Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Reports
Akiyo Tanaka Last modified date:2019.08.20

Lecturer / Department of Environmental Health and Socio Medical Sciences / Department of Basic Medicine / Faculty of Medical Sciences

1. Owing to the increasing interest being paid to the issue of the global environment, the production of solar cells has increased rapidly in recent years. Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a new efficient thin film used in some types of solar cell. Indium is a constitutive element of CIGS thin-film solar cells. It was thought that indium compounds were not harmful until the beginning of the 1990s because there was little information regarding the adverse health effects on humans or animals arising from exposure to indium compounds. After the mid-1990s, data became available indicating that indium compounds can be toxic to animals. In animal studies, it has been clearly demonstrated that indium compounds cause pulmonary toxicity and that the dissolution of indium compounds in the lungs is considerably slow, as shown by repeated intratracheal instillations in experimental animals. Thus, it is necessary to pay much greater attention to human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are paramount with regard to health management..
2. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Kazunori Koga, Makiko Nakano, Mazuyuki Omae, Yutaka Kiyohara, Pulmonary Toxicity of Indium Tin Oxide and Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide, Cambridge Journals Online- MRS Online Proceedings Library, 2012.05, The aim of this review is to introduce the adverse health effects of indium compounds. This review consists of 2 parts: (1) a study of the toxic effects of indium compounds in humans, and (2) a study of the toxic effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) in animals.
To date, 4 epidemiological surveys have been conducted of indium-handling workers in Japan, and all who were studied showed that exposure to indium compounds caused pulmonary interstitial and emphysematous changes. There were clear dose-response and dose-effect relationships between the serum indium levels and the levels of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), which is a serological indicator of interstitial pneumonia. Up until 2011, 8 cases of interstitial pneumonia in Japanese indium-exposed workers, 2 cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in US indium-exposed workers, and 1 case of PAP in a Chinese indium-exposed worker have been reported.
In animal studies, it has been clearly demonstrated that ITO and CIGS particles cause pulmonary toxicity and that the dissolution of ITO and CIGS particles in the lungs is considerably slow when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to experimental animals.
Thus, more studies are needed on the effects of human exposure to indium compounds..
3. Kazuyuki Omae, Makiko Nakano, Akiyo Tanaka, Miyuki Hirata, Tsutahiro Hamaguchi, Tatsuya Chonan, Indium lung - case reports and epidemiology, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2010.10.
4. Akiyo Tanaka, Hirata Miyuki, Yutaka Kiyohara, Makiko Nakano, Kazuyuki Omae, Masaharu Shiratani, Kazunori Koga, Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans, Thin Solid Films, 2010.01.
5. Pulmonary toxicity of indium exposed occulationally and diagnosis.
6. Health effect of indium compounds and indium-tin oxide.
7. A clinical guide of acute arsenic poisoning.
8. Pulmonary toxicity of semiconductor materials.