Hisashi Kihara | Last modified date：2022.05.24 |

Assistant Professor /
Thermophysics and fluid mechanics /
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics /
Faculty of Engineering

**Papers**

1. | Soomin Park, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ich Abe, Computational Modeling of Frost Thickness on a Flat Plate Surface Considering Growth Rate with Regression Method and its Validation, International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 10.1007/s42405-022-00464-5, 23, 2022.05, One of the problems relating to frost formation in the field of aviation is the effects of Cold Soaked Frost. It is hazardous problem for which various solutions are the responsibility of several aviation administrations. Owing to the lack of computational research on frost formation such as on a wing surface, an advanced model for predicting frost thickness under a various range of flow conditions was developed and validated in this study. In evaluating the growth rate of the solid layer, the relation between the partial vapor pressure and the saturation pressure was used to determine the supersaturation degree. Frost thickness was assumed on the basis that the mass transfer effects associated with the diffusivity of the vapor are related mainly to the growth rate of crystallization. We performed a favorable regression procedure to find constant values for the correlation of the growth rate. The proposed frost thickness model was validated through the comparison of the simulation results with various experimental data for the case of a flat plate. The results obtained using the proposed model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.. |

2. | Hideto Takasawa, Yusuke Takahashi, Nobuyuki Oshima, Hisashi Kihara, Experimental demonstration and mechanism of mitigating reentry blackout via surface catalysis effects, Journal of Physics d: Applied Physics, 10.1088/1361-6463/abe746, 54, 22, 225201, 2021.06, [URL], The reentry blackout phenomenon, which is the communication cut-off between the re-entry vehicle and ground station, is a crucial problem that needs to be addressed. To improve safety during reentry, a new mitigation method was proposed using the surface catalysis effect.However, this method has not been investigated extensively by experimental methods. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated the mitigation method using a 1 MW arc-heated wind tunnel and numerically clarified the mitigation mechanism. As a demonstration experiment, communication tests were conducted to compare the two cases. In the first case, a ceramic surface was used as a low catalytic wall, whereas in the second case, a copper surface was used as a high catalytic wall in the arc-heated wind tunnel. The experimental results indicated that the blackout occurred when alumina was used as the low catalytic wall. On the other hand, for the high catalytic wall using copper, blackout was avoided. The tests were reproduced in the wind tunnel using a numerical simulation technique. From the simulation results, the mitigation mechanism suggested that: (a) the number of nitrogen and oxygen atoms decreased due to catalysis; (b) forward reactions of electron impact ionization were suppressed due to the decrease in the number of atoms; and (c) the suppression of reactions decreased the number of electrons, thereby mitigating the reentry blackout. In addition, the numerical simulations performed on the reentry plasma around the re-entry capsule suggested that the mitigation mechanisms between the arc-heated wind flow and reentry plasma were similar despite the different airflow conditions.. |

3. | Soomin Park, Hisashi Kihara, Abe Ken-Ichi, Numerical Study on the Condensed and Frozen Water Vapor on a Flat Plate Using an Open Source Code, The 48th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA Paper No. 53-ASE-3, 2018.06, A numerical computation of the physical properties for the humid vapor sublimated on a commercial wing surface at constant atmospheric conditions was performed and presented in this paper. The frost formation model was based on the gradient of the vapor concentration with the consideration of the heat and mass transfer effects. To express the solid layer, a sink term in the momentum equation was used which is defined as the porous medium. And, to operate the sink term as a trigger in the momentum equation, the volumetric expression was defined during the simulation. The schematic of the frost formation at the upper surface of the wing was assumed that the formation process is similar to the case of the flat plate. The process of the sublimation was performed with the model based on the mass flow rate. In the energy equation, the term of the latent heat and sublimation heat, respectively, was considered as the general theory. The formation case of the wing surface was performed with some boundary conditions where the wing object was exposed to the cold environment. For that, the numerical condition for the computational simulation was mainly based on few reference data provided.. |

4. | Yanrong Zhang, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ichi Abe, Three-dimensional simulation of self-propelled fish-like body swimming in a channel, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 10.1080/19942060.2018.1453381, 12, 1, 473-492, 2018.06, In this study, a three-dimensional simulation of a fish-like body swimming in a channel with non-slip walls was carried out to investigate the effects of kinematics on swimming performance. Self-propelled swimming in an inertial coordinate system was examined by using the direct forcing immersed boundary method. The fish body consisted of several rigid bodies, and behaved analogously to a multi-segment robotic fish. The computational program was first validated by simulating flow around a circular cylinder at Re=100 and 1000 as well as a settling particle in fluid. The results were compared with experimental and numerical results from past research in the area. A virtual parametric study of the tail-beat frequency, phase difference between neighbouring body segments and body amplitude was then conducted. The effect of the lateral distance between the model and walls on swimming performance is also discussed. The results for the velocity and vorticity fields around the model provided evidence for the mechanism of thrust generation and highlighted the effects of kinematics on swimming performance.. |

5. | Minseok Jung, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-Ichi Abe, Yusuke Takahashi, Reentry blackout prediction for atmospheric reentry demonstrator mission considering uncertainty in chemical reaction rate model, Physics of Plasmas, 10.1063/1.5010713, 25, 1, 2018.01, A numerical simulation model of plasma flows and electromagnetic waves around a vehicle was developed to predict a radio frequency blackout. Plasma flows in the shock layer and the wake region were calculated using a computational fluid dynamics technique with a three-dimensional model. A finite-catalytic wall condition known to affect plasma properties, such as the number density of electrons, was considered for accurate prediction. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of uncertainty in the chemical reaction rate model on evaluating a radio frequency blackout. The behavior of electromagnetic waves in plasma was investigated using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method. Numerical simulations of reentry blackout were performed for the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator mission at various altitudes. The plasma flows and the complex movement of electromagnetic waves around the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator vehicle were clarified. The predicted signal loss profile was then directly compared with the experimental flight data to validate the present models. The numerical results generally reproduced the trends over altitudes of the measured data. It is suggested that the present simulation model can be used to investigate the radio frequency blackout and signal loss of electromagnetic waves in the communication of a reentry vehicle. It was confirmed that high associative ionization reaction rates contribute to reducing the electron density in the wake region and radio frequency blackout. It is suggested that the accuracy of predicting the signal loss improved when considering the uncertainty in the chemical reaction model for associative ionizations.. |

6. | Minseok Jung, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-Ichi Abe, Yusuke Takahashi, Numerical simulation of plasma flows and radio-frequency blackout in atmospheric reentry demonstrator mission, 47th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference (AIAA Paper) , 10.2514/6.2017-3308, 2017.06, Numerical simulations of plasma flows and electromagnetic waves around a reentry vehicle were performed to estimate the radio-frequency blackout. The plasma flows in the shock layer and wake region were calculated using computational fluid dynamics technique. The simulation of electromagnetic waves around a reentry vehicle was conducted using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method with the plasma properties obtained by computational fluid dynamics. The numerical simulations were performed for the atmospheric reentry demonstrator at various altitudes based on the reentry orbit data. Three cases of the numerical simulations, i.e., an axisymmetric model, a three-dimensional model with non-catalytic wall and finite-catalytic wall, were performed for evaluating the effects of angle of attack and catalytic wall on the radio-frequency blackout. The formations for the number density of electrons that is an important parameter in evaluating the radio-frequency blackout were greatly changed by these three cases. The simulation model was validated based on the signal loss history of the experimental flight data. The simulation results using a three-dimensional model with finite-catalytic wall showed better agreement with the measured results compared to other two cases.. |

7. | Hisashi KIHARA, Ken-ichi ABE, Yanlong Zhang, On the effect of an anisotropy-resolving subgrid-scale model on the predictive performance for turbulent channel flow with wall roughness, Journal of Turbulence, 18, 809-824, 2017.06. |

8. | ジョン・ミンソク, Hisashi KIHARA, Ken-ichi Abe, Yusuke Takahashi, Numerical Analysis on Effect of Angle of Attack on Evaluating Radio-Frequency Blackout in Atmospheric Reentry, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 10.3938/jkps.68.1295, 68, 11, 1295-1306, 2016.06, A three-dimensional numerical simulation model that considers the effect of the angle of at-tack was developed to evaluate plasma flows around reentry vehicles. In this simulation model, thermochemical nonequilibrium of flowfields is considered by using a four-temperature model for high-accuracy simulations. Numerical simulations were performed for the orbital reentry experiment of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and the results were compared with experimental data to validate the simulation model. A comparison of measured and predicted results showed good agreement. Moreover, to evaluate the effect of the angle of attack, we performed numerical simulations around the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator of the European Space Agency by using an axisymmetric model and a three-dimensional model. Although there were no differences in the flowfields in the shock layer between the results of the axisymmetric and the three-dimensional models, the formation of the electron number density, which is an important parameter in evaluating radio-frequency blackout, was greatly changed in the wake region when a non-zero angle of attack was considered. Additionally, the number of altitudes at which radio-frequency blackout was predicted in the numerical simulations declined when using the three-dimensional model for considering the angle of attack.. |

9. | Naoya Hirata, Masataka Yamada, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ichi Abe, Yusuke Takahashi, Improvement of a Three-Band Radiation Model for Application to Chemical Nonequilibrium Flows, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 10.2514/1.T4130, 28, 4, 799-803, 2014.10. |

10. | Yu Minghao, Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi KIHARA, Ken-ichi ABE, Kazuhiko YAMADA, Takashi ABE, Numerical Investigation of Flow Fields in Inductively Coupled Plasma Wind Tunnels, Plasma Science and Technology, 10.1088/1009-0630/16/10/06, 16, 10, 2014.10, Numerical simulations of 10-kW and 110-kW inductively coupled plasma (ICP) wind tunnels were carried out to study the physical properties of the flow inside the ICP torch and vacuum chamber with air as the working gas. Two-dimensional compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations that took into account 11 species and 49 chemical reactions of air were solved. To reduce computational cost, a heat source model was used to describe the heating phenomenon instead of solving the governing equations of the electromagnetic field. In the vacuum chamber, a four-temperature model was coupled with N-S equations. Numerical results for the 10-kW ICP wind tunnel are presented and discussed in detail as a representative case. It was found that the plasma flow in the vacuum chamber tended to be local thermochemical equilibrium. To study the influence of operating conditions on the flow field, simulations were carried out for different chamber pressures and/or input powers. To validate the numerical methods used here, the computational results for the above two ICP wind tunnels were compared with corresponding experimental data. The computational and experimental results agree well, therefore the flow fields of ICP wind tunnels can be clearly understood.. |

11. | Naoki Kawano, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ichi Abe, Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of High Temperature Flow Field around an Experimental Atmospheric Re-Entry Vehicle, The 5th Asian Joint Workshop on Thermophysics and Fluid Science, 2014.09. |

12. | Yusuke Takahashi, Takashi Abe, Hiroki Takayanagi, Masahito Mizuno, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ichi Abe, Advanced Validation of Nonequilibrium Plasma Flow Simulation for Arc-Heated Wind Tunnels, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 10.2514/1.T3991, 28, 1, 9-17, 2014.01, Turbulent plasma flows in arc heaters, such as Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s 750 kW, NASA’s 20 MW, and Kyushu University’s 20 kW facilities, were investigated, and the distributions of the flowfield properties were successfully obtained. The arc discharge in the constrictor section and the expansion processes in the nozzle section played key roles in the formation of an arc-heated flow. Hence, for accurately predicting high-enthalpy flow properties, it was important to correctly model the complex phenomena observed in various-scale facilities. For this purpose, an integrated analysis model to simulate various-scale arc-heated flows with high accuracy was developed. The turbulent flowfield was described using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with a multitemperature model, which was tightly coupled with electric-field and radiation-field calculations. A sophisticated and low-cost radiation model and a low-Reynolds-number two-equation turbulence model were introduced into the flowfield simulation. To validate the present integrated analysis model, the computed results were compared with the corresponding experimental data for the mass-averaged enthalpy, the translational and rotational temperatures, and the number density of nitrogen obtained through spectroscopic and laser-induced fluorescence techniques. Moreover, the mechanisms of energy input by discharge and energy loss are discussed, along with the distributions of the electronic excitation temperature and heat flux on the constrictor wall derived from the arc column. Although the results indicated that a relatively detailed discharge model is required to describe the arc discharge with relatively high accuracy, the present flowfield model was generally in good agreement with various operating conditions of the facilities.. |

13. | Yoshiyuki MATSUDA, Hisashi KIHARA, Ken-ichi ABE, Numerical Study of Thermochemical Nonequilibrium Flow Around Reentry Capsule and Estimation of Aerodynamic Heating , Procedia Engineering, 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.12.025, 67, 261-269, 2013.12, Numerical simulation of the flow fields was performed for the mission of Apollo AS-202 to investigate the influence of the laminar-turbulent transition position in the boundary layer around a reentry capsule on the heat flux at the wall. For this purpose, we intentionally varied the laminar-turbulent transition position and the obtained results were compared. According to the simulation result, in the turbulent case, heat flux value is about 1.4 times at maximum compared with the laminar case. It turned out that the transition position had a large influence on the heat flux at the wall, particularly in the forebody region. On the other hand, in the afterbody region, some discrepancies were seen compared with the flight data.. |

14. | Hisashi Kihara, Naoya HIRATA, Ken-ichi Abe, A Study of Thermal Response and Flow Field Coupling Simulation around HAYABUSA Capsule Loaded with Light-weight Ablator, Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Vol.3, No. 2A, 100-107, 2013.06. |

15. | Naoya Hirata, Sohey Nozawa, Takahashi Yusuke, Kihara Hisashi, Abe Ken-ichi, Numerical Study of Pyrolysis Gas Flow and Transfer inside an Ablator, Computational Thermal Science, 10.1615/ComputThermalScien.2012004762, 4, 3, 225-242, 2012.08, Numerical simulation of a light-weight ablator in an arc-heated flow was carried out. Thermal response analysis of the ablator was coupled with thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of an arc jet around the ablator. In the thermal response analysis, the pyrolysis gas flow inside the ablator was calculated in detail by solving the conservation equations. Phenomena such as heat conduction, pyrolysis of resin, surface reactions and recession were also considered in the simulation. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the injection of the ablation gas (pyrolysis gas and carbonaceous gas generated by the surface reactions) from the ablator surface into the outer flow field, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was extended by including further chemical species besides those in the previous study. This also allowed the simulations for wider-range flow conditions such as a nitrogen flow and an air flow. The simulation was conducted for flow conditions of a 20 kW arc-heated nitrogen flow and a 750 kW arc-heated air flow. The results from the former simulation were compared with the experimental data and the computational results using other models. This comparison showed that the effect of the pyrolysis gas flow on the thermal response was significant and thus the detailed analysis considering the multi-dimensional pyrolysis gas flow led to considerable improvement of the predictive performance.. |

16. | Naoya Hirata, Nozawa Sohey, Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ichi Abe, Numerical Study of Pyrolysis Gas Flow and Transfer inside an Ablator, Proceedings of the Asian Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow , 2011.09, Numerical simulation of a light-weight ablator in an arc-heated flow was carried out. Thermal response analysis of the ablator was coupled with thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of an arc jet around the ablator. In the thermal response analysis, the pyrolysis gas flow inside the ablator was calculated in detail by solving the conservation equations. Phenomena such as heat conduction, pyrolysis of resin, surface reactions and recession were also considered in the simulation. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the injection of the ablation gas (pyrolysis gas and carbonaceous gas generated by the surface reactions) from the ablator surface into the outer flow field, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was extended by including further chemical species besides those in the previous study. This also allowed the simulations for wider-range flow conditions such as a nitrogen flow and an air flow. The simulation was conducted for flow conditions of a 20 kW arc-heated nitrogen flow and a 750 kW arc-heated air flow. The results from the former simulation were compared with the experimental data and the computational results using other models. This comparison showed that the effect of the pyrolysis gas flow on the thermal response was significant and thus the detailed analysis considering the multi-dimensional pyrolysis gas flow led to considerable improvement of the predictive performance.. |

17. | Masataka YAMADA, Yohei MATSUDA, Naoya HIRATA, Yusuke TAKAHASHI, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE, Numerical Simulation of Flow Field and Heat Transfer around HAYABUSA Reentry Capsule , Proceedings of 28th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science , 2011.06. |

18. | Sohey NOZAWA, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken0ichi ABE , Numerical Investigation of Spalled Particle Behavior Ejected from an Ablator Surface, Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Japan, 8, ists27, 9-14, 2011.03. |

19. | Sohei NOZAWA, Tadashi KANZAKA, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE
, Experimental and Numerical Studies of Spallation Particles Ejected from a Light-weight Ablator, Proceedings of 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, IAC-10.C2.7.7, 2010
, 2010.10. |

20. | Yusuke TAKAHASHI, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE, Numerical Simulation of Flow Fields in Large-Scale Segmented-Type Arc Heaters, Proceedings of International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS 2010), Nice, ICAS 2010-9.9.4, 2010
, 2010.09. |

21. | Yusuke Takahashi , Hisashi Kihara and Ken-ichi Abe , The effects of radiative heat transfer in arc-heated nonequilibrium flow simulation, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics , 10.1088/0022-3727/43/18/185201, 43, 18, 2010.05. |

22. | Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-Ichi Abe , Numerical Investigation of Nonequilibrium Plasma Flows in Constrictor- and Segmented-Type Arc Heaters, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer (0887-8722) 2010 vol. 24 no. 1 , 24, 1, 31 - 39, 2010.03. |

23. | Tadashi Kanzaka, Sohey Nozawa, Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi Kihara and Ken-ichi Abe, Numerical Investigation of Thermal Response of Ablator Exposed to Thermochemical Nonequilibrium Flow, Proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pasific Conference Aerospace Technology and Science, 2009.11. |

24. | Sohei NOZAWA, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE, An Investigation of Spalled Particle Behavior Ejected from an Ablator Surface with the Aid of CFD, Proceedings of the Asian Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, 2009.10. |

25. | Yusuke TAKAHASHI, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE, Numerical Investigation of Thermochemical Nonequilibrium Flow Field in a 20kW Arc Heater Coupled with Electric Field Calculation, AIP Conference Proceedings (26th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Kyoto, July, 2008)
, 2009.07. |

26. | Sohei NOZAWA, Hisashi KIHARA and Ken-ichi ABE, Numerical Investigation of Spalled Particle Behavior Ejected from an Ablator Surface, Proceedings of 27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 2009.06. |

27. | Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi Kihara, Abe Ken-ich, Numerical Simulation of Arc-Heated Wind Tunnel with Electlic Fields, Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, 2008.05. |

28. | Yusuke Takahashi, Hisashi Kihara, Ken-ich ABE, Numerical Simulation of Plasma Flows in a 20kW Arc-heated Wind Tunnel Using Multi-temperature Model, APCOM’07 in conjunction with EPMESC XI, December 3-6, 2007, Kyoto, JAPAN, 2007.12. |

29. | Hisashi KIHARA, Masaki HATANO, Noriyuki NAKIYAMA, Ken-ich ABE, Michio NISHIDA, Preliminary Studies of Spallation Particles Ejected from an Ablator, Transaction of the Japan Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 49 No. 164 PP. 65-70, 2006.07. |

30. | Abe K., Kameyama T., Kihara H., Nishida M., Ito K., Tanno H., Computation and Experiment of of Nonequilibrium Nozzle Flow of Arc-heated Air, Jounal of Thermophisics and Heat Transfer, 10.2514/1.13603, 19, 4, 428-434, Vol. 19 No. 4 pp. 428-434, 2005.10. |

31. | K. Abe, M. Nishida, A. Sakurai, Y. Ohya, H. Kihara, E. Wada, K. Sato, Experimental and numerical investigations of flow fields behind a small wind turbine with a flanged diffuser, Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 10.1016/j.jweia.2005.09.003, 93, 12, 951-970, Vol. 93, pp.951-970, 2005.07. |

32. | Michio Nishida, Ken-ichi Abe, Hisashi Kihara, Numerical and Experimental Studies of an Arc-heated Nonequilibrium Nozzle Flow, Jounal of Thermal Science, 10.1007/s11630-003-0032-x, 12, 4, 289-293, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 289-293, 2003.11. |

33. | K. Abe, H. Kihara, T. Uchida, M. Nishida, Experimental and Numerical Studies of Rotational Relaxation behind a Strong Shock Wave in Air, Shock Waves, 10.1007/s001930200135, 11, 6, 413-421, Vol.11, No.6, pp.413--421, 2002.03. |

34. | K. Abe, H. Kihara, T. Uchida, M. Nishida, Experimental and Numerical Studies of Rotational Nonequilibrium behind a Strong Shock Wave in Air, Proceedings of the 23rd International Symposium on Shock Waves, Fort Worth, USA, July 2001 (Ed. F.K. Lu), pp.1036--1042, 2002.07. |

35. | K. Ichige, M. Hirakawa, H. Kihara, K. Abe, M. Nishida, Performance Evaluation of a Small Size Arcjet Thruster, Proceedings of the 26th International Electric Propulsion Conference, pp.215--220, 1999.10. |

36. | H. Kihara, K. Abe, S. Aso, M. Nishida, Experimental and Numerical Studies of Emission Spectra from Shock-heated Nitrogen, Proceedings of the 22nd International Symposium on Shock Waves (Eds. G.J. Ball, R. Hillier, G.T. Roberts,
Imperial College, London July 18-23, 1999), Vol. 1, pp.819--824, 1999.07. |

37. | H. Kihara, S. Aso and M. Nishida, A Study of Radiation from Shock Heated Nitrogen, Proceedings of the 4th KSME-JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, Pusan, Korea, pp.313--316, 1998.10. |

38. | K. Okinaka, H. Kihara, S. Aso and M. Nishida, Numerical Analysis of Strong Shock Waves Using a Multi Temperature Model, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Vol. 45, pp. 241--247, 1996.12. |

39. | Hisashi KIHARA, Kazumi OKINAKA, Shigeru ASO, Michio NISHIDA, Jong-ho PARK, Performance Characteristics of a Free-Piston Shock Tube, Memories of the Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University , Vol. 55 No. 2 pp. 183-191, 1995.06. |

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