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Kazuto (Real name: Kazuo) Misumi Last modified date:2024.05.13

Graduate School
Undergraduate School

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Introduction of my research, information of relevant projects and conferences, online survey reports, and more. .
Academic Degree
Doctor Sociology
Country of degree conferring institution (Overseas)
Field of Specialization
Total Priod of education and research career in the foreign country
Outline Activities
1) Mathematical sociology on social action, social networks, and group processes. Formalization based on qualitative data.
2) Study of urbanization and social stratification based on survey research and case study. Disaster and community in Kumamoto and Takeo, from the viewpoint of social capital, with proposition of new conception of community.

Seminars for graduate students on survey method and sociological theory. In charge of the Graduate Program of Interdisciplinary Policy Analysis and Design. Lectures for under graduate students on introductory mathematical sociology and modern society, and on social capital. Supervising degree projects at the School of Interdisciplinary Science and Innovation.
Research Interests
  • Social capital theory on earthquake and community
    keyword : Earthquake, community, social capital
    2016.05Sociological Theory through Interpretive Formalization.
  • Sociological Theory with Interpretive Formalization
    keyword : Formalization, Interpretive sociology, Qulitative data, Sociological theory
    1988.04Sociological Theory through Interpretive Formalization.
  • Survey Research on Social Stratification and Social Networks
    keyword : Social stratification, Social network, Social capital, Job search
    1982.04Empirical Study on Social Stratification and Social Networks.
  • Mathematical Sociology of Group Processes
    keyword : Group process, Mathematical sociology, Classical theory
    1998.04Mathematical Sociology of Group Processes.
Current and Past Project
  • This project aims to construct a new theory of urban community by integrating the viewpoint of commons, and conduct positive research regarding the community concept.
  • Research project on mechanism of social capital for disaster resilience. The main theoretical question is clarifying mechanism that enables functioning of social capital for management of regional commons under the real situations in communities. Theoretical conditions of the mechanism will be empirically examined by conducting a survey research on 2016 Kumamoto earthquake disaster.
  • Research project on Kumamoto earthquake disaster. By conducting fieldwork, we study on sociological issues and interdisciplinary framework for disaster prevention and rehabilitation.
  • Net-base Mechanism of Solidarity and its institutionalization
  • East Asian Model of social stratification and social mobility.
  • Research project on social stratification and social mobility.
Academic Activities
1. Social Capital: Challenge of Theory Synthesizing in Sociology (in Japanese)..
2. Values and Attitudes in A Time of Destabilization (Contemporary Stratified Society 3) (in Japanese)..
3. Kazuto Misumi, A Formal Theory of Roles, Hana-Syoin, 2007.03.
4. Kazuto Misumi and Kenji Kosaka (eds.), Symbolic Device: Formal Approaches to Meaning, Keiso-shobo, 2005 (in Japanese)..
5. Kazuto Misumi (ed.), Neoclassical Theorizing in Sociology: Formal Approaches, Keiso-shobo, 2004 (in Japanese)..
6. Junichi Kobayashi, Kazuto Misumi, Toru Hirata, and Koji Matsuda, Social Mechanisms [2nd edition], Nakanishiya, 2000 (in Japanese)..
1. Misumi, Kazuto, "Frontier of Social Capital".
2. Kazuto Misumi, Solidarity and Its Institutionalization by Net-base, Working Papers: Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research, 2014 (in Japanese and English)..
3. Kazuto Misumi (ed.), Study of an East Asian Stratification Model, 科研費研究成果報告書, 2011.02.
4. Kazuto Misumi, Solidarity from the Net-base Viewpoint, Working Papers: Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research, 2009 (in Japanese and English)..
5. Kazuto Misumi, Possibility of Interpretive Formalization, Working Papers: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2004 (in Japanese and English)..
6. Kazuto Misumi (ed.), Toward Neoclassical Sociology through Formalization, Working Papers: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2002 (in Japanese and English)..
7. Kazuto Misumi (ed.), The Spatial Structure of Social Stratification, Working Papers: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 1998 (in Japanese)..
1. Cumulative Damage of Disasters and Social Vulnerability: Kumamoto Earthquake, Takeo Flood, and the Pandemic.
2. Community Module Complex: Integrating Commons Theory and Community Theory.
3. Community as A Social System for Managing Regional Common Goods.
4. Kazuto Misumi, Functioning of Free Rider for Community Resilience: A Social Capital Theory of Disaster, Bulletin of the Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Global Society, Kyushu University (地球社会統合科学), 25, 1, 1-9, 2019.01, Based on field research on Kumamoto earthquake disaster, in this paper we focus on sociological problems around management of evacuation shelters. The key concept is social capital that captures dynamism of the social structure as the basic sociological scope for disaster. At first, by focusing on conditions for autonomous (successful in a sense) shelter management, we find four social capital elements and discuss importance of their combined effects to strengthen community resilience. The elements include volunteer among victims who are ordinary free riding on community management. Why free riders cooperate in emergency, in other words, why ‘disaster community’ appears? We answer this question in terms of two mechanisms within rational choice framework. At first, there is the overt urgent demand for solidarity at the time of disaster, which motivates everyday free riders to become volunteers. Secondly, standing on the view of divided supply of public goods, most free riders are ‘quasi-free riders’ whose levels of threshold for cooperation are relatively low. Thus, the free rider can be incorporated into the mechanism of social capital that strengthens community resilience against disaster..
5. Norm Composition of Tolerant Solidarity.
6. Kazuto Misumi, Free Rider Facilitated by Trust
, The Journal of Culture Contents (Research Institute of the Creative Contents), 8, 95-114, 2016.12, 信頼にフリーラーダーを促進する側面があることを、合理的選択理論の枠組みで論理的に示し、その実際のあり方を「関東甲信越健康調査」データの分析によって実証的に論じた。その上で、信頼が促進するフリーライダーが地域マネジメントにおいてもつ積極的な意味をもちうることを主張した。なお、ここで信頼は、アスレイナーによる信頼の道徳的基礎の議論をふまえて独自に導入した地域社会信頼である。.
7. Social Capital in Stratification Research (Japanese Sociological Review 59(4): 716-733, 2009).
8. Kazuto Misumi, Whole-net Base and Social Capital: Stratified Opportunity Structure of Social Capital, 理論と方法 (Sociological Theory and Methods), 20, 1, 5-25, Vol.20 No.1、5-25, 2005.09.
9. Kazuto Misumi, Boolean model of role discrimination, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Vol.26 No.1-2:111-121, 2002.06.
10. Comparative Narratives as the Secondary Analysis: Reconsidering 'Hachinosu-Jo Conflict' (Riron to Hoho 16(1): 103-120, 2001).
11. Residential Mobility and Stratification among Women: An Analysis of 1995 SSM Data (Hikaku-Shakai-Bunka 5: 113-122, 1999).
1. Kazuto Misumi, Free Rider as Stock of Social Capital in Local Community, XX ISA World Congress of Sociology, 2023.06, In this paper I define ‘community goods’ to capture those public goods and common pool goods that are necessary for regional community life. Then, ‘local community’ can be captured as the social system that consists of social interactions among residents and agencies to manage various community goods. Following Janowitz’s (1952) ‘community of limited liability,’ residents may selectively and partly participate in community activities, and community leaders may work on their favorite community goods. I define ‘community module’ to indicate the sub-social system for single community goods. Then, local community is like a module complex where division of labor and sharing coexist to manage various community modules as a whole.
As community goods is an extended conception of public goods, the free rider problem is unavoidable. Free rider is discussed ordinarily by supposing a single public goods. However, in community module complex situations, it happens that a person who acts as a free rider for some modules is in fact a leader or a member of a social group that actively manages certain other modules. In a sense, every free rider can be a latent contributor, and getting his /her cooperation implies activation of bridging social capital. Thus, holding free riders in a local community to some degree works as stock of social capital.
Rational choice theorists shall consider that the free rider problem in real world requires to understand optimal arrangement of community module complex in order to realize highly mutually reciprocal state in a community as a whole. In this paper, I will introduce a threshold mechanism that explains how and when an actor changes his/her attitude between free rider and contributor; in addition, I will show some results of survey data analysis that suggest positive meaning of free rider in module complex situations.
2. Disaster and Community Free Rider: Kumamoto Earthquake and Takeo Flood .
3. Community Free Riders Contribute: Disaster and Social Capital.
4. 三隅 一人(本名:一百), Managing Free Riders for Community Resilience: In Search of ‘Crossroad’ Questions, 2nd Congress of East Asian Sociological Association, 2021.10, In the field research on Kumamoto earthquake disaster, we found that successful evacuation shelters had rich social capital including volunteers among victims who were ordinary free riding on community management. We explain this switching from free riders into contributors in terms of two processes within rational choice framework. One is overt urgent demand for solidarity at the time of disaster, and the other is cooperative characteristics of free riders. In a sense free rider could be potential social capital in order to increase community resilience. We define community as the social system to supply community public goods. It includes core contributors and free riders according to interests in public goods. Since there are various public goods in a community, core contributors are different from each other. We discuss community module complex that enables to hold free riders and propose ‘Crossroad’ style questions to develop empirically study of this mechanism..
5. Sociological Analysis Framework for 'Crossroad'.
6. Resilience of Module Community.
7. 三隅 一人(本名:一百), Tolerant Solidarity from the Viewpoint of Normative Conflict, XIX World Congress of Sociology, ISA (International Sociological Association), 2018.07, In this paper we formally discuss compositions of tolerant solidarity from the viewpoint of normative conflict. Defining solidarity as via net-base symbols (Schutz,1962), we formalize believes that represent what symbols are significant for in terms of Boolean equations. Tolerant solidarity is confronted with contradiction between universalism and relativism. Then, “less conflictual solutions” (LCS: Murakami,1994) will be an excellent guide for tolerance when we define it as restriction of normative conflict. In addition LCS works as the standard of tolerance in the acceptance process of meta-believes that specify desirable beliefs based on certain ideal goals. We consider 6 type meta-beliefs as indicated in the following Boolean equations. (Ragin,1987. We call each term in equations presentation pattern.)
(1) Liberal universalism: W=S(A+B)=SAb+SaB+SAB
(2) Universalism: W=Sab
(3) Homogeneous universalism: W=SAb、W=SaB
(4) Particularism: W=sAb、W=saB
(5) Relativism: W=s(A+B)=sAb+saB+sAB
(6) Privatized particularism: W=sab
Suppose that there is a group where members commonly accept concrete net-base symbols, A and B, for solidarity W; however, they are divided into two subgroups on acceptance of an abstracted net-base symbol, S. In this case, each sub-group may have 18 different types of belief in general. If a meta-belief is perfectly included in a belief, namely all the presentation patterns in the former also appear in the latter, a person who has the belief will not experience any conflict when accepting the meta-belief in question. Thus we examine tolerance of each meta-belief from the viewpoint of LCS, and will conclude that LCS does not guarantee that liberal universalism is the most tolerant meta-belief; however, it might best fit with tolerant solidarity because it holds moderate tolerance and a consistent ideal goal at the same time. The above-mentioned analysis may suggest a general mechanism that explains acceptance and rejection of normative discourses.
Keywords: Solidarity, tolerance, norm, Boolean approach.
8. 三隅 一人(本名:一百), Trust in Community and Free Rider, 3rd ISA Forum of Sociology, 2016.07, Trust is believed to contribute on escape from the free rider problem. However, considering the discussion based on threshold models of social dilemmas, if we assume that an actor’s cognitive threshold for cooperating is related with trust, it is possible to say that trust should enhance free rider. This is because an actor will be more likely to stay as a free rider (namely, to have a high threshold) when they trust in community for its ability to provide public goods. Trust of this kind is close to trust in abstract systems, and as Giddens suggests, it is based on trust in interpersonal relationships. Then, we need to explore how trust in community and general trust are related to each other, and how these two kinds of trust determine people’s cooperative behaviors. Considering the case of residential community and utilizing survey data, in this study we make an empirical approach to these questions. At first, by conducting principal component analysis for the variables like neighborhood evaluations and trust at the municipality levels, we extract two components: trust in community and residential attachment. We additionally extract two components through the similar analysis for the variables relevant to participation in community events; voluntary participation and free riding participation. (The latter indicates participation only in joyful events.) Multiple-regression analysis shows while trust in community strongly determines voluntary participation, it also enhances free riding participation. In both cases, the effects of general trust seem to be observed in the effect of trust in community. Thus our results suggest that general trust and trust in community are not necessarily complementary to each other in order to enhance community participation, and that trust in community could strengthen both cooperation and free riding at the same time. We will further discuss the meaning these paradoxical results imply. .
9. 三隅 一人(本名:一百), Net-base Theory of Social Capital, International Sociological Association (18th World Congress of Sociology), 2014.07, The concept of social capital has been widely accepted; however its theoretical significance in sociology is not clear yet. In this paper, we propose a theoretical device in order to make this analogical concept the key to integrate relation-theories (theories of social relation, social networks, and social structure) in sociology. Social capital is analogy, the aim of which is to capture such mechanism that is similar to capital accumulation process in social structure. Every element of social structure and every relation-theory as well should have relation to this concept to some degree. As a rule it inevitably has multiple meanings; on the other hand, it should work as a hub by which various relation-theories are consistently connected to each other. In order to extract this unifying power, we introduce the ‘net-base.’ Net-base is a common attribute that provides a basis of social ties. Thus net-base implies a corresponding socio-centric network that consists of all the members who share it; moreover, configuration of various net-bases implies interrelationship between multiple socio-centric networks. We assume that accumulation of social capital is oriented by socio-centric networks embedded in social structure; then, net-base is an indicator in terms of which we can infer how network mechanisms in social structure condition the accumulation process of social capital. In making the inference we often need to access different type relation-theories, which will provide an opportunity of theory integration. Additionally, net-base is easily measurable by questionnaires on personal networks and group participation in ordinal individual-base survey. Thus, net-base theory makes it possible to locate ‘social capital’ in the storage house of relation-theories and to empirically find valid inference in regard to network mechanisms of capital accumulation. More extendedly, it should have integrity with the rational choice research program of social capital proposed by Flap and Völker (2004)..
10. How Social Structure Generates Social Capital .
11. Net-base mechanism of Solidarity: From the Viewpoint of Generalized Reciprocity .
12. Whole-net Base and Social Capital: The Stratified Opportunity Structure of Friendship Capital.
13. Reconsidering the Concept of Role through Boolean Approach.
14. An Analysis of Community Conflict by the Narrative Method.
15. Management of Commons in Urbanizing Areas: Simulation Analysis of 'Iri-ai'.
16. Model of Reference Group Process to Explain Class Consciousness.
Membership in Academic Society
  • Japan Sociological Society
  • Japanese Association for Mathematical Sociology
  • Japan Sociological Association for Social Analysis
  • Sociological Society of West Japan
  • Japan Association for Urban Sociology
  • Japan Society of Community Disaster Management Plan
  • The 13th Award of Japan NPO Research Association
  • The 12th Award of Japan NPO Research Association
Educational Activities
Graduate seminars:
1) Social survey method and statistical data analysis.
2) Sociological theory, including qualitative formalization.
3) Joint seminars.
4) PBL classes in the Graduate Program of Interdisciplinary Policy Analysis and Design.

Under Graduate lectures & Seminars:
1) Introductory lecture on social capital and modern society (Kikan education).
2) Introductory lecture on mathematical sociology (Kikan education).
3) Research Methods for Human Societies (School of Interdisciplinary Science and Innovation)

Texts (being an author or a translator):
1) Misumi, Kazuto "Social Capital," Minerva (2013).
2) Kobayashi,J. et al., "Social Mechanisms," Nakanishiya (1999).
3) Bradley,I. and R.L.Meek (=Kobayashi,J. and K.Misumi), "Matrices and Society," Kyushu University Press (1992).
4) Bohrnstedt,G.W. and D.Knoke (=Umino,M. and T.Nakamura), "Social Statistics," Harvest (1990).
5) Suzuki,H. et al. "Sociology and Modern Society," Koseisha-Koseikaku (1993).
6) Shakaifukushi-shi Yosei-koza Henshu-iinkai, "Social Theory and Social System," Chuo-hoki (2009).
7) Nihon Social Work Kyoikugakko-Renmei, "Sociology and Social System," Chuo-hoki (2021).
8) Misumi, Kazuto and Kazuyoshi Takano, "Unraveling Dilemmas by Sociology," Minerva (2020).
Other Educational Activities
  • 2007.04, Managing 1st Korea and Japan Joint Seminar on East Asian Culture and Society (April 16-17, 2007, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka). Cooperative educational meeting between Dept. Sociology, Pusan National University, and SCS, Kyushu University. .
  • 2005.03, As a visiting researcher at Department of Sociology, University of Arizona (U.S.A), I studied methods of education and research on qualitative comparrative analysis..
Professional and Outreach Activities
(1) Support for policy-making through survey and intervew research:
Survey of community resorces in Chuo-ku, Fukuoka (1991-1992), Community planning adviser, Kasuga city (1999-2001).
(2) Lectures of suervey research and data analysis.
(3) Lectures of university's open seminar.
(4) Participation in disaster prevention activity with citizen groups in Kumamoto and Takeo city..