Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Presentations
Akiyo Tanaka Last modified date:2019.08.20

Lecturer / Department of Environmental Health and Socio Medical Sciences / Department of Basic Medicine / Faculty of Medical Sciences


Presentations
1. Noriaki Goto, Satoshi Kitazaki, Akiyo Tanaka, Miyuki Hirata, Yoshimichi Nakatsu, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, EVALUATION OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA IRRADIATION ON SKIN OF HAIRLESS MICE EVALUATED USING CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM, International Conference on Plasma Medical Science Innovation (ICPMSI), 2017.02, Recent progress in plasma medicine has attracted much attention because plasma irradiation technology enables low damage treatment of the human body and cells [1-3]. However, there is little information about the effects of plasma irradiation on normal skin tissue in vitro or in vivo. Also, the evaluation method of plasma treatment on human body have not been established yet. For ensuring the safety of plasma medicine, it is very important to clarify the threshold of plasma irradiation that is safe for therapeutic use. Here, we report the evaluation method of atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation on skin in hairless mice using chromaticity diagram.
Experiments were performed using atmospheric pressure torch type plasma device (PN-110TPG, NU GLOBAL Co., Ltd). The material gas and flow rate were helium and 2 L/min, respectively. The hairless mice, aged 6 weeks, were used in this experiment. A mouse under anesthesia was placed under the torch. The irradiation distance and period were ranged from 15 mm to 50 mm and 10 s to 60 s, respectively. After plasma irradiation, we took a photographs of mice skin over the three or seven days and converted RGB to XYZ color using image analysis soft (ImageJ) to evaluate plasma irradiation effect using CIE XYZ color space chromaticity diagram, which is the basis for all color management systems.
Figure 1 shows the chronological changes of color of mouse skin after 60 s plasma irradiation against irradiation distance. Right after plasma irradiation, few changes were observed on each condition. After days 1, colors of skin were drastically changed in irradiation distance of 15 mm and 30 mm. Also, scars ware observed at the treated region. After days 2, the color of skin in irradiation distance of 30 mm tended to recover to normal skin. However, in irradiation distance of 15 mm, mouse skin never recovered to normal skin.
.
2. Yoshimichi Nakatsu, Noriko Takano, Mizuki Ohno, Satoshi Kitazaki, Kazunori Koga, Takaaki Amano, Akiyo Tanaka, Miyuki Hirata, Masaharu Shiratani, and Teruhisa Tsuzuki, Mutagenesis in Human and Mouse Cells Irradiated by Non-thermal Atmospheric Air Plasma, 6th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (ICPM-6), 2016.09, Plasma is a gas composed of electrons, various ions, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species
(ROS/NOS). Since non-thermal plasma has been developed, the applications of plasma
have been spread in the field of life-science including tissue sterilization, blood
coagulation, wound-healing promotion, and dental bleaching. It is reported that plasma
treatment induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines but not normal fibroblasts. In
addition, exposure to medium treated with plasma (indirect plasma) was shown to have
similar effects on human cancer cell lines. These results implicate plasma as a potential
tool for cancer therapy. To establish the safe application of plasma, it is important to
evaluate the potential risk of plasma to organisms. The plasma exposure produced
ROS/NOS not only in external environment but also in cells, thus anticipated the
inductions of DNA damages and mutations. Therefore, we performed the mutation analyses using mouse and human cells exposed by non-thermal atmospheric air plasma directly and indirectly. Direct exposure of air plasma jet induced mutations, mainly deletions, in the splenocytes from rpsL-transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of air plasma jet-exposed medium also induced mutations in a human cancer cell line, HeLa. Currently, we examine the dose effects of direct and indirect exposure of air plasma jet on the mutagenesis using rpsL-transgenic mice..
3. A. Tanaka, M. Hirata, Y. Ikehara, Y. Akimoto, H. Nakanish, H.Tanaka, M. Hori, Health Effects of Repeated Intraperitoneal Injections of Plasma-activated Medium in Mice, 6th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (ICPM-6), 2016.09, Recently, the medical application of nonequilibium atmospheric-pressure plasma has attracted much attention, in particular, in cancer therapies [1]. In addition to direct plasma irradiation of various lesions including cancer, the indirect plasma irradiation therapy using plasma-activated medium (PAM), prepared via plasma irradiation of cell-free medium, has shown antitumor effects, such as the induction of apoptosis in glioblastoma brain tumor cells [1]. Furthermore, it has been reported that PAM exhibits selective cytotoxicity against ovarian clear cell carcinoma, which is a subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma [2]. Because epithelial ovarian carcinoma is well known to disseminate throughout the peritoneal cavity, we hypothesized that PAM could be suitable for intraperitoneal therapy. However, because there are no available data concerning the health effects of PAM on the body, it is necessary to first evaluate whether PAM treatment is potentially hazardous to humans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the health effects of PAM when administered to mice via repeated intraperitoneal injections.
Twenty-eight female C57/6N mice, aged 10 weeks, were used in this study. Experimentation began at 12 weeks of age, with a mean body weight (mean±SE) of 22.0±0.2 g. PAM and medium were prepared as previously reported [1]. The mice were separated into four groups as follows: PAM, medium (PAM negative control), cisplatin (positive control), and saline (negative control). Each group contained seven mice. Excluding the cisplatin group, all the mice were injected with 1 ml/mouse of PAM, medium, or saline intraperitoneally every day for 2 weeks. The mice in the cisplatin group received 0.4 ml/mouse cisplatin intraperitoneally once a week for 2 weeks. All of the mice were euthanized by sevofrane on the 15th day after the initial injection. The omentum, mesenteric membrane, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and small intestine were removed and prepared for histopathological examination including SEM and TEM.
During the instillation periods, no mice died in any of the groups. Mean body weight (mean±SE) was 22.7±0.3 g, 22.4±0.7 g, 23.9±0.4 g, and 22.8±0.5 g in the PAM, medium, cisplatin, and saline group, respectively, at the 15th day after the initial injection. Although there were no significant differences in the change in body weight between the PAM, medium, cisplatin, and the control group, repeated intraperitoneal injections of the tested materials seemed to influence body weight gain. Clear lesions were not observed macroscopically in the omentum, mesenteric membrane, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, or small intestines in each group. However, as the detailed histopathological examination is in progress, it would seem that a less toxic effect is manifested when PAM is injected intraperitoneally in mice.
.
4. S. Kitazaki, A. Tanaka, M. Hirata, Y. Nakatsu, K. Koga, M. Shiratani,, Effects of Non-thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Irradiation on Skin in Hairless Mice, 6th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (ICPM-6), 2016.09, Recent progress in plasma medicine has attracted much attention because plasma irradiation technology enables low-damage treatment of the human body and cells [1]. Reports of in vitro antitumor effects of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on various types of tumor cells are available [2]. Furthermore, it has been suggested that plasma irradiation might suppress malignant transformation of benign melanocytic tumors in RET mice [3]. However, there is little information about the effects of plasma irradiation on normal skin tissue in vitro or in vivo. For ensuring the safety of plasma medicine, it is very important to clarify the threshold of plasma irradiation that is safe for therapeutic use. Here, we report the chronological effects of plasma irradiation on the skin of normal hairless mice.
The discharge device consisted of a stainless rod with an outer diameter of 1 mm, covered with a quartz tube with an outer diameter of 4 mm. Five hairless mice, aged 6 weeks, were used in this experiment and were purchased from Kyudo Co. Ltd. (Tosu, Japan). They were housed in a specific pathogen-free laboratory room at Kyushu University. A mouse under anesthesia was placed 1 mm beneath the electrode. When AC HV power was supplied to the electrodes, a dielectric barrier discharge was generated between the electrode and the skin of the mouse. The discharge voltage and frequency were 15.4 kVp-p and 9.5 kHz, respectively, and the treatment duration was 300 s. To investigate the chronological changes in the skin after plasma irradiation, we treated four separate areas in four days under the same discharge condition. After the final treatment, all of the mice were euthanized by administering sevoflurane and the skin from the backs of the mice was removed and prepared for histopathological examination.

30 min 1 day 2 days 3 days
Figure 1 shows the macroscopic changes in the skin after plasma irradiation. Thirty minutes and 1 day after treatment, changes were not observed. After days 2 and 3, slight swelling of the treated region was observed. A scar was observed on day 3. The lesion was barely detectable in histopathological examinations performed at 30 min and 1 day after treatment. However, slight to mild proliferation of epithelial cells in the epidermis was seen after days 2 and 3. Thus, we concluded that plasma irradiation might have caused damage to the skin of mice. Further study is needed to clarify the long-term effects of plasma irradiation on the skin of mice.
.
5. T. Amano, T. Sarinont, K. Koga, M. Hirata A. Tanaka, M. Shiratani,, Deposition Kinetics of Metal Nanoparticles Produced by Discharges in Water, 2015 MRS Fall Meeting &Exhibits , 2015.11, Assessment of bio-compatibility and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body is an emerging topics in nanotechnology. Synthesis of nanoparticles using discharge plasmas in water offers a simple way to synthesize nanoparticles in aqueous suspension which is useful for their administration to living bodies. Previously, we succeeded in producing indium-containing nanoparticles using plasmas in water, and in analyzing their transport from subcutaneous of the rats and mice [1]. Here we report synthesis of nanoparticles using Gold (Au), platinum (Pt), and silver (Ag) electrodes to study their kinetics in living body, because Au, Pt, and Ag nanoparticles are promising nanomaterials for medical applications.
Synthesis of nanoparticles was carried out using pulsed discharge plasmas in DI water. A metal rod electrode of 1 mm in diameter and a metal plate electrode of 0.2 mm in thickness were immersed into deionized (DI) water. The discharge voltage and frequency were about 10 kV and 10 kHz, respectively. Optical emissions from the plasma were measured with a spectrometer (Hamamatsu photonics, C7473-36). After discharges, we sampled the supernatant of the solution with a pipette and desiccated the solution on grid mesh for transparent electron microscopy (TEM) measurements.
Atomic emission lines of oxygen and hydrogen were observed in the emission spectra of electrical discharge plasmas in water. The lines of Au, Ag, or Pt were also observed, when Au, Ag, or Pt was employed as the electrode materials, respectively. These results indicates that Au, Ag, or Pt atoms exist in the discharge plasmas, leading to formation of nanoparticles. The generation rate of nanoparticles of Au, Ag, and Pt were 0.47, 0.21, and 0.25 mg/min, respectively. For each composition of the electrodes, synthesized nanoparticles were observed by the TEM. The size distributions deduced by TEM images are the Gaussian one and the mean size of the primary nanoparticles of Au, Ag, and Pt were 6.72, 22.6, and 5.43 nm, respectively. We will report results of subcutaneous administration towards rats of these synthesized nanoparticles to study their effects on living body.
.
6. K. Koga, T. Amano, T. Sarinont, T.Kondo, S.Kitazaki, Y. Nakatsu, A. Tanaka, M. Shiratani, Interactions between spin trapping reagents and non-thermal air DBD polasmas., 37th International Symposium on Dry Proces, 2015.11.
7. Kazunori Koga, Takaaki Amano, Miyuki Hirata, Akiyo Tanaka, In vivo kinetics of nanoparticles synthesized by plasma in water, The 20th Korean-Japan Workshop on Advanced Plasma Process and Diagnostics., 2015.10, Nanoparticles have great potentials for medical applications such as cancer therapy [1,2], while they are pointed out their harmful effects on human body [3]. Assessment of bio-compatibility and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body is an emerging topics for these applications. Synthesis of nanoparticles using discharge plasmas in water offers a simple way to synthesize nanoparticles in aqueous suspension which is useful for their administration to living bodies. Here we report synthesis of nanoparticles using Indium (In), gold (Au), and platinum (Pt) to study their kinetics in living body [4].
Synthesis of nanoparticles was carried out using pulsed discharge plasmas in DI water. A metal rod electrode and a metal plate electrode of 0.2 mm in thickness were immersed into deionized (DI) water. The discharge voltage and frequency were about 15.2 kV and 7.6 kHz, respectively. The discharge power was 5.1 W. Optical emissions from the plasma were measured with a spectrometer (Hamamatsu photonics, C7473-36). After discharges, we sampled the supernatant of the solution with a pipette and desiccated the solution on grid mesh for transparent electron microscopy (TEM) measurements.
Atomic emission lines of oxygen and hydrogen were observed in the emission spectra of electrical discharge plasmas in water. The lines of In, Au, or Pt were also observed, when In, Au, or Pt was employed as the electrode materials, respectively. These results indicates that In, Au, or Pt atoms exist in the discharge plasmas, leading to formation of nanoparticles. For each composition of the electrodes, synthesized nanoparticles were observed by the TEM. The size distributions deduced by TEM images are the Gaussian one and the mean size of the primary nanoparticles of In, Au, and Pt were 8.20, 6.72, and 5.43 nm, respectively. We will show preliminary results of subcutaneous or intratracheal administration towards rats of these synthesized nanoparticles to study their kinetics on living body.

.
8. AkiyoTanaka, Miyuki Hirata, Nagisa Matsumura, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Yutaka Kiyohara, Health Effects of indium nanoparticles, The 10th Asian-European International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 2015.09, Owing to the recent increase in the use of nanoparticles for medicinal applications, the potential health hazards arising from their exposure have attracted much attention. There are limited data regarding the adverse health effects or metabolism of nanoparticles in humans or animals. Accordingly, precautions against possible exposure to nanoparticles are critical with regard to health management. To clarify the health effects of nanoparticles, we evaluated the toxicity and tissue distribution of indium nanoparticles in animals. Available data have indicated that indium compounds, such as indium-tin oxide (ITO), indium oxide, indium hydroxide, indium-copper-gallium-selenide (CIGS) can be toxic to animals when instilled into the lung via trachea. Pulmonary inflammatory response and interstitial fibrotic proliferation or exudation to alveolar spaces including necrotic cell debris were evident in all indium-treated animals. Furthermore, levels of serum surfactant protein D (SP-D), which is a biomarker of interstitial pneumonia, increased compared to the baseline value. The clearance of indium from the body is extremely slow after intratracheal instillation in animals. The lung indium content decreased gradually, and indium was absorbed and retained in the lungs for a long time. Blood indium concentrations gradually increased, and this increase was particle size-dependent. Indium was significantly absorbed in peripheral organs after respiratory exposure, and the absorption continued to increase long after the instillation of indium compounds .
It is necessary to consider the effects of exposure to indium nanoparticles in humans, and precautions against such exposure are paramount with regard to health management..
9. Akiyo Tanaka, Miyuki Hirata, Nagisa Matsumura, Yutaka Kiyohara, Serum surfactant protein D is a marker of lung injury caused by indium chloride, 31th International Congress on Occupational Health, 2015.05, The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D), which is a biomarker of interstitial pneumonia, and lung injury when a soluble indium compound was given to rats. Male Wistar rats were given 1 mg/kg of indium chloride (InCl3) once intratracheally. Control rats were instilled 1ml/kg saline only. Rats were euthanized 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 28 day in the InCl3 group, and the control rats were 0, 7, 14, and 28 day after an instillation. The serum SP-D, pulmonary pathological change, serum indium concentration, and lung indium content were evaluated. The serum SP-D level rose until 14 day at a level 7-fold higher than the base level, but gradually decreased after 14 day. Serum SP-D at 28 day did not return to base level, showing at a level 5-fold the base level in the InCl3 group. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe inflammatory response with diffuse alveolar or bronchiolar cell hyperplasia and interstitial fibrotic proliferation was present in the InCl3-treated rats, and the severity of these lesions worsened until 14 day, but recovered from 14 to 28 day. Neither inflammatory response, interstitial fibrosis nor hyperplastic lesion was evident in the control group. The serum SP-D elevated with progression of lung lesions, and decreased with lowering of lung injury. However, both serum indium levels and lung indium content decreased from 1 to 28 day. The present results indicate that serum SP-D is a useful indicator of lung injury when indium chloride is given to the lung of rats..
10. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Nagisa Matsumura, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Yutaka Kiyohara, Pulmonary Toxicity of Indium-Tin Oxide, Indium Oxide and Indium Hydroxide Following Intratracheal Instillations into the Lung of Rats, 2014 MRS Fall Meeting &Exhibits, 2014.12, We studied the pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide (ITO), indium oxide (In2O3) and indium hydroxide (In(OH)3), which are used for the raw materials of flat panel displays, on laboratory animals. One hundred and eight male Wistar rats were given 10 mg/kg as indium of ITO, In2O3 or In(OH)3 particles, intratracheally, twice a week, for a total of 5 times, during an 2 week. Control rats were given vehicle only, comprising distilled water. During 3 weeks, these rats were euthanized serially and the toxicological effects were determined. Body weight gain was significantly suppressed in the In(OH)3 –treated rats compared with the control group, but not in the ITO- or In2O3-treated rats. Relative lung weight among all the indium-treated groups was significantly increased compared to that in the control group throughout the observation period. Furthermore, that in the In(OH)3 group was significantly higher than that in the ITO or In2O3 groups. The content of indium in the lung was constant during the observation period in the all indium-treated groups. Serum indium levels in the In(OH)3 -treated rats were extremely higher, from 100 to 300 times, than that in the ITO- or In2O3-treated rats at each time point. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response with diffuse alveolar or bronchiolar cell hyperplasia, expansion of the alveolar spaces and exudation to alveolar spaces were present in all the indium-treated groups throughout the observation period. Interstitial fibrotic proliferation was seen in the In(OH)3 -treated rats only. The severity of these lesions in the In(OH)3 -treated rats was more severe in comparison with the ITO- and In2O3-treated rats.
The present results clearly demonstrated that ITO and In2O3 or In(OH)3 particles caused pulmonary toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats. Furthermore, lung toxicity of In(OH)3 was extremely strong comparison with ITO and In2O3. Accordingly, a great deal of attention should be paid to the toxicity of In(OH)3 particles in addition to ITO and In2O3 particles..
11. Toshiaki Amano, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Akiyo Tanaka, Production of indium nanoparticles for nano-safety evaluation, The 19th Korean-Japan Workshop on Advanced Plasma Process and Diagnostics, 2014.07, Nanoparticles have great potentials for medical applications such as cancer therapy [1,2], while they are pointed out their harmful effects on human body. It is important to study the kinetics and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body. Indium can be employed for tracer materials in the living body because no indium compounds exist in the body. Here we report on synthesis of In nanoparticles for analysis of their kinetics in living body using plasmas in water and on preliminary results examination of subcutaneous administration of the particles in mice. Production of In nanoparticles were carried out using plasmas in water. Discharges were generated by applying pulsed voltage between an In rod and an In plate immersed into DI water. The discharge voltage and frequency was 9 kV and 10 kHz, respectively. The discharge duration was 3 min. Optical emissions from In, O, and H were observed in the discharges. The electron density was around 1017/cm3 deduced from Stark broadening of the H emission. The emission from In suggests In atoms exist in plasmas and contribute to In nanoparticle formation. The large particles were precipitated quickly just after the discharges. The supernatant of the solution was sampled with a pipette and was concentrated by heating. The size of the nanoparticles was measured by TEM. Figure1 shows size distribution of the primary particles. The mean size of the primary particles was around 7 nm. According to the Raman and XRD spectrum of the nanoparticles, they were In2O3 and In(OH)3. The Preliminary examination of subcutaneous administration to mice shows that In was transported quickly from subcutaneous to each organs. The result shows that the synthesized In nanoparticles were useful for analyzing kinetics in living body..
12. Yoshimichi Nakatsu, Teruhisa Tsuzuki, Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Pulmonary Toxic Effects of Indium-Tin Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats, The 19th Korean-Japan Workshop on Advanced Plasma Process and Diagnostics, 2014.07, Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used for laptop computers, flat-panel televisions, and other devices which incorporate flat-panel displays (FPDs), for example such as mobile phones. In 2003, the first case of interstitial pneumonia caused by occupational exposure to ITO was reported [1]. In our previous studies, we reported pulmonary or testicular damage caused by ITO when given to hamsters as intermittent intratracheal instillations [2].We studied the pulmonary toxicological effects of two different types of indium-tin oxide (ITO) in laboratory animals. One type comprised was ITO target particles (ITO-T), with a mean diameter of 1 μm, while the other type comprised nano sized ITO particles (ITO-N), with a mean diameter was 0.03 μm, Forty-one female Wistar rats were given 10 mg/kg of ITO, containing 7.4 mg/kg of indium, intratracheally, twice a week, for 2 weeks. Control rats were given vehicle only, which consisted of distilled water. Within 2 weeks, the rats were euthanized serially and the toxicological effects were determined. Serum indium levels increased as time progressed in both the ITO-treated groups. The concentration of serum indium in the ITO-N-treated group was about ten times higher than that in the ITO-T-treated group. Relative lung weight among the two ITO-treated groups was significantly increased compared to that within the control group, throughout the observation period. Furthermore, relative lung weight in the ITO-N-treated group was significantly increased compared to that in the ITO-T-treated group, throughout the observation period. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response with diffuse alveolar or bronchiolar cell hyperplasia, and exudation were present in both the ITO-treated groups, throughout the observation periods, however, the degree of these lesions was more severe in the ITO-N-treated group than in the ITO-T-treated group.
The present results clearly demonstrated that the two types of ITO particles caused pulmonaru toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats. Furthermore, the degree of toxicity was more severe with the ITO-N particles than with the ITO-T particles. This would seem to suggest that the manifestation of toxicity was due to the size of the ITO particles. Accordingly, a great deal of attention needs to be paid to the toxicity of nanosized ITO particles..
13. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Makiko Nakano, Kazuyuki Omae, Yutaka Kiyohara, Adverse Health Effects of Indium Tin Oxide and Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide, The 6th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2014.11, Indium is an essential rare metal that is commonly used in the electronics industry, and the consumption of indium compounds, most notably indium-tin oxide (ITO), has risen sharply since the 1990s. Several case reports and epidemiological studies with ITO-exposed workers have heightened awareness of the potential hazards of occupational exposure to ITO. In 2001, a worker engaged as an operator of a wet surface grinder of indium tin oxide (ITO) targets died of bilateral pneumothorax due to interstitial pneumonia in Japan [1]. Following the first case of interstitial pneumonia consistent with occupational exposure to ITO was reported, several case reports and epidemiological studies with ITO-exposed workers have heightened awareness of the potential hazards of occupational exposure to ITO in Japan. Up to 2014, 10 cases of interstitial pneumonia in Japanese indium-exposed workers, 2 cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in US indium-exposed workers, 1 case of PAP in a Chinese indium-exposed worker have been reported [2].
We evaluated the toxicity of ITO and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) particles when they were given into the lung of experimental animals.
In the study of ITO, we evaluated the chronic pulmonary toxicity of ITO. Male Syrian golden hamsters were instilled ITO particles, twice a week, for 8 week. The hamsters were euthanized serially up to 78 week after the final instillation. From this study, the chronic pulmonary toxicity of ITO particles was confirmed, and the clearance of indium from the body is extremely slow after intratracheal instillation in hamsters (Fig.1).
In the study of CIGS, the aim was to clarify the subchronic pulmonary toxicity of CIGS solar cells in rats. Male Wistar rats were given GIGS particles intratracheally, twice a week for 2 wk. These rats were euthanized 0, 1, 4 or 12 wk after the final instillation serially. The present results clearly demonstrated that CIGS particles caused subchronic pulmonary toxicity and absorption from lungs of CIGS particles was considerably slow (Fig.2).
From these animal studies, it seems that the severity of lung lesions caused by ITO or CIGS particles worsened with passage of time. The biological half-life of indium in the lung among ITO- treated hamsters is longer than that among CIGS- treated rats. The present results clearly demonstrate that ITO or CIGS particles caused pulmonary toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to experimental animals. Difference of indium clearance from the lung might depend on particle solubility in the body..
14. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Nagisa Matsumura, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani, Yutaka Kiyohara, Subchronic Pulmonary Toxicity of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Following Repeated Intratracheal Instillations into the Lungs of Rats, The 21st Asian Conference on Occupational Health, 2014.09, The aim of this study was to clarify the subchronic pulmonary toxicological effects of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells after intratracheally in male Wistar rats.
Rats were given 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg of CIGS particles, intratracheally, twice a week for 2 wk. Control rats were given vehicle, distilled water, only. These rats were euthanized 0, 1, 4 or 12 wk after the final instillation serially, and toxicological effects were determined.
The CIGS 30 mg/kg-treated group exhibited suppression of body weight gain compared with the control group, but not other 2 CIGS-treated groups. The relative lung weight in all the CIGS-treated groups was significantly increased compared with that in the control group throughout the observation period. The content of each metal in the lung increased depending on the dose instilled and was decreased from 0 to 12 wk and contents of CIGS particles were decreased from 0 to 12 wk. The surfactant protein-D (SP-D), which is indicator of interstitial pneumonia in the lung, increased from 0 wk to 4 wk, those decreased from 4 to 12 wk in all the groups. However, the indium (In) levels increased and the severity of lung lesions worsened with the passage of time in all the CIGS-treated groups dose-dependently. The present results clearly demonstrate that CIGS particles caused subchronic pulmonary toxicity when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats..
15. Satoko Iwasawa, Makiko Nakano, Hiroyuki Miyauchi, Shigeru Tanaka, Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazuyuki Omae, Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level, The 21st Asian Conference on Occupational Health, 2014.09.
16. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Hayashi Nobuya, Masaharu Shiratani, Yutaka Kiyohara, Tissue Distribution of Indium After Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Indium-Tin Oxide in Hamsters, 5th International Conference on Plasma Medicine (ICPM5), 2014.05, Objectives: From several case reports and epidemiological studies concerning indium-tin oxide (ITO) exposed-workers, the potential occupational exposure to ITO has attracted much attention [1] [2]. Although findings of lung lesions were already reported in animals and humans, it is not clear that progress of indium distribution in the body after exposure of ITO particles via respiratory tracts. The aim of this study was to clarify the tissue distribution of indium after instilled ITO in the lung of hamsters intratracheally.
Methods: Male Syrian golden hamsters were intratracheally given 3 mg/kg or 6 mg/kg of ITO particles, containing 2.2 mg/kg or 4.5 mg/kg of indium, twice a week, for 8 weeks. Control hamsters were given vehicle of distilled water only. The hamsters were euthanized serially from 8 weeks up to 78 weeks after the final instillation. The distribution of indium in the lung, liver, kidney spleen and serum were determined.
Results: The lung indium contents in the 2 ITO groups gradually decreased up to 78 weeks. Biological half-time of indium in the lung was almost the same; 142 weeks in the ITO 3 mg group and 124 weeks in the ITO 6 mg group. However, indium concentration in the lung, liver, kidney spleen and serum among the 2 ITO groups gradually increased up to the end of the observation period.
Conclusions: The present results clearly demonstrate that body burden clearance of indium is extremely slow and when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to hamsters..
17. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Naho Itagaki, Masaharu Shiratani, Hayashi Nobuya, Giichiro Uchida, Subacute toxicity of gallium arsenide, indium arsenide and arsenic trioxide following intermittent intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats, 8th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas/31st Symposium on Plasma Processing, 2014.02.
18. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toxicity of indium compounds in laboratory animals, 8th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas/31st symposium on plasma processing, 2014.02.
19. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Hayashi Nobuya, Masaharu Shiratani, Yutaka Kiyohara, Pulmonary Toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide particles in rats, 6th International Symposium on Nanotechnology, 2013.10.
20. Kazunori Koga, Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Hayashi Nobuya, Naho Itagaki, Giichiro Uchida, Comparative acute pulmonary toxicity of different types of indium-tin oxide following intermittent intratracheal instillation to the lung of rats, 2013 JSAP-MRS, September, 2013.09.
21. Masaharu Shiratani, Kazunori Koga, Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Hayashi Nobuya, Naho Itagaki, Giichiro Uchida, Safety issues on plasma life science, The 9th Asian-European International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 2013.08.
22. Makiko Nakano, Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Noriyuki Yoshioka, Kazuyuki Omae, Japanese Indium Cohort Study: Five-Year Follow-up, The 23rd International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health, 2013.06.
23. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Makio Nakano, Kazunori Omae, Yutaka Kiyohara, Pulmonary Toxicity of Indium Tin Oxide and Copper Indium Gallium Diselenid, MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit, 2012.04.
24. Pulmonary damage of organic or inorganic nano materials after intratracheal instillation to the lung of rats.
25. Risk assessment of inorganic nano materials in rats.
26. Change of biomarker in blood among indium refinary workers after improvement of working environment.
27. Effects of workplace environment improvement on serum indium level and respiratory influence among indium refinement workers.
28. Risk assessment of health effects of CIGS semiconductor solar cell
-
1. Pulmonary effects -
.
29. Risk assessment of health effects of CIGS semiconductor solar cell
-2. Metal concentration in blood -.
30. Adverse health effects of CIGS particles after intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats
- 1. The effects to the lung -.
31. Adverse health effects of CIGS particles after intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats
- 2. Metal concentration in blood -.
32. Chronic health effects of metals using intratracheal instillation in experimental animals.
33. Indium lung: Effects of improvement of working conditions on pulmonary interstitium.
34. Effects of improvement of working conditions on pulmonary interstitium in indium-exposed workers.
35. Interstitial lung changes of indium.
36. Pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds.
37. Baiological monitoring of indium in indium-exposed workers.
38. Risk assessment of indium compounds in animals.
39. Epidemiological sudy of indium handling workers.
40. Epidemiological sudy of indium handling workers.
41. Lung toxicity and metabolism caused by ITO.
42. pulmonary effecs of dispersive carbon nanotube.
43. Health effects of nanomaterials .
44. Health effects of indium compounds, management of prevention from exposure to indium compounds.
45. pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds.
46. Health effects of indium compounds, management of prevention from exposure to indium compounds.
47. Pulmonary toxicity of fullerene instilled intratracheally to rats.
48. Pulmonary toxicity of fullerene by repeated intratracheal instillations to the trachea of rats.
49. Maternal toxicity of antimony compounds.
50. Pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds, indium-tin oxide, indium oxide and indium hyroxide, instilled intratracheally in rats.
51. Hardly soluble exposure to indium compounds is a new and potent risk of interstitial lung damage.
52. Biological monitoring of indium level in serum among indium-treated workers.
53. Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanofiber by repeated intratracheal instillations.
54. Change of serum indium level among indium containing dust-treated workers during 3 years.
55. Effects of indium on the lung of indium-treated workers.
56. Immunological response to lymphcytes after exposure of indium compounds.
57. Effects of antimony trioxide and antimony potassium tartrate on mice following oral administration.
58. Two-generation toxicity study of antimony compounds.
59. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes instilled intratracheally.
60. Pulmonary effects of carbon nanofiber instilled intratracheally to rats.
61. pulmonary toxicity and carcinogenicity of semiconductor materials.
62. Lung toxicity of indium tin oxide, indium oxide and indium hydrate by intermittent intratracheal instillation to the lung of rats..
63. Toxic effects of antimony compounds administered by drinking water in mouse.
64. Change of lung lesion when carbon nanotube were instilled to the trachea of rats.
65. Toxicity of indium tin oxide by intermittent intratracheal instillaiton to the lung of hamsters.
66. Health effects of carbon nanotube by intratarcheal instillation to the lung of rats.
67. Chronic toxicity of indium compound following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
68. Pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
69. Evaluation of availability of relative organ weight in the animal toxicity study.
70. Toxic effects of indium tin oxide and indium oxide following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
71. Evaluation of the effect of soluble and insoluble antimony compounds on the reproduction of rats.
72. Pulmonary toxicity of InAs, GaAs, AlGaAs following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
73. Toxic effect of indium compounds to the lung of hamsters.
74. Tissue distribution of rare earth following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats.
75. Pulmonary toxicity of indium tin oxide and indium phosphide following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
76. Distribution of tributyltin and its metabolite in the liver and brain among two generation treatment to rats.
77. Toxic effects of rare earth following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats.
78. Evaluation of acute toxicity of antimony compounds.
79. Tissue distribution of antimony trioxide and antimony potassium tartrate to rats and mice following multiple oral administrations.
80. Comparative toxicity of antimony trioxide and antimony potassium tartrate to rats and mice following multiple oral administrations.
81. Effects of antimonyl compound to male reproductive organs to mice and rats.
82. Testicular toxicity of rare earth following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats.
83. Tributyltin is a possible aromatase inhibitor in male rats.
84. Pulmonary toxicity of rare earth following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of rats.
85. Change of lung lesions following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
86. Effects of p,p' DDE and TBT when administered simultaneously to rats.
87. Tissue tistribution of different type of antimony compounds to rats and mice.
88. Toxicity of indium arsenide and indium phosphide following repeated intratracheal instillations to the lung of hamsters.
89. Is tributyltin endocrine disruptor to mammals?. 1. Effects to female rats.
90. Effects of aluminium gallium arsenide following repeated intratracheal instillation to the lung of hamsters.
91. Toxicity of rare earth to rats following repeated intratracheal instillations.
92. Metabolism of antimony compounds to mice administered orally.
93. Is tributyltin endocrine disruptor to mammals? 2. Effects to male rats.-.
94. Toxic effects of indium arsenide by repeated intratracheal instillations to hamsters.
95. Lung lesion caused by instillation of indium arsenide.
96. Testicular effects of1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated naphtalene in male rat offspring by gestational administration.
97. Pulmonary toxicity of indium arsenide and indium phosphide by repeated intraatracheal instillations to hamsters.
98. Testicular toxicity of indium arsenide and indium phosphide by repeated intratracheal instillations to hamsters.
99. Toxicity of antimony compounds in mice given orally.
100. Toxic effects of tributyltin chrolide to dam and offspring rats treated during gestation and lactation.
101. Testicular effects of1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated naphtalene in male rat offspring by gestational administration.
102. Testicular toxicity of indium arsenide and indium phosphide when instilled intratracheally to the lung of hamsters.
103. Health effect of rare earth.
104. Pulmonary toxicity of gallium arsenide and gallium oxide.