|Kazuhide Hashiya||Last modified date：2020.01.30|
Associate Professor / Developmental psychology Ⅰ / Department of Human Sciences / Faculty of Human-Environment Studies
|Kazuhide Hashiya||Last modified date：2020.01.30|
|1.||Xianwei Meng, Yo Nakawake, Hiroshi Nitta, Kazuhide Hashiya, Yusuke Moriguchi, Space and rank
Infants expect agents in higher position to be socially dominant, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 10.1098/rspb.2019.1674, 286, 1912, 2019.10, Social hierarchies exist throughout the animal kingdom, including among humans. Our daily interactions inevitably reflect social dominance relationships between individuals. How do we mentally represent such concepts? Studies show that social dominance is represented as vertical space (i.e. high = dominant) by adults and preschool children, suggesting a space-dominance representational link in social cognition. However, little is known about its early development. Here, we present experimental evidence that 12- to 16-month-old infants expect agents presented in a higher spatial position to be more socially dominant than agents in a lower spatial position. After infants repeatedly watched the higher and lower agents being presented simultaneously, they looked longer at the screen when the lower agent subsequently outcompeted the higher agent in securing a reward object, suggesting that this outcome violated their higher-is-dominant expectation. We first manipulated agents’ positions by presenting them on a podium (experiment 1). Then we presented the agents on a double-decker stand to make their spatial positions directly above or below each other (experiment 2), and we replicated the results (experiment 3). This research demonstrates that infants expect spatially higher-positioned agents to be socially dominant, suggesting deep roots of the space-dominance link in ontogeny..
|2.||Taro Murakami, Kazuhide Hashiya, Development in the interpretation of ambiguous referents in 3- and 5-year-olds, Infant and Child Development, 10.1002/icd.2137, 28, 5, 2019.09, In verbal communication, a receiver often needs to resolve referential ambiguity. This study set two experimental conditions to separate the possibility of local correspondence based on the persisting strategy of reference assignment from that of more flexible reference skills. A total of 139 three-year-old and five-year-old children engaged in referencing names and colours in response to ambiguous implicit questions. The double-referent condition involved a reference assignment task, which alternated explicit questions and implicit questions. In the single-referent condition, implicit questions appeared at different positions within a series of interactions. The results demonstrated no difference between the conditions, indicating that the difficulty of disambiguation was not due to local correspondences such as “this”-referent mappings in a particular context. This suggests that the study's procedure appropriately probed inferential competence to enable retrospective disambiguation, thus providing a potential tool for assessing various aspects of pragmatic interpretation. Highlights: The main research question is whether the experience of "this"-referent mappings affects to interpret the subsequent ambiguous referent. A total of 139 three- and five-year-old children were engaged in the reference assignment task. The results demonstrated that the tendency of disambiguation was not due to local correspondence such as "this"-referent mappings in a particular context. The procedure used in the study appropriately reflected inferential competence that enables retrospective disambiguation..|
|3.||Hashiya, K., Meng, X., Uto, Y., & Tajiri, K, Overt congruent facial reaction to dynamic emotional expressions in 9–10-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, Infant Behavior and Development, 10.1016/j.infbeh.2018.12.002, 58, 48-56, 2018.12.|
|4.||Xianwei Meng, Taro Murakami, Kazuhide Hashiya, Phonological loop affects children’s interpretations of explicit but not ambiguous questions
Research on links between working memory and referent assignment, PloS one, 10.1371/journal.pone.0187368, 12, 10, 2017.10, Understanding the referent of other’s utterance by referring the contextual information helps in smooth communication. Although this pragmatic referential process can be observed even in infants, its underlying mechanism and relative abilities remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehend the background of the referential process by investigating whether the phonological loop affected the referent assignment. A total of 76 children (43 girls) aged 3–5 years participated in a reference assignment task in which an experimenter asked them to answer explicit (e.g., “What color is this?”) and ambiguous (e.g., “What about this?”) questions about colorful objects. The phonological loop capacity was measured by using the forward digit span task in which children were required to repeat the numbers as an experimenter uttered them. The results showed that the scores of the forward digit span task positively predicted correct response to explicit questions and part of the ambiguous questions. That is, the phonological loop capacity did not have effects on referent assignment in response to ambiguous questions that were asked after a topic shift of the explicit questions and thus required a backward reference to the preceding explicit questions to detect the intent of the current ambiguous questions. These results suggest that although the phonological loop capacity could overtly enhance the storage of verbal information, it does not seem to directly contribute to the pragmatic referential process, which might require further social cognitive processes..
|5.||Kazuhide Hashiya, Xianwei Meng, Yusuke Uto, Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study., Frontier Psycholgy, 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02065, 7, 2017.05, Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication..|
|6.||Norimatsu H, Kazuhide Hashiya, Blin R,, Sorsana Ch, Kobayashi H, Understanding of others’ knowledge in French and Japanese children: A comparative study with a disambiguation task on 16–38-month-olds., Infant Behavior and Development, 10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.08.006, 37, 4, 632-643, 2014.11, In order to explain the cultural differences reported in the results of false-belief tasks, we attempted to verify the ‘task bias hypothesis’ suggested by certain studies (e.g. Tardif et al. (2004). Journal of Child Language, 31, 779–800; Rubio-Fernandez .|
|7.||Xianwei Meng, Kazuhide Hashiya, Pointing Behavior in Infants Reflects the Communication Partner’s Attentional and Knowledge States: A Possible Case of Spontaneous Informing.
, PLoS ONE, 10.1371/journal.pone.0107579, 9, 9, 2014.09.
|8.||Taro Murakami, Kazuhide Hashiya, Development of reference assignment in children: a direct comparison to
the performance of cognitive shift, Frontiers in Psychology, 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00523, 5, 523, 2014.05, The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami & Hashiya, 2014) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in three- and five-year-old children. The results indicated that the 3-year-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-year-olds, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course.
|9.||Watabe, M., Kato, T., Tsuboi, S., Kazuhide Hashiya, Monji, A., Kanba, S., Ishikawa, K., Utsumi, H., Minocycline, a microglial inhibitor,reduces ‘honey trap’ risk in human economic exchange., Scientific Reports, 0.1038/srep01685, 3, 1653, 2013.02.|
|10.||Kato, A.T., Watabe, M., Tsuboi, S., Ishikawa, K., Hashiya, K., Monji, A., Utsumi, H., Kanba, S. , Minocycline Modulates Human Social Decision-Making: Possible Impact of Microglia on Personality-Oriented Social Behaviors.
, PLoS ONE , 2012.06.
|11.||Kazuhdie Hashiya, The game theories of "Walden" and "Metropolis", Journal of Asian Urbanism, 4, 8-11, 2011.03.|
|12.||Hiromi Kobayashi, Kazuhide Hashiya, The gaze that grooms: Contribution of social factors to the evolution of primate eye Morphology
, Evolution and Human Behavior, DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.08.003 , 32, 157-165, 2011.05.
|13.||Yamamoto, K., Tanaka, S., Kobayashi, H., Kozima, H., & Hashiya, K. , A Non-Humanoid Robot in the "Uncanny Valley": Experimental Analysis of the Reaction to Behavioral Contingency in 2-3 Year Old Children. , PLoS ONE, 4 , e6974, 2009.09.|
|14.||Sugimoto, T., Kobayashi, H., Nobuyoshi, N., Kiriyama, Y, Takeshita, H., Nakamura, T. and Hashiya, K. , Preference for Consonant Music over Dissonant Music by an Infant Chimpanzee. , Primates , doi:10.1007/s10329-009-0160-3, 51, 7-12, 2010.02.|
|15.||Sanefuji, W., Ohgami, H., Hashiya, K., Detection of the relevant type of locomotion in infancy: Clowers versus Walkers., Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 624-628, 2008.09.|
|16.||Sanefuji, W., Ohgami, H., & Hashiya, K., Preference for the relevant ty pe of locomotion in infancy, The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science(基礎心理学研究) , 25, pp123－124., 2006.07.|
|17.||Sanefuji, W., Ohgami, H., & Hashiya, K., Development of preference for baby faces across species in humans (Homo Sapiens)., Journal of Ethology, published online, DOI: 10.1007/s10164-006-0018-8. , 2007.07.|
|18.||Nomura, M., Katahata, M. & Hashiya, K., Visual orienting occurs asymmetrically in horizontal vs. vertical planes.
, Psychologia, 10.2117/psysoc.2005.205, 48, 3, 205-217, 48(3), 205-217., 2005.09.
|19.||Sanefuji, W., Hashiya, K., Itakura, S. & Ohgami, H., Emergence of the understanding of the other’s intention: re-enactment of intended acts from “failed-attemps” in 12- to 24-month olds. , Psychologia, 10.2117/psysoc.2004.10, 47, 1, 10-17, 47(1), pp.10-17.
|20.||Morimoto, R. & Hashiya, K., Memory for Faces in Infants: A Comparison to the Memory for Objects.
, The 4th. International Conference on Development and Learning, Proceedings. , 182-186, pp.182-186., 2005.07.
|21.||Hashiya, K. & Kojima, S., Acquisition of auditory-visual intermodal matching-to-sample by a chimpanzee: comparison with visual-visual intramodal matching., Animal Cognition, 4, 4., p.231-240., 2001.01.|