurpose optimization
  • Design requirements for the building envelope - An assessment method for light information in buildings
    keyword : building envelope, light information in buildings, window, view quality, VR, office
  • Luminous environment design for maintaining good biological rhythms
    keyword : biological rhythm, lighting design
    2006.04~2007.09Design of Luminous Environment for maintaining good biological rhythm..
  • Non-image-forming visual functions and physiological effects of light
    keyword : ipRGC, cone, rod, retinal ganglion cell, circadian rhythm, photoentrainment, health, well-being, luminous environment
    2007.11~2019.03Functions of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) are investigated in connection with functions of cones and rods. The function of photoentrainment to the circadian rhythm is studied in humans..
  • Design and Evaluation of Luminous Environment on the Basis of Spectral Power Distribution
    keyword : spectral power distribution, glare, mesopic vision, solid state lighting, automobile lighting
  • Design and Assessment of Solid-State Lighting Environments
    keyword : SSL, LED, OLED, spectral power distribution, visibility, glare
  • Assessment of lighting properties of violet-LED white light sources
    keyword : spectral power distribution, violet LED, blue LED, color rendering, non-visual effects
  • EBD of healthcare buildings - Luminous environment design for supporting health of medical staff
    keyword : EBD, healthcare building, hospital, health, luminous environment, circadian rhythm
    2007.10~2012.03Evidence-Based Design of Hospitals - Luminous environment design for supporting health of medical staff.
  • Assessment of visual environment for automotive lighting
    keyword : automotive lighting, glare, head light, rear light, LED
  • Evaluation of discomfort glare from daylight
    keyword : daylight, discomfort glare, indoor lighting, luminance distribution
    2002.04~2007.03Development of a new method of evaluating discomfort glare from windows - Method that can evaluate discomfort glare from large glare sources with luminance distribution..
Academic Activities
1. J.A. Veitch, F. Bisegna, S. Hubalek, M. Knoop, Y. Koga, H. Noguchi, C. Schierz, P. Thorns, A. de Vries, Research Roadmap for Healthful Interior Lighting Applications, 2016.05.
2. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, CIE S 017/E:2011 - ILV: International Lighting Vocabulary, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 2011.08, 照明専門用語に関する国際照明委員会(CIE)の規格である。この国際照明用語集(ILV)は旧版(1987年発行)の改訂版であり、科学技術と実務における変化を反映させるため、多くの新しい用語が追加され、既存の用語は必要に応じて改訂され、廃れた用語は除かれた。この国際照明用語集新版の目的は、光と照明、色と視覚、光生物学、画像技術の科学と技術に関する量、単位、記号、専門用語の使用について、国際標準化を促進することである。この用語集は、掲載された用語の定義、用語を理解して正しく使うために必要な主要な知識を提供している。本規格は203ページで、光と照明に関する1448語の用語の定義を示している。.
3. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, CIE DS 017.3/E:2011 - ILV: International Lighting Vocabulary, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 2011.03.
4. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, CIE DS 017.2/E:2009 - ILV: International Lighting Vocabulary, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 2009.12.
5. Lighting Handbook (Compact Version).
6. Control of Damage to Museum Objects by Optical Radiation.
7. CIE TC3-33 (I. Ashdown, L. Bedocs, W. Carroll, J. De Boer, P. Dehoff, M. Donn, H. Erhorn, L. Escaffre, M. Fontoynont, P. Greenup, M. Hirata, M. Jongewaard, Y. Koga, J. Koster, E. Lillelien, F. Maamari, J. Mardaljevic, R. Mitanchey, S. Pezzana, A. Slater, A. Stockmar, A. Tsangrassoulis, Y. Uetani, L. Zonneveldt), CIE 171:2006: Test Cases to Assess the Accuracy of Lighting Computer Programs, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 2005.03.
8. Lighting Handbook.
9. CIE Standard: Lighting of Indoor Work Places.
10. CIE TC3-15 (Y. Uetani, S. Aydinli, A. Joukoff, J.D. Kendrick, R. Kittler, Y. Koga, K. Matsuura, T. Nagata, H. Nakamura, M. Oki, R. Perez, P.R. Tregenza), CIE S 011:2003: Spatial Distribution of Daylight - CIE Standard General Sky, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage.
1. B.S. Matusiak, S. Sibilio, J. Martyniuk-Peczek, C.N.D. Aomrim, M. Nazari, M. Boucher, M. Scorpio, N. Sokoi, G. Ciampi, Y. Koga, T. Laike, Subtask A: User Perspective and Requirements – A.2 Use cases, IEA SHC Task 61, 10.18777/ieashc-task61-2021-0008, 2021.10, [URL].
2. B. Bueno, D. Geisler-Moroder, U.G. Mai, M. Hegi, C. Jackson, J.A. Jakubiec, F. Jarrin, J. Kämpf, Y. Koga, M. Liaros, T. Luo, B. Obradovic, B. Paule, H. Poirazis, D. Speer, Z. Tian, T. Wang, D. Witzel, Workflows and software for the design of integrated lighting solutions, International Energy Agency, Solar Heating & Cooling Programme, 2019.11, Practitioners are using a wide variety of different workflows, methods and tools in the planning of integrated solutions for daylighting, electric lighting and lighting controls. Lighting design projects cover a huge variety of applications with different requirements as well as project types and sizes. Within the Subtask C "Design Support for Practitioners - Tools, Standards, Guidelines" of the IEA SHC Task 61 / EBC Annex 77 "Integrated Solutions for Daylighting and Electric Lighting: From Component to User Centered System Efficiency", currently applied workflows in practical applications have been reviewed..
3. Division 3: Interior Environment and Lighting Design - Future directions in revision of the lighting standard for indoor work places.
4. Future Prospect of Activities in JCIE/CIE Division 3.
5. Exposition of Terms on Lighting Design.
6. Supervisor Committee of Study on Luminous Environment at Present and in Future.
7. Report on the Divison 3 Meeting in Berlin.
8. The Current of Research on Daylighting.
9. Report on the Division 3 Meeting in Dublin.
10. Report on the CIE Division Meeting in San Diego.
11. Report on the Meeting of Division 3 in Ottawa.
12. The Present State and Challenges of Lighting Education in Architectural Studies.
13. Report on the Meeting of Division 3 in Raykjavik.
14. Report on the Meeting of Division 3 in York.
15. Report on the 5th JCIE Seminar "CIE/ISO Interior Lighting Standards and Lighting Design".
16. CIE Draft Standard: Lighting of Indoor Work Places.
17. CIE Warsaw Session: Report on the Division 3 Meeting.
18. Technological Trends Concerning Utilization of Daylight.
19. Report on the International Daylight Conference '98.
20. Report on the Meeting of Division 3 in Ottawa.
21. Report on the Meeting of Division 3 in Durban.
22. Daylighting from the Past.
1. N.G. Vasquez, C.N.D. Amorim, B. Matusiak, J. Kanno, N. Sokoi, J. Martyniuk-Peczek, S. Sibilio, M. Scorpio, Y. Koga, Lighting Conditions in Home Office and Occupant’s Perception: Exploring drivers of satisfaction, Energy & Buildings, 10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.111977, 261, 2022.04.
2. C.N.D. Amorim, N.G. Vasquez, B. Matusiak, J. Kanno, N. Sokoi, J. Martyniuk-Peczek, S. Sibilio, Y. Koga, G. Ciampi, M. Waczynska, Lighting conditions in home office and occupant’s perception: An international study, Energy & Buildings, 10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.111957, 261, 2022.04.
3. Yasuko Koga, Masahiko Yamakawa, Potential Non-Image-Forming Visual Effects of Violet-LED and Blue-LED White Light Sources, Proc. of BalkanLight 2018, 17-21, 2018.06, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) contribute to non-image-forming visual effects of light in humans with inputs from rods and cones in the retinal circuit. Irradiance ratios for ipRGC and for photopic vision were defined with the ipRGC spectral sensitivity in CEN/TR 16791 and the photopic luminous efficiency, V(λ) respectively. From measurements of spectral irradiance, potential for inducing non-image-forming visual effects was evaluated for two types of phosphor-converted white LED light source, that is, a violet-LED excitation type and a blue-LED one. Chromaticity was adjusted to be as identical as possible between the two types. Irradiance ratio for ipRGC was almost the same between the two types having the same correlated colour temperature. This paper is an interim report on luminous properties of the two types of LED..
4. Yasuko Koga, Yasufumi Shigetomi, Keisuke Yoshida, Kazuhiro Hiyoshi, Kouki Zen, Switching to LED Lighting for Container Terminals - Demonstrative experiments on lighting quality and reliability, Proc. of BalkanLight 2018, 125-131, 2018.06, A three-year course of demonstrative experiments on LED lighting was conducted in a container terminal in operation for high-mast lighting and gantry cranes. Photometric measurement and workers evaluation showed its advantages in spatial brightness, visibility and colour appearance. But, the need for glare control was found. The experiments demonstrated importance of lighting design with zoning of the container yard, appropriate specifications of the LED lights, and requirements for reliability of the trolley lights..
5. Yasuko Koga, Keisuke Yoshida, Yasufumi Shigetomi, Kazuhiro Hiyoshi, Kouki Zen, LED Crane Lighting to Hoist Sustainability of Container Terminals, Proc. of the 8th Lux Pacifica, Life and Lighting, 2018.03, In recent years, LED lighting has been introduced into port facilities to improve energy efficiency and to reduce energy and maintenance costs. This research work examined performance of LED lights for gantry crane lighting through experiments and subjective evaluations in a container terminal in operation. Measurement was done on illuminance and luminance distributions of the illuminated area, and vibrations that occurred when trolleys were moving. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with crane operators and relevant workers on the visual environment and workability. It was found that a narrow-angle type is suitable for the LED trolley lights to properly illuminate the task area. In wet weather, workers preferred a light colour of 3000 K for control of glare by reflection from wet surfaces. LED trolley lights should last a practical lifespan of 30 years or more. To meet this requirement, they should pass vibration testing in X, Y and Z axial directions under conditions of frequencies from 10 Hz to 500 Hz, the acceleration of 5 G and 10 sweep cycles, and shock testing downwards and upwards under conditions of the peak acceleration of 10 G, half sine shock with a 16-millisecond duration and 5000 pulses..
6. Kazuki Miyashita, Yasuko Koga, Kotaro Noguchi, Masahiko Yamakawa, Comparative Assessment of Colour Rendering Properties Between Violet-LED and Blue-LED White Light Sources, Proc. of the 8th Lux Pacifica, Life and Lighting, 2018.03.
7. Han Li, Tomoko Koga, Yasuko Koga, Individual autonomous blind control system with PV-slat sensors, Proc. of Advanced Building Skins 2017, 2017.10.
8. Yasuko Koga, Koichi Kitamura, Kazuki Miyashita, Masayuki Kimura, Quantitative Assessment of Perceptual Luminous Uniformity of OLED and LED Panels for Rear Lights, Proc. of the ISAL 2017, 2017.09, OLED lighting panels have a uniform and soft luminous appearance, whereas LED lights have a grainy luminous appearance without light diffusing measures. In contrast to red OLED rear lights, red LED rear lights tend to give irritating and discomfort impressions at dusk and night. Thinking that the soft luminous appearance of the OLED lights is due to their luminance evenness, this research work assessed the appearance of different lumi-nous panels including OLED and LED lighting panels. Luminance distributions of the luminous panels were estimated from their digital images and analysed using the spatial frequency analysis. Perceptual luminous uniformity or non-uniformity was read from power spectra at low spatial frequencies. This research work proposes the ratio of the average power in the range of low spatial frequencies to that in the range of middle spatial frequencies as an index of perceptual luminous uniformity..
9. Yasuko Koga, Keisuke Yoshida, Yasufumi Shigetomi, Tamotsu Ninomiya, Kazuhiko Egashira, Towards The New Generation of Lighting Design for Advanced Container Terminals, Proc. of CIE 2016 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, 2016.03, In order to realize eco-friendly advanced container terminals, introduction of LED lighting is considered to be an effective measure. This research work conducted demonstrative experiments in a container yard in operation to assess effectiveness and reliability of high-powered LED luminaires and effects of LED lighting on cargo handling operations. Measurements and surveys proved that LED lighting improves working environments in comparison with conventional high-pressure sodium lighting. But, glare control was found to be an issue. The demonstrative experiments revealed that a new method of lighting design is necessary for efficient and effective lighting in advanced container terminals. This research work proposes a concept of diversified lighting. It comprises zoning of the container yard, proper use of high-mast lighting and illumination by cargo handling machines, and supplementary security lighting. It will achieve what is called the right light in the right place..
10. Yasuko Koga, Kosuke Takao, Naotaka Saita, Effects of Cutting Light in a Wavelength Range on Discomfort Glare, Proc. of the 11th International Symposium on Automotive Lighting, 2015.09.
11. Yasuko Koga, Naotaka Saita, Spectral Effects of Light on Discomfort Glare under Mesopic Conditions, Proc. of the 28th CIE Session, 2015.06.
12. Yasuko Koga, Yasuhiro Miki, A Review of Historical Changes in Japanese Regulations and Standards for Sunlight and Daylighting, CIE Centenary Conference "Towards a New Century of Light", 2013.04.
13. Y. Koga, M. Takao, T. Murata, N. Ide, I. Mikuriya, G. Yamashita, A Pilot Experiment on Spectral Response Sensitivity of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (the Chief Circadian Pacemaker), 27th Session of the CIE, Vol.1, Part 1, 2011.07.
14. Y. Koga, T. Iwata, N. Ide, An Approach to Evidence-Based Design of The Luminous Environment in Hospitals - Surveys on nurses' work and sleep, CIE 2010 "Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency", 2010.03.
15. Y. Miki, Y. Koga, E. Mochizuki, T. Iwata, Y. Kojima, M. Fujino, T. Kotani, A. Mori, T. Yagi, Development of a Comprehensive Evaluation System for Lighting Environment Efficiency, CIE 2010 "Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency", 2010.03.
16. Yasuko Koga, Motoharu Takao, Light Response Properties of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in Non-Image-Forming Vision, Light and Lighting 2009, 2009.05.
17. K. Wonwoo, Y. Koga, I. Shin, Evaluation of Discomfort Glare from Daylight, 26th Session of the CIE, Vol.2, D3-170 - D3-173, 2007.07.
18. Y. Ogiuchi, K. Satozaki, Y. Koga, Environmental Brightness Estimation for Asymmetrically Illuminated Space, 26th Session of the CIE, Vol2, pp.D3-213 - D3-216, 2007.07.
19. Yasuko Koga, Masayasu Hara, Application of All Sky Model to RADIANCE simulation program, LUX EUROPA 2005, 2005.09.
20. Position Index for a Glare Source in the Whole Visual Field.
21. Yasuko Koga, Ryusuke Tanaka, Daigo Shibata, Evaluation Structure on Night Streets: A case study in Fukuoka, The 25th CIE Session, Vol.2, pp.D542-D5545, 2003.06.
22. Yasuko Koga, Kazuhiko Kozakura, Yusuke Ogata, Evaluation of Non-uniform Luminous Environment by Image Analysis, The 25th Session of CIE, Vol.2, pp.D3170-D3173, 2003.06.
23. Glare Constant at Various Positions in the Visual Field.
24. Prediction of Daylit Environment with Skylights: Daylighting calculation method with Mean Sky (Part 3).
25. Mathematical Expression of Mean Sky in Japan
Daylighting calculation method with Mean Sky (Part 1).
26. Yasuko Koga, Ken Anai, Hiroshi Nakamura, Cloud Amount and Daylight Availability, Balkan light '99, pp.124-129, 1999.10.
27. Yasuko Koga, Ken Anai, Hiroshi Nakamura, Tomoko Matsuzawa, A Sky Scanner for Cloud Amount Measurement, CIE 24th Session, Warsaw, Vol.1, Part 2, pp.53-55, 1999.06.
28. Ken Anai, Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Koichi Goto, Masahiro Shinozaki, A Study on the Ratio of Sky Luminance to Sky Radiance, CIE 24th Session, Warsaw, Vol.1, Part 2, pp.20-22, 1999.06.
29. Dominique Dumortier, Yasuko Koga, Status of the International Daylight Measurement Programme (IDMP) and its Web Server (, CIE 24th Session, Warsaw, Vol.1, Part 1, pp.282-286, 1999.06.
30. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Kunio Matsuura, Daylighting Codes, Standards and Policies Mainly in Japan, Daylighting '98, pp.279-286, 1998.05.
31. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Koichi Goto, Shin'ya Kojo, Jong-ho Seo, Distribution of the Relative Yearly Mean Sky Radiance, LUX PACIFICA '97, pp.E36-E40, 1997.10.
32. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Jong-ho Seo, Takashi Asai, Shin'ya Kojo, Automatic Clud Amount Measurement, 3rd SAAC Lighting Conference in Nepal, pp.146-152, 1996.11.
33. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Satoshi Sata, Ken Anai, A Basic Study on Automatic Measurement of Cloud Cover, CIE 23rd Session, New Delhi, 196-199, Vol.1, pp.196-199, 1995.11.
34. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Muhammad Ramli Rahim, Daylight and Solar Radiation Data in Ujung Pandang, Indonesia, 2nd LUX PACIFICA, pp.C85-C90, 1993.11.
35. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Masato Oki, Tomoko Matsuzawa, Muhammad Ramli Rahim, Study on Luminous Efficacy: The relation to cloud ratio, LUX EUROPA 1993, pp.799-803, 1993.04.
36. Yasuko Koga, Hiroshi Nakamura, Toru Otsuru, Prediction of Illuminance Distribution in Interiors under Skylights, CIE 22nd Session, Vol.1, Part 1, pp.120-121 (Division 3), 1991.07.
1. 古賀靖子, Designing Circadian Luminous Environment - From buildings to vehicles, The 8th Lux Pacifica, Symposium "Circadian Lighting: an Overview from Biology, Architecture, and Industry", 2018.03.
2. Y. Koga, K. Yoshida, Y. Shigetomi, T. Ninomiya, K. Egashira, TOWARDS THE NEW GENERATION OF LIGHTING DESIGN FOR ADVANCED CONTAINER TERMINALS, CIE 2016 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency, 2016.03.
3. Y. Koga, K. Takao, N. Saita, Effects of Cutting Light in a Wavelength Range on Discomfort Glare, 11th International Symposium o Automotive Lighting, 2015.09.
4. Yasuko Koga, Jan de Boer, Anna Hoier, International Activities on Advanced Lighting Solutions for Retrofitting Buildings - IEA SHC Task 50, Grand Renewable Energy 2014, 2014.07.
5. A Case Study on Luminous Environment in Work Places and Workers' Sleep Quality.
6. Basic Studies in Non-Image-Forming Vision - Part 1. Photoreceptors and their spectral sensitivities.
7. Basic Studies in Non-Image-Forming Vision - Part 2. Photosensitivity of suprachiasmatic nucleus in mice.
8. A Preliminary Study on Illuminated Environment and Visual Task Performance.
9. Spectral Sensitivity of Non-Image-Forming Vision - Photosensitivity of the biological clock in mice.
10. Non-Image-Forming Vision and Its Photoreceptors.
11. International Research Activities on Lighting and Health.
12. Effect of the Media of the Stimuli on Visual Impression of Landscape.
13. Psychological Evaluation Model Toward Townscape of Low-Stage Resident.
14. Fear of Crime and Incidence of Crime on Streets at Night.
15. Current of Inernational Research Works on Dyalighting in Buildings.
16. Performance of All Sky Model and Its Application to Daylighting Calculation.
17. Luminance Measurement Using Digital Cameras and Its Storage Form.
18. Assessment of Discomfort Glare from Large Sources - Effect of background luminance.
19. Current Direction in Secutiry Lighting.
20. Effects of Reflection of Direct Sunlight on Daylight Factor.
21. Indexes of Luminance Distributions in Illuminated Space
Part 1. Proposal of the indexes.
22. Indexes of Luminance Distributions in Illuminated Space
Part 2. Evaluation of impressions on illuminated space.
23. Assessment of Discomfort Glare from Large Sources - Definition of the large source.
24. Construction of Secure Night Streets
Part 1. Assessment of impressions according to the type of street.
25. Construction of Secure Night Streets
Part 2. Checklists for making secure night streets.
26. Performance of Luminance Measurement Using Digital Cameras.
27. Factors in Evaluation of Night Streets
Part 1. Elements in evaluation and impressions.
28. Factors in Evaluation of Night Streets
Part 2. Analysis of the elements and impressions.
29. Sky Radiance and Luminance Distributions.
30. Evaluation of Discomfort Glare from Windows
Part 2. A new glare constant formula considering the source position.
31. Evaluation of Discomfort Glare from Windows
Part 1. Glare constant at various positions in the visual field.
32. Daylighting Simulation Using All Sky Model.
33. Dual Evaluation of Non-Uniform Luminous Environments.
34. Presentation Methods for Evaluation Experiments on Night Towns
A comparison between evaluation using photographs and on-the-spot evaluation.
35. A New Evaluation System on Non-Uniform Luminous Environments
Part 2. Proposal of a dual measure of evaluation.
36. A New Evaluation System on Non-Uniform Luminous Environments
Part 1. Proposal of an evaluation index based on brightness.
37. Application of All Sky Model to Daylighting Simulation.
38. Eye-Fixation Characteristics of the Elderly for Ascent and Descent in Stairecases.
39. Classification Index for All Sky Model of Sky Radiance Distribution.
40. A New Index for Evaluation of Non-Uniform Luminous Environments.
41. Evaluation Structure on Night Towns - A case study on Tenjin-district in Fukuoka.
42. Eye-Fixation Characterictics of the Elderly in Staircases.
43. Composition of Evaluation on Night Towns - A case study on Tenjin-district in Fukuoka.
44. Classification of Sky Radiance Distribution for Comparison of All Sky Model.
Membership in Academic Society
  • Architectural Institute of Japan
  • Japanese Society for Chronobiology
  • Committee Internationale de l'Eclairage
  • Illuminating Engineering Institute
  • Japanese Committee of CIE
Educational Activities
"Advanced Architectural Lighting", "Seminar on Building Environmental Design and Control" and "Doctoral Studies in Architectural Lighting" at School of Human-Environment Studies.
"Introduction to Architectural Environment", "Luminous Environment in Architecture", "Design Studio on Environmental Design in Architecture", "Introduction to Researches in Architecture", "Graduate Thesis Research in Architecture" at Faculty of Engineering.
Professional and Outreach Activities
Expert member of ISO TC163/WG4, Expert member of ISO TC205/WGs 1 and 7, Project Leader for ISO 19454, Liaison Representative from ISO/TC205 to ISO/TC274, Liaison Representative from ISO/TC205 to CIE, Expert member of ISO/TC274/JWGs 1, 4 and 5.