Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Ashir Ahmed Last modified date:2021.11.02

Associate Professor / Advanced Information and Communication Technology / Department of Advanced Information Technology / Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering


Papers
1. Masuda Begum Sampa, Rafiqul Islam, Mariko Nishikitani, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, A Systematic Review to Identify Influencing Factors and Directions for Future Researches about Adoption of ICT Based Health Services, 九州大学持続可能な社会のための決断科学センター, 10.15017/4400004, 44-52, 2020.03, [URL], Introduction: New methods and tools in healthcare sector are growing gradually due to the continuing innovation in medicine and technologies. Health care technology system adoption varies among health care professionals (doctors, nurses), patients, and potential users. Therefore, for increasing number of technologies in the health care field, the use of technology acceptance model is needed to guide implementation process across health care contexts and user groups. Therefore, understanding and creating the conditions under which information system will be grasped by human remains a high priority research issue of information systems research and practice. Moreover, due to the scarcity of medical infrastructure including doctors and hospitals, remote healthcare services by using advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is getting popular around the world. Due to potential benefits and the various eHealth initiatives in place, many recent studies have been done to enhance acceptance of eHealth services by all citizens. / Objective: Therefore, the purpose of this review is to systematically review all published studies on investigating the users' adoption of eHealth to summarize results of previous studies and to show future direction for further research. This study reviews all published research on acceptance model in e-health. / Method: This study conducted a systematic search of the web of science database and google scholar to collect studies about the adoption of eHealth technology. The author selected 19 articles to review. This literature review is conducted to identify currently available eHealth adoption framework. / Conclusion: The result showed that understanding and creating the conditions under which information system will be grasped by human is a high priority research issue of information systems research and practice. Based on the identified adoption factors in different eHealth technological context, it is suggested that the common investigated factors in the previous studies for each technological context and user group, need to be tested empirically in real settings. The confirmed factors are then recommended for apply as a basic model in each technological context and user group. / Originality: This study inform scope for future research by identifying gaps in literature in this field. To our knowledge this is the first study to systematically review to identify influencing factors, and future directions of adoption of ICT based health services..
2. Kimiyo Kikuchi, Yoko Sato, Rieko Izukura, Mariko Nishikitani, Kiyoko Kato, Seiichi Morokuma, Meherun Nessa, Yasunobu Nohara, Fumihiko Yokota, Ashir Ahmed, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Portable health clinic for sustainable care of mothers and newborns in rural Bangladesh, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106156, 207, 106156, 2021.08, [URL], Background and objective
Regular health checkups are important for mothers and newborns to detect health problems at an early stage; however, this is often difficult in resource-limited settings. Therefore, the portable health clinic (PHC) for maternal and child health (MCH), a telemedicine health checkup system, was introduced as an intervention study in a rural area in Bangladesh. The aim of this research project was to report findings that we had observed at a mid-point of the intervention period.

Methods
This was an intervention study conducted in Shariatpur, Bangladesh. The study population included pregnant/parturient women aged 15–49 years and their newborns. With the help of the newly created PHC for MCH, health workers, with a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, visited mothers and newborns at home to examine their health status. Their health status was triaged into four categories using a data management application, and in cases of affected or emergent health status, they were placed on remote video consultation with a doctor.

Results
In total, 94 women were included in the PHC for MCH intervention. The rate of participants who received antenatal care at least four times or postnatal care at least once increased (from 29% to 51%, and from 27% to 78%, respectively) compared with before introducing PHC for MCH. Using the PHC for MCH, we detected health problems in pregnant/parturient women; a relatively high percentage had anemia (45–54%) and/or abnormal pulse rate (20–40%). Moreover, after introducing the PHC for MCH, more than 40% of women who received multiple antenatal care or postnatal care checkups improved their health status.

Conclusions
The PHC for MCH could be an effective system to improve the health of mothers and newborns by increasing the availability of care. In the future, this system is expected to be used as a primary resource for maternity healthcare, not only in rural areas but also in other social environments..
3. K Habibul Kabir, Ashraful Alam Khan, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Sasabe, Khondaker Hasibul Kabir, AsthaNet: co-creating network solution for socio-economic development of disconnected communities, International Journal of Humanitarian Technology, 10.1504/IJHT.2020.112457, 1, 2, 172-209, 2020.12, [URL], We co-create networking solutions, called AsthaNet, to connect disconnected rural communities with global resources. AsthaNet combines a bundle of modern technologies, e.g., variant of ferry-assisted-delay tolerant network (DTN) with TCP/IP, content delivery network (CDN), disconnected internet of things (IoT), etc. AsthaNet provides autonomous solutions to serve information demand, which re-invents networking among rural communities (especially technically-less sound people) to enjoy quality localised contents with different dialects/accents. For socio-economic development of these communities through humanitarian technology, AsthaNet adopts the concepts of people's empowerment of Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, and people's development as freedom of Amartya Sen. As a result of this humanitarian technology-based development, AsthaNet becomes the perfect blend of knowledge society to connect the disconnected rural communities to develop with freedom to empower..
4. Nuren Abedin, Md Mahmudur Rahman, Muhammad Ismail Hossain, Kenji Hisazumi, Ashir Ahmed, Travel Behavior of SME Employees in Their Work Commute in Emerging Cities: A Case Study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Sustainability, 10.3390/su122410337, 12, 24, 10337, 2020.12, [URL], Corporate employees like to save the time they spend commuting to work. However, public transport in many emerging cities is not scheduled. Only big enterprises can afford scheduled staff buses. Rideshare services (e.g., Uber, Lyft, Pathao) can be a good alternative but are not affordable for every individual. This study aims to design a group rideshare service as a sustainable alternative for potential employees. For that purpose, it is important to know their commuting pattern. A survey was carried out on 314 employees of 20 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) working in one office complex. This paper reports their current travel pattern in terms of distance, cost, time, and mode of transportations to measure their potentiality to use a group rideshare service uniquely designed for a work commute. This paper recommends that employees living within a distance of 2.5–15 km, currently using motorized vehicle for their work commute, who can spend $40 USD a month for work commute and agree to a mutually-determined commuting schedule are the most fitting potential users for an effective and financially sustainable rideshare service for the studied community. The same methodology can be used to obtain the potential ride share users to design a ride share model for other similar communities..
5. Masuda Begum Sampa, Md Nazmul Hossain, Md Rakibul Hoque, Rafiqul Islam, Fumihiko Yokota, Mariko Nishikitani, Ashir Ahmed, Blood Uric Acid Prediction With Machine Learning: Model Development and Performance Comparison, JMIR Medical Informatics, 10.2196/18331, 8, 10, e18331, 2020.08, [URL], Background:
Uric acid is associated with noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, vascular dementia, and hypertension. Therefore, uric acid is considered to be a risk factor for the development of noncommunicable diseases. Most studies on uric acid have been performed in developed countries, and the application of machine-learning approaches in uric acid prediction in developing countries is rare. Different machine-learning algorithms will work differently on different types of data in various diseases; therefore, a different investigation is needed for different types of data to identify the most accurate algorithms. Specifically, no study has yet focused on the urban corporate population in Bangladesh, despite the high risk of developing noncommunicable diseases for this population.

Objective:
The aim of this study was to develop a model for predicting blood uric acid values based on basic health checkup test results, dietary information, and sociodemographic characteristics using machine-learning algorithms. The prediction of health checkup test measurements can be very helpful to reduce health management costs.

Methods:
Various machine-learning approaches were used in this study because clinical input data are not completely independent and exhibit complex interactions. Conventional statistical models have limitations to consider these complex interactions, whereas machine learning can consider all possible interactions among input data. We used boosted decision tree regression, decision forest regression, Bayesian linear regression, and linear regression to predict personalized blood uric acid based on basic health checkup test results, dietary information, and sociodemographic characteristics. We evaluated the performance of these five widely used machine-learning models using data collected from 271 employees in the Grameen Bank complex of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Results:
The mean uric acid level was 6.63 mg/dL, indicating a borderline result for the majority of the sample (normal range <7.0 mg/dL). Therefore, these individuals should be monitoring their uric acid regularly. The boosted decision tree regression model showed the best performance among the models tested based on the root mean squared error of 0.03, which is also better than that of any previously reported model.

Conclusions:
A uric acid prediction model was developed based on personal characteristics, dietary information, and some basic health checkup measurements. This model will be useful for improving awareness among high-risk individuals and populations, which can help to save medical costs. A future study could include additional features (eg, work stress, daily physical activity, alcohol intake, eating red meat) in improving prediction..
6. Shaira Tabassum, Masuda Begum Sampa, Rafiqul Islam, Fumihiko Yokota, Naoki Nakashima, Ashir Ahmed, A Data Enhancement Approach to Improve Machine Learning Performance for Predicting Health Status Using Remote Healthcare Data, The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICAICT), 10.1109/ICAICT51780.2020.9333506, 1, 2020.11, [URL], Machine Learning (ML) is becoming tremendously important to improve the performance of remote healthcare systems. Portable health clinic (PHC), a remote healthcare system contains a triage function that classifies the patients in two major groups - (a)healthy and (b)unhealthy. Unhealthy patients require regular health checkups. This paper aims to predict the status of the registered patients to decide the follow-up date and frequency. Health management cost can be reduced by decreasing the number of follow-up frequency. We carried out an experiment on 271 corporate members and monitored their health status in every three months and collected four phases of data. The data records contain clinical data, socio-demographical data, dietary behavior data. However, most of the machine learning algorithms can not directly work with categorical data. Several encoding techniques are available which can also enhance the prediction performance. In this paper, We applied three encoding techniques and proposed a new encoding approach to handle categorical variables. The result shows that Random Forest Classifier performs the best with 95.33% accuracy. A comparison chart displaying the performance of eight different supervised learning algorithms in terms of three existing encoding mechanisms is reported..
7. Masuda Begum Sampa, Md Rakibul Hoque, Rafiqul Islam, Mariko Nishikitani, Naoki Nakashima, Fumihiko Yokota, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Md Moshiur Rahman, Faiz Shah, Ashir Ahmed, Redesigning portable health clinic platform as a remote healthcare system to tackle COVID-19 pandemic situation in unreached communities, International journal of environmental research and public health, 10.3390/ijerph17134709, 17, 13, 1-14, 2020.07, Medical staff carry an inordinate risk of infection from patients, and many doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers are affected by COVID-19 worldwide. The unreached communities with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as chronic cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, or renal diseases became more vulnerable during this pandemic situation. In both cases, Remote Healthcare Systems (RHS) may help minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This study used the WHO guidelines and Design Science Research (DSR) framework to redesign the Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an RHS, for the containment of the spread of COVID-19 as well as proposed corona logic (C-Logic) for the main symptoms of COVID-19. Using the distributed service platform of PHC, a trained healthcare worker with appropriate testing kits can screen high-risk individuals and can help optimize triage to medical services. PHC with its new triage algorithm (C-Logic) classifies the patients according to whether the patient needs to move to a clinic for a PCR test. Through modified PHC service, we can help people to boost their knowledge, attitude (feelings/beliefs), and self-efficacy to execute preventing measures. Our initial examination of the suitability of the PHC and its associated technologies as a key contributor to public health responses is designed to “flatten the curve”, particularly among unreached high-risk NCD populations in developing countries. Theoretically, this study contributes to design science research by introducing a modified healthcare providing model..
8. Rafiqul Islam, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Yoko Sato, Rieko Izukura, Fumihiko Yokota, Mariko Nishikitani, Raisa Tasneem, Nazneen Sultana, Ashir Ahmed, Naoki Nakashima, Personal health record (PHR) system in portable health clinic, 30th Medical Informatics Europe Conference, MIE 2020 Digital Personalized Health and Medicine - Proceedings of MIE 2020, 10.3233/SHTI200435, 1347-1348, 2020.06, Personal Health Record (PHR) is not just the collection of personal health data but also a personal healthcare and disease management tool for the individual patient as well as a communication tool with the medical staff. Moreover, recently PHR has been considered an indispensable tool for patient engagement in the area of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and has gained importance. Like many other developing countries, the growth of NCDs is very high in Bangladesh. Portable Health Clinic (PHC) system has been developed there with a focus on NCDs and PHR is there from the beginning. This study for the standardization of PHR system of PHC with the reference of the PHR proposed by Japanese Clinical Societies could be a reference work for the national PHR system development in the country..
9. Mehdi Hasan, Ashir Ahmed, Fumihiko Yokota, Rafiqul Islam, Kenji Hisazumi, Akira Fukuda, A predictive model for height tracking in an adult male population in bangladesh to reduce input errors, International journal of environmental research and public health, 10.3390/ijerph17051806, 17, 5, 2020.03, [URL], The advancement of ICT and affordability of medical sensors enable healthcare data to be obtained remotely. Remote healthcare data is erroneous in nature. Detection of errors for remote healthcare data has not been significantly studied. This research aims to design and develop a software system to detect and reduce such healthcare data errors. Enormous research efforts produced error detection algorithms, however, the detection is done at the server side after a substantial amount of data is archived. Errors can be efficiently reduced if the suspicious data can be detected at the source. We took the approach to predict acceptable range of anthropometric data of each patient. We analyzed 40,391 records to monitor the growth patterns. We plotted the anthropometric items e.g., Height, Weight, BMI, Waist and Hip size for males and females. The plots show some patterns based on different age groups. This paper reports one parameter, height of males. We found three groups that can be classified with similar growth patterns: Age group 20–49, no significant change; Age group 50–64, slightly decremented pattern; and Age group 65–100, a drastic height loss. The acceptable range can change over time. The system estimates the updated trend from new health records..
10. Masuda Begum Sampa, Nazmul Hossain, Rakib Hoque, Rafiqul Islam, Fumihiko Yokota, Akira Fukuda and Ashir Ahmed, Influence of Factors on the Adoption and Use of ICT-Based eHealth Technology by Urban Corporate People, Journal of Service Science and Management, 10.4236/jssm.2020.131001., 13, 1-19, 2020.02, [URL], The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the factors that affect the use of a PHC system (portable health clinic, an eHealth technology) by urban corporate people in Bangladesh. This study uses the first and second versions of the technology acceptance model and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model as the foundation. Additionally, health awareness factors are incorporated to develop the research model. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample size of 264 urban corporate people in Bangladesh. Based on the total effects, the key to promoting the future use of a PHC system lies in the three most important factors: perceived usefulness (0.659), intention to use (0.454), and health awareness (0.447). These factors have a positive and direct influence on use. The findings offer proactively important and practical guidelines to service providers, implementers, and policymakers to promote the use of eHealth technology for regular health checkups..
11. K. Habibul Kabir, Ahmed Jaudat Nahian, Ashir Ahmed, AsthaNet Healthcare-as-a-Service (HaaS): A Social Business Model, The 3rd International Conference on Healthcare, SDGs and Social Business, 49-54, 2019.11, [URL], We propose the AsthaNet Healthcare-as-a-Service (HaaS), to connect the disconnected communities with local and global healthcare resources. A portable digital health clinic equipped with wireless connectivity, a bundle of network technolo- gies and a smart application package provides an autonomous solution to collect and serve information demand of healthcare to the disconnected rural communities. We adopt the concept of social business of Nobel laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus, to re-invest the earned profits into social mission and show that AsthaNet HaaS is a profitable and sustainable platform for any social business entrepreneur or investor. In this paper, we develop a social business model canvas for AsthaNet HaaS so that any entrepreneur can use the canvas to start a social business using technology and co-create solutions for the communities’ surrounding healthcare problems..
12. K. Habibul Kabir, Ahmed Jaudat Nahian, Ashir Ahmed, Comparison of Routing Protocols to Minimize the Mean Data Delivery Delay using Portable Health-clinic in AsthaNet Healthcare Network, The 3rd International Conference on Healthcare, SDGs and Social Business, 55-59, 2019.11, [URL], To improve the living style, it is an essential human right to obtain proper healthcare service. Modern medical equip- ment is continuously improving. However, some developing and underdeveloped countries have some regions where people are not able to get proper healthcare due to the lack of infrastructure and expert people. Thus, for those regions, sophisticated healthcare network solution is required as a cost-effective and sustain- able option. From this motivation, we propose a combination of DTNs and portable health-clinic having wireless-equipped diagnostic testing equipment. An intelligent software package connects these disconnected rural community seamlessly to the doctor/hospital/health expert in the urban area using traditional transport vehicles. We refer to this combination as AsthaNet Healthcare Network. In this paper, different routing protocols are compared to minimize the mean data delivery delay and data delivery probability using portable health-clinic in this AsthaNet Healthcare Network..
13. Rafiqul Islam, Yasunobu Nohara, Md Jiaur Rahman, Nazneen Sultana, Ashir Ahmed, and Naoki Nakashima, Portable health clinic
An advanced tele-healthcare system for unreached communities, 17th World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics, MEDINFO 2019 MEDINFO 2019 Health and Wellbeing e-Networks for All - Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics, 10.3233/SHTI190296, 616-619, 2019.08, The Portable Health Clinic (PHC) system endeavors to take healthcare facilities along with remote doctors' consultancy to the doorsteps of the unreached people using an advanced telemedicine system. Thus, the necessity of having physical healthcare peripheries specially in the developing countries can be mitigated. The PHC system promotes preventive healthcare by encouraging regular health checkups so that diseases can be prevented as well as their severity can be mitigated, leading to a reduction on healthcare expenses. Thus, the number of patients along with excessive workload on existing healthcare human resources can be minimized. The current project in rural Bangladesh alone has served more than 41,000 people so far by the PHC system and a simple analysis of this data shows some significant findings on regional health status. A simple expansion of this program, covering a wider service area, can produce a big data to reflect the whole country`s health profile..
14. Masuda Begum Sampa, Md Nazmul Hossain, Rakibul Hoque, Rafiqul Islam, Fumihiko Yokota, Mariko Nishikitani, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, A framework of longitudinal study to understand determinants of actual use of the portable health clinic system, 7th International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2019, held as part of the 21st International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2019 Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions - 7th International Conference, DAPI 2019, Held as Part of the 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-030-21935-2_24, 323-332, 2019.07, Due to the scarcity of medical infrastructure including doctors and hospitals, ICT based healthcare services is getting popular around the world including low facilities rural areas of Bangladesh. Portable Health Clinic (PHC) system is one of the ICT based healthcare systems. Speciality of this system is that the clinic box is carried and operated by a pre-trained healthcare worker. However, longitudinal study in this context wasn’t undertaken before. In order to draw strong inferences about new technology use we need to do longitudinal study. Therefore, the aim is to identify key determinants of actual use of the PHC system and to understand how their influence changes over time with increasing experience to explain detailed action sequences that might unfold over time. Face to face survey will be conducted to collect data. Structural Equation Modeling will be used to analyze data. By analyzing data using AMOS 25.0 this study will identify most important time that are key to increase actual use of the PHC system. The proposed model can make it possible to offer important practical guidelines to service providers in enhancing actual use of the PHC system. The study can suggest way of increasing health awareness to policy makers and way to build awareness to use the system. The study can also contribute to make policy to improve health care situation i.e., reduce morbidity rate in the country..
15. Nuren Abedin, Kenji Hisazumi, and Ashir Ahmed, Affordable Rideshare Service for Female Urban Corporates in Developing Countries
A Case Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 21st International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, HCII 2019 HCI International 2019 – Late Breaking Posters - 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-030-30712-7_36, 283-289, 2019.07, This paper introduces a rideshare model for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and their employees for their daily commuting needs in emerging cities providing them with staff bus, SME corporate errand service, SME rental car and Holiday rental car services. The model offers a safe, more comfortable and affordable commuting service. We conducted experiment in two phases. In the first phase, we surveyed 315 employees of 20 SMEs located in Grameen Bank Complex about their traveling need and pattern. In the second phase, we designed a pilot from the gathered data and run 2 10-seat cars in two routes for 2 months with 18 participants from those SMEs. We conducted another survey end of the pilot regarding changes in travel experience while using SSW Staff bus service. We have discussed the experiment method and design and demonstrated the findings. We have also discussed affordability aspect of such ride share. SSW staff bus service is slightly expensive than local transports, but cheaper than commercial rideshare services. This service brings many benefits including adding approximately 7.7 h for work and 11.3 h for personal work s month to employees. Participants reported to enter work place with a stable mental condition when they travel by SSW Staff bus. Incidents like robbery, theft, accidents, sexual harassment could significantly be reduced..
16. Rakibul Hoque, Golam Sorwar, Ashir Ahmed, Rafiqul Islam, Development of mobile based in-home patient monitoring system for the management of chronic disease of indigenous communities in a developing country, 7th International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2019, held as part of the 21st International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2019 Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions - 7th International Conference, DAPI 2019, Held as Part of the 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-030-21935-2_27, 359-367, 2019.07, Indigenous people of developing countries have serious shortage of health support including lack of health professionals and technology. It is often difficult for the indigenous people to receive consultation in the hospitals when they face any chronic disease. In Bangladesh, there are 54 groups of indigenous communities with a base of estimated 3 million in number. There are 300 government registered doctors and nurses, and 800 community health workers to provide health services to approximately 3 million people. By the invention of Information Technology, health care services have been modernized and more accessible in recent times. Information Technology has made the health services available at the door of general people. In recent years, there is large number of people in the indigenous community uses internet in their smart phones. As, there is not enough health care organizations and professional doctors in the indigenous community, for this reason, it will be useful and compatible to provide mobile phone-based services to the people. Mobile phone-based health services have great potentiality in reducing ‘digital divide’, and acts as a crucial tool for supporting indigenous community especially chronic disease affected people staying at home. This paper aims to develop, implement and evaluate a mobile based integrated framework for in-home or community care and rural health centers’ patient monitoring and health management..
17. K. Siddique e. Rabbani, Abdullah Al Amin, Zihad Tarafdar, Md Abu Yousuf, A. K.M. Bodiuzzaman, Ahmad Imtiaz Khan, Papia Chowdhury, Kamrul Hussain, Shahed Md Abu Sufian, Maruf Ahmad, Md Moniruzzaman, and Ashir Ahmed, Dhaka University Telemedicine Programme, Targeting Healthcare-Deprived Rural Population of Bangladesh and Other Low Resource Countries, 21st International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2019 HCI International 2019 – Late Breaking Papers - 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-030-30033-3_45, 580-598, 2019.07, Most current telemedicine efforts focus on tertiary care, general doctors being available at the patient end. In low resource countries (LRC), qualified doctors do not want to live in villages where the majority population lives. Therefore, telemedicine is the only solution. Besides, the technology should be indigenously developed to be effective and sustained. We developed necessary technology indigenously including web based software and online diagnostic devices like stethoscope and ECG. More devices are under development. Targeting primary or secondary care we deployed the system through an entrepreneurial model, giving video conferencing and online prescription by the consulting doctor. All data are archived for future reference and analysis. We also developed a mobile phone version using which roving operators can provide a doctor’s consultation to rural patients right at their homes, which has proved very useful for women, children, elderly and the infirm. The software also provides monitoring with provision for analyses for feedback. Starting in 2013 we have so far given consultation to more than 18,500 rural patients, paying a small fee, and the acceptance is increasing. At present more than 40 rural centres are active which can choose from a panel of 15 doctors who are providing consultation from places of their own. We are also planning to organize body tissue collection for pathological investigation at the telemedicine centres through arrangements with pathological centres in the neighbourhood. We feel this system can be spread throughout the LRCs benefitting the majority of the global population who are deprived at present..
18. Fumihiko Yokota and Ashir Ahmed, Differences in Relationships and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension, Diabetes, and Proteinuria Among Urban and Rural Adults in Bangladesh
-Findings from Portable Health Clinic Research Project 2013–2018-, 21st International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2019 HCI International 2019 – Late Breaking Papers - 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-030-30033-3_46, 599-610, 2019.07, Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the relationships and risk factors with hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria between urban office workers at Dhaka city and rural community residents at Bheramara sub-district who participated in a mobile health check-up service called portable health clinic (PHC). Methods: Data were collected from 271 urban office workers at Dhaka city in 2018 and 2,890 rural community residents at Bheramara sub-district between 2013 and 2016, who agreed to participate in the PHC. Data included basic socio-demographic and health check-up information. Descriptive statistics were conducted to compare the relationships with three main outcome variables (hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria) and independent variables (ex, age, sex, pulse rates, and body mass index (BMI)). Results: The percentage of participants who were overweight or obese was higher among urban participants (51%) than rural participants (35%), whereas in rural participants, the percentage of being underweight was higher (11%) than in urban participants (0.4%). Among participants who had proteinuria, 60% in urban and 34% in rural participants had hypertension and 10% in urban and 14% in rural and had diabetes. Among those who had diabetes, 26% in urban and 45% in rural participants had hypertension and 3% in urban and 55% in rural participants had proteinuria. Among participants who had hypertension, 9% in urban and 37% in rural participants had proteinuria 12% in both urban and rural participants had diabetes. Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria were highly co-existed particularly among rural participants. Obesity is more prevalent among urban participants. PHC services is important for screening a large number of unaware and undiagnosed diabetic, hypertensive, and proteinuria patients both in rural and urban Bangladesh..
19. Nazmul Hossain, Masuda Begum Sampa, Fumihiko Yokota, Akira Fukuda, and Ashir Ahmed, Factors Affecting Rural Patients' Primary Compliance with e-Prescription
A Developing Country Perspective, Telemedicine and e-Health, 10.1089/tmj.2018.0081, 25, 5, 391-398, 2019.05, [URL], Background: The electronic prescription system has emerged to reduce the ambiguity and misunderstanding associated with handwritten prescriptions. The opportunities and challenges of e-prescription system, its impact on reducing medication error, and improving patient's safety have been widely studied. However, not enough studies were conducted to explore and quantify the factors that affect rural patients' compliance with e-prescription, especially from the perspective of Asian developing countries where most of the world's population resides. Objective: The objective of this study is to explore and assess the factors that affect rural patients' primary compliance with e-prescription in Bangladesh. Methods: Data were collected from 95 randomly selected rural patients who received e-prescription through a field survey with a structured questionnaire from Bheramara subdistrict, Bangladesh, during June and July 2016. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. Results: The study found patients' gender as the most significantly influential factor (regression coefficient [Coef.] = 2.02, odds ratio [OR] = 7.51, p < 0.05) followed by visiting frequency (Coef. = 0.99, OR = 2.70, p < 0.05); education (Coef. = 0.92, OR = 2.51, p < 0.05); and distance to healthcare facility (Coef. = 0.82, OR = 2.26, p < 0.01). However, patients' age, monthly family expenditure, and use of cell phone were found insignificant. The model explains 59.40% deviance (R = 0.5940) in the response variable with its constructs. And the "Hosmer-Lemeshow" goodness-of-fit score (0.99) is also above the standard threshold (0.05), which indicates the data fit well with the model. Conclusions: The findings of this study are expected to be helpful for e-health service providers to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence their patients to comply with e-prescriptions..
20. Mehdi Hasan, Mariko Nishikitani, Fumuhiko Yokota, Akira Fukuda, Rafiqul Islam, and Ashir Ahmed, Growth characteristics of age-based anthropometric data from human assisted remote healthcare systems, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10.14569/IJACSA.2019.0100379, 10, 3, 615-619, 2019.03, This paper reports growth characteristics (height, weight, BMI, waist and hip) of Bangladeshi males at the age of 20 to 100, analyzed from 13,069 samples randomly collected from 54 locations in Bangladesh since the year 2010. The US CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) demonstrates growth pattern charts for boys and girls from 2 to 20 years of age. Very few literatures report growth characteristics after the age of 20. This is due to the fact that there is no significant growth after the age of 20 for height. However, weight, BMI, waist, hip size do change over time. Our Portable Health Clinic system has for many years been archiving remote health care data records from different ages and socioeconomic levels in many locations throughout Bangladesh. This research aims to explore whether there are any significant clinical growth patterns over age. We analyzed our data and demonstrated the growth patterns. For height, there is no sharp change until the age of 49, but after the age of 50, we observe a slight decline of height and a sharp decline after the age of 80. Weight grows until the age of 49 and decline after that.Waist and Hip show similar growth characteristics with weight. The plots are demonstrated in 7 different percentiles (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) to get an idea of the range of respective growth of males in Bangladesh..
21. Fumihiko Yokota, Manish Biyani, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Mariko Nishikitani, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Yasunobu Nohara, Naoki Nakashima, Lessons learned from co-design and co-production in a portable health clinic research project in Jaipur District, India (2016-2018), Sustainability (Switzerland), 10.3390/su10114148, 10, 11, 2018.11, Co-design and co-production with non-academic stakeholders has been recognized as a key approach in transdisciplinary sustainability research. The majority of transdisciplinary studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, with a marked lack of such research in the Asian context-particularly with regard to healthcare. Utilizing a case study involving mobile health check-ups performed using a portable health clinic system in Jaipur, India, from March 2016 to March 2018, this study identifies key factors in co-design and co-production that should be considered to ensure the project's sustainability. Thoroughly reviewing all of the documents and materials related to the case study's co-design and co-production, this study identifies the following key factors: (1) mutual stakeholder agreement on a long-term research plan, protocol, and budget; (2) harmonizing research objectives, frames, and the scale of stakeholder expectations; (3) stakeholders' commitment and a sense of ownership derived from their needs and priorities; (4) stakeholder trust; (5) effective coordinators; (6) personality type and characteristics of stakeholder leaders; (7) capacity building and the empowerment of local research staff and participants; and (8) continuous efforts to involve stakeholders throughout the co-design and co-production processes. Facilitating effective co-design and co-production, these factors will help ensure the future sustainability of projects..
22. F. Yokota, Manish Biyani, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Mariko Nishikitani, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Yasunobu Nohara, and Naoki Nakashima, Lessons Learned from Co-Design and Co-Production in a Portable Health Clinic Research Project in Jaipur District, India, Sustainability, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114148, 10, 11, 4148, 2018.10, [URL], Co-design and co-production with non-academic stakeholders has been recognized as a key approach in transdisciplinary sustainability research. The majority of transdisciplinary studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, with a marked lack of such research in the Asian context—particularly with regard to healthcare. Utilizing a case study involving mobile health check-ups performed using a portable health clinic system in Jaipur, India, from March 2016 to March 2018, this study identifies key factors in co-design and co-production that should be considered to ensure the project’s sustainability. Thoroughly reviewing all of the documents and materials related to the case study’s co-design and co-production, this study identifies the following key factors: (1) mutual stakeholder agreement on a long-term research plan, protocol, and budget; (2) harmonizing research objectives, frames, and the scale of stakeholder expectations; (3) stakeholders’ commitment and a sense of ownership derived from their needs and priorities; (4) stakeholder trust; (5) effective coordinators; (6) personality type and characteristics of stakeholder leaders; (7) capacity building and the empowerment of local research staff and participants; and (8) continuous efforts to involve stakeholders throughout the co-design and co-production processes. Facilitating effective co-design and co-production, these factors will help ensure the future sustainability of projects.
23. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M.Muzahidul Islam, Abul Lais M.S. Haque, Asim Zeb, Ashir Ahmed, Cognitive radio enabled biomedical and nonmedical hospital device communication protocols for CogMed, 10th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, ICECE 2018 ICECE 2018 - 10th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10.1109/ICECE.2018.8636812, 62-65, 2018.10, Owing to the recent advancement in IoT devices, the popularity of wireless devices in healthcare is growing rapidly. Thus it is anticipated that the healthcare services may face challenges such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference to bio-medical devices, medical data transmission reliability, etc. To overcome these issues, cognitive radio can be improvised and fine-tuned the wireless healthcare service system. However, contemporary researches on cognitive radio driven healthcare system have shown limited guidelines for medical emergency concerned network model and communication protocols. Thus this paper presents intelligent dynamic priority medical traffic transmission mechanism aware three Device to Device communication protocols for cognitve radio enabled hospital management system known as CogMed. To validate the performance of these protocols, several simulations are conducted, where it is observed that the CogMed transmission scheme performs better than other well established Methods. Moreover, the latency of majority hospital devices is within the threshold level of the Federal Drug and Food Administration prescribed standards for wireless medical devices..
24. N. Hossain, F. Yokota, A. Fukuda, and A. Ahmed, Factors affecting rural patients’ primary compliance with e-prescription: a developing country perspective, Telemedicine and e-Health, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.008 1, 25, 5, 2018.06, [URL], Background: The electronic prescription system has emerged to reduce the ambiguity and misunderstanding associated with handwritten prescriptions. The opportunities and challenges of e-prescription system, its impact on reducing medication error, and improving patient's safety have been widely studied. However, not enough studies were conducted to explore and quantify the factors that affect rural patients' compliance with e-prescription, especially from the perspective of Asian developing countries where most of the world's population resides. Objective: The objective of this study is to explore and assess the factors that affect rural patients' primary compliance with e-prescription in Bangladesh. Methods: Data were collected from 95 randomly selected rural patients who received e-prescription through a field survey with a structured questionnaire from Bheramara subdistrict, Bangladesh, during June and July 2016. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. Results: The study found patients' gender as the most significantly influential factor (regression coefficient [Coef.] = 2.02, odds ratio [OR] = 7.51, p < 0.05) followed by visiting frequency (Coef. = 0.99, OR = 2.70, p < 0.05); education (Coef. = 0.92, OR = 2.51, p < 0.05); and distance to healthcare facility (Coef. = 0.82, OR = 2.26, p < 0.01). However, patients' age, monthly family expenditure, and use of cell phone were found insignificant. The model explains 59.40% deviance (R2 = 0.5940) in the response variable with its constructs. And the "Hosmer-Lemeshow" goodness-of-fit score (0.99) is also above the standard threshold (0.05), which indicates the data fit well with the model. Conclusions: The findings of this study are expected to be helpful for e-health service providers to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence their patients to comply with e-prescriptions..
25. Kimiyo Kikuchi, Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Ashir Ahmed, Yasunobu Nohara, Mariko Nishikitani, Fumihiko Yokota, Tetsuya Mizutani, Naoki Nakashima, Postnatal care could be the key to improving the continuum of care in maternal and child health in ratanakiri, Cambodia, PloS one, 10.1371/journal.pone.0198829, 13, 6, 2018.06, In South-East Asia, the maternal and child mortality rate has declined over the past decades; however, it varies among and within the countries in the region, including Cambodia. The continuum of care is an integrated series of care that women and children are required to avail continuously from pregnancy to the child/motherhood period. This study aimed to assess the completion rate of the continuum of care and examine the factors associated with the continuum of care in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ratanakiri. Overall, 377 women were included, and data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among them, 5.0% completed the continuum of care (antenatal care at least four times, delivery by skilled birth attendant, and postnatal care at least once). Meanwhile, 18.8% did not receive any care during pregnancy, delivery, and after birth. The highest discontinuation rate was at the postnatal care stage (73.6%). Not receiving any perinatal care was associated with neonatal complications at 6 weeks after birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.075; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.310–7.215). Furthermore, a long distance to the health center was negatively associated with completion of the continuum of care (AOR: 0.877; 95% CI: 0.791–0.972). This study indicates the need for efforts to reduce the number of women who discontinue from the continuum of care, as well as who do not receive any care to avoid neonatal complications. Since the discontinuation rate was highest at the postnatal care, postnatal care needs to be promoted more through the antenatal care and delivery services. Furthermore, given that long distance to health facilities was a barrier for receiving the care continuously, our findings suggest the need for a village-based health care system that can provide the basic continuum of care in remote areas..
26. N. Hossain, F. Yokota, N. Sultana and A. Ahmed, Factors Influencing Rural End-Users’ Acceptance of e-Health in Developing Countries: A study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh, Telemedicine and e-Health, 2018, 10.1089/tmj.2018.0039, 25, 3, 221-229, 2018.04, [URL], BACKGROUND:
Existing studies regarding e-health are mostly focused on information technology design and implementation, system architecture and infrastructure, and its importance in public health with ancillaries and barriers to mass adoption. However, not enough studies have been conducted to assess the end-users' reaction and acceptance behavior toward e-health, especially from the perspective of rural communities in developing countries.

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this study is to explore the factors that influence rural end users' acceptance of e-health in Bangladesh.

METHODS:
Data were collected between June and July 2016 through a field survey with structured questionnaire form 292 randomly selected rural respondents from Bheramara subdistrict, Bangladesh. Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the research framework. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the theoretical model.

RESULTS:
The study found social reference as the most significantly influential variable (Coef. = 2.28, odds ratio [OR] = 9.73, p < 0.01) followed by advertisement (Coef. = 1.94, OR = 6.94, p < 0.01); attitude toward the system (Coef. = 1.52, OR = 4.56, p < 0.01); access to cellphone (Coef. = 1.37, OR = 3.92, p < 0.05), and perceived system effectiveness (Coef. = 0.74, OR = 2.10, p < 0.01). Among demographic variables, age, gender, and education were found significant while we did not find any significant impact of respondents' monthly family expenditure on their e-health acceptance behavior. The model explains 54.70% deviance (R2 = 0.5470) in the response variable with its constructs. The "Hosmer-Lemeshow" goodness-of-fit score (0.539) is also above the standard threshold (0.05), which indicates that the data fit well with the model.

CONCLUSION:
The study provides guidelines for the successful adoption of e-health among rural communities in developing countries. This also creates an opportunity for e-health technology developers and service providers to have a better understanding of their end users..
27. Nuren Abedin, Jecinta Kamau, Muhammad Ismail Hossain, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, A case study to design a mobility as a service model for urban female corporates to improve their work performance, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228085, 1445-1450, 2017.12, This study introduces an ICT based cost-effective car sharing model named 'GramCar Corporate' for corporates in urban areas in developing countries. GramCar is designed to offer staff bus service in the morning and evening hours and utilize the idle time in the afternoon for delivering healthcare services and healthcare goods to the urban ageing community living in apartments in cities. We carried out a case study on 132 corporates who are living in different locations in Dhaka, Bangladesh but working in the same Grameen Corporate Building complex in Dhaka, by providing them a staff bus service. The study observed the travel pattern (vehicle modes, transfers, financial cost, time cost, physical energy cost etc.) of corporates, the experiences during travel by existing transports and our concept for a car-share service for them. We found that daily average cost for a commercial transport user is 2.3 USD, while 2.5 USD for our shared GramCar Corporate service. GramCar Corporate services reduces the number of transfers and saves 20 minutes from the travel time by Traditional Transport Mode. Through quality delivery of service and well-trained staffs, corporates reported a better travel experience with GramCar and participants reported to have a better psychological condition before starting their work. The paper discusses both the tangible and intangible benefits to the corporates..
28. Mehdi Hasan, Akira Fukuda, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Fumihiko Yokota, Ashir Ahmed, Errors in remote healthcare system
Where, how and by whom?, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8227856, 170-175, 2017.12, A medical error comes in many forms e.g. Medication error, Surgical error, Diagnostic error and System failure etc. The Prescription error is a major medication error. Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) have been developed and deployed by many hospitals to prevent medical errors. However, these tools are more applicable for hospitalized patients. In healthcare worker assisted remote healthcare systems, a healthcare worker interfaces with the patient and do medical measurement of health checkup items (for example, height, weight, Blood sugar etc.) and shares the data by using an android based application with the remote doctor. The doctor analyzes the data, consults with the patient and writes a prescription for the patient. In this overall process, each step has the room for making mistakes and eventually mistakes bring errors, either directly by a human (active error) or by the android application or hardware (latent error). This paper reports a flow chart for healthcare worker assisted remote healthcare systems, lists the point of errors and describe the potential causes of the errors..
29. Tanvir Rahman Khan, Kazi Mozaher Hossein, Kazi Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, Measurement of illness and wellness score of non-communicable disease patients, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228236, 2253-2257, 2017.12, This research aims to develop a technique to measure healthcare data of non-communicable disease (diabetes, hypertension etc.) patients and score their health status. We introduce two different scoring mechanism and apply the methods on our Portable Health Clinic (PHC) patients to verify the effectiveness of the obtained scores. PHC has a triage to classify the patients in four colored groups (green, yellow, orange and red) depending on the severity of their status. These color codes were designed based on WHO's recommendations. On the top of the triage, we applied two mechanisms (a) a simple decimal scoring system, and (b) mathematically obtained weighted score to determine wellness score of a patient. We applied the technique on 5895 patients to see the average wellness score of each patient and displayed them against the age. The displayed graph shows the trend that the younger people have more wellness score. The obtained results match with our traditional wisdom. We want to observe health status of individual patient to verify the accuracy of the scoring system..
30. Nuren Abedin, Jecinta Kamau, Muhammad Ismail Hossain, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, A case study to design a mobility as a service model for urban female corporates to improve their work performance, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228085, 1445-1450, 2017.12, This study introduces an ICT based cost-effective car sharing model named 'GramCar Corporate' for corporates in urban areas in developing countries. GramCar is designed to offer staff bus service in the morning and evening hours and utilize the idle time in the afternoon for delivering healthcare services and healthcare goods to the urban ageing community living in apartments in cities. We carried out a case study on 132 corporates who are living in different locations in Dhaka, Bangladesh but working in the same Grameen Corporate Building complex in Dhaka, by providing them a staff bus service. The study observed the travel pattern (vehicle modes, transfers, financial cost, time cost, physical energy cost etc.) of corporates, the experiences during travel by existing transports and our concept for a car-share service for them. We found that daily average cost for a commercial transport user is 2.3 USD, while 2.5 USD for our shared GramCar Corporate service. GramCar Corporate services reduces the number of transfers and saves 20 minutes from the travel time by Traditional Transport Mode. Through quality delivery of service and well-trained staffs, corporates reported a better travel experience with GramCar and participants reported to have a better psychological condition before starting their work. The paper discusses both the tangible and intangible benefits to the corporates..
31. Mehdi Hasan, Akira Fukuda, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Fumihiko Yokota, Ashir Ahmed, Errors in remote healthcare system
Where, how and by whom?, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8227856, 170-175, 2017.12, A medical error comes in many forms e.g. Medication error, Surgical error, Diagnostic error and System failure etc. The Prescription error is a major medication error. Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) have been developed and deployed by many hospitals to prevent medical errors. However, these tools are more applicable for hospitalized patients. In healthcare worker assisted remote healthcare systems, a healthcare worker interfaces with the patient and do medical measurement of health checkup items (for example, height, weight, Blood sugar etc.) and shares the data by using an android based application with the remote doctor. The doctor analyzes the data, consults with the patient and writes a prescription for the patient. In this overall process, each step has the room for making mistakes and eventually mistakes bring errors, either directly by a human (active error) or by the android application or hardware (latent error). This paper reports a flow chart for healthcare worker assisted remote healthcare systems, lists the point of errors and describe the potential causes of the errors..
32. Tanvir Rahman Khan, Kazi Mozaher Hossein, Kazi Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, Measurement of illness and wellness score of non-communicable disease patients, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2017 TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228236, 2253-2257, 2017.12, This research aims to develop a technique to measure healthcare data of non-communicable disease (diabetes, hypertension etc.) patients and score their health status. We introduce two different scoring mechanism and apply the methods on our Portable Health Clinic (PHC) patients to verify the effectiveness of the obtained scores. PHC has a triage to classify the patients in four colored groups (green, yellow, orange and red) depending on the severity of their status. These color codes were designed based on WHO's recommendations. On the top of the triage, we applied two mechanisms (a) a simple decimal scoring system, and (b) mathematically obtained weighted score to determine wellness score of a patient. We applied the technique on 5895 patients to see the average wellness score of each patient and displayed them against the age. The displayed graph shows the trend that the younger people have more wellness score. The obtained results match with our traditional wisdom. We want to observe health status of individual patient to verify the accuracy of the scoring system..
33. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M. Muzahidul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Priority Aware Cognitive Radio Driven Hospital System, Wireless Personal Communications, 10.1007/s11277-017-4458-y, 96, 4, 5973-5994, 2017.10, Wireless communication technology is the prime attribute to improve mobility, flexibility and reliability for hospital information system. However, due to the growth of wireless devices in near future, healthcare services may face challenges on medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference to bio-medical devices and medical data transmission reliability. To dimi nish these issues cognitive radio (CR) can be improvised and fine-tuned the wireless healthcare service system. However, contemporary research on CR driven healthcare has shown limited guidelines for priority policy and network model for hospital. Thus, the main objective of this research is to design a CR based system for healthcare services where all of the hospital devices are CR enabled and categorized as per the activity. An intelligent dynamic priority enabled queuing management based hospital traffic transmission mechanism is then introduced in the proposed system. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of medical management by computing weight of hospital traffics considering hospital location and device priority. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of hospital data and decreases the rate of packet drop. Finally, simulation results show that the critical emergency medical traffic obligates very low drop rate, queuing time and network delay comparing to other hospital devices. The proposed system transmission is also shown to outperform the other well-known methods for data transmission system..
34. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M. Muzahidul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Priority Aware Cognitive Radio Driven Hospital System, Wireless Personal Communications, 10.1007/s11277-017-4458-y, 96, 4, 5973-5994, 2017.10, Wireless communication technology is the prime attribute to improve mobility, flexibility and reliability for hospital information system. However, due to the growth of wireless devices in near future, healthcare services may face challenges on medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference to bio-medical devices and medical data transmission reliability. To dimi nish these issues cognitive radio (CR) can be improvised and fine-tuned the wireless healthcare service system. However, contemporary research on CR driven healthcare has shown limited guidelines for priority policy and network model for hospital. Thus, the main objective of this research is to design a CR based system for healthcare services where all of the hospital devices are CR enabled and categorized as per the activity. An intelligent dynamic priority enabled queuing management based hospital traffic transmission mechanism is then introduced in the proposed system. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of medical management by computing weight of hospital traffics considering hospital location and device priority. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of hospital data and decreases the rate of packet drop. Finally, simulation results show that the critical emergency medical traffic obligates very low drop rate, queuing time and network delay comparing to other hospital devices. The proposed system transmission is also shown to outperform the other well-known methods for data transmission system..
35. K. M. Hossein, F. Yokota, M. Nishikitani, R. Islam, H. Kitaoka, H. Okajima, and A. Ahmed, Factors Associated to Online Shopping at the BoP Community in Rural Bangladesh, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 8, 10, 46-51, 2017.06, [URL], Online shopping is getting popular even in the rural areas of developing countries. However, few research has
been conducted to identify the factors associated to online shopping by the poor villagers. Whereas people living at the bottom of the economic pyramid (BoP) has an aggregate purchase power which is a huge market and online shopping has the potentiality in reducing BoP penalty by removing unnecessary middlemen from the supply chain. In this research, we have conducted a field survey on 600 households in the western part of rural Bangladesh to find out current status of
online shopping use by the BoP people and the demographic and behavioral factors associated with online shopping. Chi-square test of association and multi variate logistic regression test have been performed to analyze data. Result shows that cell phone use, computer use, social media use, and mobile money transfer use have significant relationship in online shopping use at the BoP community..
36. M. N. Hossain, H. Okajima, H. Kitaoka, and A. Ahmed, Consumer Acceptance of eHealth among Rural Inhabitants in Developing Countries (A Study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh), Procedia Comput. Sci.,, 111, 2015, 471-478, 2017.04, [URL], This paper explores and analyzes the current level of, reasons behind and factors affecting consumer acceptance of Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an e-Health initiative in Bangladesh. Our findings revealed that, 40% of the respondents have idea of using ICT in healthcare while 21% have their own experience of using any of the existing mHealth or eHealth systems. On the other hand, PHC’s acceptance rate among our respondents is 32% i.e. they have received healthcare services from PHC at least once. This research also analyzed consumer’s demographic and socio-economic factors that affect their acceptance of eHealth. Our finding says, consumer’s age, occupation and purchasing power have very strong influence on their acceptance of eHealth services while their gender, level of education, access to cell phone and previous eHealth knowledge have very insignificant or weaker impact..
37. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M.Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Ashir Ahmed, A novel medical priority aware transmission mechanism for cognitive radio based hospital, 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2016 Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2016, 10.1109/TENCON.2016.7848019, 350-353, 2017.02, Due to rapid growth of wireless medical devices, in near future wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issues such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI) to bio-medical devices, bandwidth constrain, security and finally medical data transmission reliability, etc. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio needs to be utilized and fine-tuned the upcoming wireless healthcare service system. Contemporary research on cognitive radio driven healthcare has shown some improvement on trimming the EMI, spectrum scarcity and bandwidth issues. However, a visible research gap and very limited guidelines are observed on medical data transmission reliability in a Cognitive Radio (CR) based healthcare. Thus this research designs an intelligent dynamic priority enabled queuing management based hospital traffic transmission mechanism for a previously proposed CR enabled hospital named CogMed. An equation is formulated to compute weight of a hospital traffic considering hospital location and priority of its device. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of hospital data and decreases the rate of packet drop. Simulation results show that the critical emergency medical traffic obligates very low drop rate (1.56%), queuing time and network delay compared to other medical devices. The proposed system outperforms some the other traditional established methods for wireless data transmission system..
38. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Dipok K. Choudhury, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Amin Nayeen Al, Chemical Free Vegetable Cultivation and Outcomes in Winter Season in Bangladesh
A case study on BOP farmers in five districts, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 1, 255-262, 2017.02, In Bangladesh the demand of chemical free vegetables is increasing due to health hazards of conventional vegetables. However, the awareness of the farmers and supply of such vegetables are not sufficient. In this research, therefore, we focused on why agrochemical free vegetable production including marketing has been underdeveloped in Bangladesh as a growing business compared to conventional vegetable production. In order to collect the information, which can argue these reality of chemical free vegetable production, distribution and marketing in Bangladesh, we especially focused on widely cultivated winter vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower and tomato. Data were collected targeting the activities of SENSE (Support to establish a new society of BOP farmers by using the power of ICT) project regarding production and marketing. The results indicated that the production of chemical free cauliflower and tomato were substandard compare to the cabbage. The reasons for getting substandard production were unavailability of proper production inputs such as appropriate organic pesticides, quality compost and lack of timely execution of the farming activities. Moreover, the selling results indicated that farmers got higher income from tomato compare to cabbage and cauliflower. Additionally, revenue (per kg) of the products sold in Dhaka market was more than the local markets. The differences of revenue (per kg) between Dhaka and locally sold cabbage, cauliflower and tomato were BDT 6.02, BDT 6.63 and BDT 10.22, respectively. However, the average selling percentage of cabbage, cauliflower and tomato in Dhaka market (10.06%) and local market (89.94%) indicated that chemical free vegetable production had high potential by selling more products in Dhaka market for high income generation of the resource poor farmers..
39. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Dipok K. Choudhury, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Nayeen Aamin, Chemical free vegetable cultivation and outcomes in winter season in Bangladesh
A case study on BOP farmers in five districts, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 1, 255-262, 2017.02, In Bangladesh the demand of chemical free vegetables is increasing due to health hazards of conventional vegetables. However, the awareness of the farmers and supply of such vegetables are not sufficient. In this research, therefore, we focused on why agrochemical free vegetable production including marketing has been underdeveloped in Bangladesh as a growing business compared to conventional vegetable production. In order to collect the information, which can argue these reality of chemical free vegetable production, distribution and marketing in Bangladesh, we especially focused on widely cultivated winter vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower and tomato. Data were collected targeting the activities of SENSE (Support to establish a new society of BOP farmers by using the power of ICT) project regarding production and marketing. The results indicated that the production of chemical free cauliflower and tomato were substandard compare to the cabbage. The reasons for getting substandard production were unavailability of proper production inputs such as appropriate organic pesticides, quality compost and lack of timely execution of the farming activities. Moreover, the selling results indicated that farmers got higher income from tomato compare to cabbage and cauliflower. Additionally, revenue (per kg) of the products sold in Dhaka market was more than the local markets. The differences of revenue (per kg) between Dhaka and locally sold cabbage, cauliflower and tomato were BDT 6.02, BDT 6.63 and BDT 10.22, respectively. However, the average selling percentage of cabbage, cauliflower and tomato in Dhaka market (10.06%) and local market (89.94%) indicated that chemical free vegetable production had high potential by selling more products in Dhaka market for high income generation of the resource poor farmers..
40. Jecinta Kamau, Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-H, Hironobu Kitaoka, Hiroshi Okajima, Zahidul Hossein Ripon, Demand Responsive Mobility as a Service, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 - Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/SMC.2016.7844489, 1741-1746, 2017.02, Fundamental requirements in mobility are time, cost and comfort. Individual car ownership satisfies comfort component and to some extent, the time component as well. However, owning and maintaining a car is prohibitive for many due to cost and convenience implications. In selecting other public modes of transportation, a taxi or rental car would provide a more comfortable ride with little to none waiting time and conforms to the passengers mobility requirements. However, the cost is too high and cannot be sustained as a regular mode of transport. On the other hand, shared public transport such as bus or train is more affordable but requires the passenger to conform their schedule to a set timetable that operates no matter the changes in demand. In developing countries, however, the shared public transport alternatives do not have timetables and waiting time could be up to an hour. Recent research in shared mobility systems, specifically Demand Responsive Transport (DRT), addresses this situation. Solutions to DRT trip scheduling are constrained to the variation of DRT specifications but does not vehicle schedule and quorum specifications considerations. We aim to reduce passenger waiting time for shared mobility and propose a design of a DRT-based Demand Responsive MaaS (Mobility as a Service) model that provides centralized management and ICT support. Our design adds time constraints of vehicle schedule to the DRT problem. We propose a trip scheduling and cost sharing algorithm for our designed model and base our approach on a DRT heuristic algorithm and a quorum to enforce a minimum demand. A simulation experiment showed average waiting time reduced by 44.4% compared to other DRT time optimization solutions. We conducted a pilot study in Dhaka, Bangladesh for 4 months. Actual average waiting time reduced to 25% compared to current public transport in Dhaka..
41. Nuren Abedin, Jecinta Kamau, Hironobu Kitaoka, Hiroshi Okajima, Masaharu Okada, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, Providing safe and affordable transportation to reduce female students dropout
A case study on college girls in rural Bangladesh, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 - Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/SMC.2016.7844879, 4130-4134, 2017.02, We carried out an experiment to observe the role of transportation for adolescent female students in rural Bangladesh. A senior high school (in Bangladesh, they call it a college) student spends 180-230 minutes to travel only 22km (11 km, single trip) on an average to commute from home to college. Local transport (Tomtom) stops are not always close to their home. The walk 4km to get to the nearest Tomtom stop. The Tomtom does not have a regular timetable. In worst case, the students wait 30 minutes until the Tomtom driver finds sufficient number of passengers. This 11km distance is Female students find it uncomfortable to share congested space with male passengers. They cannot raise their voice when they face sexual harassment inside the car or when they walk. The parents of the female students find it safer to stop their education and arrange a marriage. We proposed a regular college bus service with an adaptive time schedule that follows the routine of the students. In order to make the service sustainable, we designed a model of multi service vehicle named SSW, so that it can earn extra income during its idle time. We concluded that the operational cost can be covered through the SSW model. We identified new requirements for multiservice vehicle to satisfy the needs of a rural community..
42. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M.Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Ashir Ahmed, A novel medical priority aware transmission mechanism for cognitive radio based hospital, 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2016 Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2016, 10.1109/TENCON.2016.7848019, 350-353, 2017.02, Due to rapid growth of wireless medical devices, in near future wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issues such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI) to bio-medical devices, bandwidth constrain, security and finally medical data transmission reliability, etc. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio needs to be utilized and fine-tuned the upcoming wireless healthcare service system. Contemporary research on cognitive radio driven healthcare has shown some improvement on trimming the EMI, spectrum scarcity and bandwidth issues. However, a visible research gap and very limited guidelines are observed on medical data transmission reliability in a Cognitive Radio (CR) based healthcare. Thus this research designs an intelligent dynamic priority enabled queuing management based hospital traffic transmission mechanism for a previously proposed CR enabled hospital named CogMed. An equation is formulated to compute weight of a hospital traffic considering hospital location and priority of its device. The proposed priority mechanism intelligently determines the critical level of hospital data and decreases the rate of packet drop. Simulation results show that the critical emergency medical traffic obligates very low drop rate (1.56%), queuing time and network delay compared to other medical devices. The proposed system outperforms some the other traditional established methods for wireless data transmission system..
43. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Dipok K. Choudhury, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Amin Nayeen Al, Chemical Free Vegetable Cultivation and Outcomes in Winter Season in Bangladesh
A case study on BOP farmers in five districts, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 1, 255-262, 2017.02, In Bangladesh the demand of chemical free vegetables is increasing due to health hazards of conventional vegetables. However, the awareness of the farmers and supply of such vegetables are not sufficient. In this research, therefore, we focused on why agrochemical free vegetable production including marketing has been underdeveloped in Bangladesh as a growing business compared to conventional vegetable production. In order to collect the information, which can argue these reality of chemical free vegetable production, distribution and marketing in Bangladesh, we especially focused on widely cultivated winter vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower and tomato. Data were collected targeting the activities of SENSE (Support to establish a new society of BOP farmers by using the power of ICT) project regarding production and marketing. The results indicated that the production of chemical free cauliflower and tomato were substandard compare to the cabbage. The reasons for getting substandard production were unavailability of proper production inputs such as appropriate organic pesticides, quality compost and lack of timely execution of the farming activities. Moreover, the selling results indicated that farmers got higher income from tomato compare to cabbage and cauliflower. Additionally, revenue (per kg) of the products sold in Dhaka market was more than the local markets. The differences of revenue (per kg) between Dhaka and locally sold cabbage, cauliflower and tomato were BDT 6.02, BDT 6.63 and BDT 10.22, respectively. However, the average selling percentage of cabbage, cauliflower and tomato in Dhaka market (10.06%) and local market (89.94%) indicated that chemical free vegetable production had high potential by selling more products in Dhaka market for high income generation of the resource poor farmers..
44. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Dipok K. Choudhury, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Nayeen Aamin, Chemical free vegetable cultivation and outcomes in winter season in Bangladesh
A case study on BOP farmers in five districts, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 62, 1, 255-262, 2017.02, In Bangladesh the demand of chemical free vegetables is increasing due to health hazards of conventional vegetables. However, the awareness of the farmers and supply of such vegetables are not sufficient. In this research, therefore, we focused on why agrochemical free vegetable production including marketing has been underdeveloped in Bangladesh as a growing business compared to conventional vegetable production. In order to collect the information, which can argue these reality of chemical free vegetable production, distribution and marketing in Bangladesh, we especially focused on widely cultivated winter vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower and tomato. Data were collected targeting the activities of SENSE (Support to establish a new society of BOP farmers by using the power of ICT) project regarding production and marketing. The results indicated that the production of chemical free cauliflower and tomato were substandard compare to the cabbage. The reasons for getting substandard production were unavailability of proper production inputs such as appropriate organic pesticides, quality compost and lack of timely execution of the farming activities. Moreover, the selling results indicated that farmers got higher income from tomato compare to cabbage and cauliflower. Additionally, revenue (per kg) of the products sold in Dhaka market was more than the local markets. The differences of revenue (per kg) between Dhaka and locally sold cabbage, cauliflower and tomato were BDT 6.02, BDT 6.63 and BDT 10.22, respectively. However, the average selling percentage of cabbage, cauliflower and tomato in Dhaka market (10.06%) and local market (89.94%) indicated that chemical free vegetable production had high potential by selling more products in Dhaka market for high income generation of the resource poor farmers..
45. Jecinta Kamau, Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-H, Hironobu Kitaoka, Hiroshi Okajima, Zahidul Hossein Ripon, Demand Responsive Mobility as a Service, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 - Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/SMC.2016.7844489, 1741-1746, 2017.02, Fundamental requirements in mobility are time, cost and comfort. Individual car ownership satisfies comfort component and to some extent, the time component as well. However, owning and maintaining a car is prohibitive for many due to cost and convenience implications. In selecting other public modes of transportation, a taxi or rental car would provide a more comfortable ride with little to none waiting time and conforms to the passengers mobility requirements. However, the cost is too high and cannot be sustained as a regular mode of transport. On the other hand, shared public transport such as bus or train is more affordable but requires the passenger to conform their schedule to a set timetable that operates no matter the changes in demand. In developing countries, however, the shared public transport alternatives do not have timetables and waiting time could be up to an hour. Recent research in shared mobility systems, specifically Demand Responsive Transport (DRT), addresses this situation. Solutions to DRT trip scheduling are constrained to the variation of DRT specifications but does not vehicle schedule and quorum specifications considerations. We aim to reduce passenger waiting time for shared mobility and propose a design of a DRT-based Demand Responsive MaaS (Mobility as a Service) model that provides centralized management and ICT support. Our design adds time constraints of vehicle schedule to the DRT problem. We propose a trip scheduling and cost sharing algorithm for our designed model and base our approach on a DRT heuristic algorithm and a quorum to enforce a minimum demand. A simulation experiment showed average waiting time reduced by 44.4% compared to other DRT time optimization solutions. We conducted a pilot study in Dhaka, Bangladesh for 4 months. Actual average waiting time reduced to 25% compared to current public transport in Dhaka..
46. Nuren Abedin, Jecinta Kamau, Hironobu Kitaoka, Hiroshi Okajima, Masaharu Okada, Akira Fukuda, Ashir Ahmed, Providing safe and affordable transportation to reduce female students dropout
A case study on college girls in rural Bangladesh, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2016 - Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/SMC.2016.7844879, 4130-4134, 2017.02, We carried out an experiment to observe the role of transportation for adolescent female students in rural Bangladesh. A senior high school (in Bangladesh, they call it a college) student spends 180-230 minutes to travel only 22km (11 km, single trip) on an average to commute from home to college. Local transport (Tomtom) stops are not always close to their home. The walk 4km to get to the nearest Tomtom stop. The Tomtom does not have a regular timetable. In worst case, the students wait 30 minutes until the Tomtom driver finds sufficient number of passengers. This 11km distance is Female students find it uncomfortable to share congested space with male passengers. They cannot raise their voice when they face sexual harassment inside the car or when they walk. The parents of the female students find it safer to stop their education and arrange a marriage. We proposed a regular college bus service with an adaptive time schedule that follows the routine of the students. In order to make the service sustainable, we designed a model of multi service vehicle named SSW, so that it can earn extra income during its idle time. We concluded that the operational cost can be covered through the SSW model. We identified new requirements for multiservice vehicle to satisfy the needs of a rural community..
47. Md Nazmul Hossain, Hiroshi Okajima, Hironobu Kitaoka, Ashir Ahmed, Consumer Acceptance of eHealth among Rural Inhabitants in Developing Countries (A Study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh), 8th International Conference on Advances in Information Technology, IAIT 2016 Procedia Computer Science, 10.1016/j.procs.2017.06.049, 111, 471-478, 2017.01, This paper explores and analyzes the current level of, reasons behind and factors affecting consumer acceptance of Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an e-Health initiative in Bangladesh. Our findings revealed that, 40% of the respondents have idea of using ICT in healthcare while 21% have their own experience of using any of the existing mHealth or eHealth systems. On the other hand, PHC's acceptance rate among our respondents is 32% i.e. they have received healthcare services from PHC at least once. This research also analyzed consumer's demographic and socio-economic factors that affect their acceptance of eHealth. Our finding says, consumer's age, occupation and purchasing power have very strong influence on their acceptance of eHealth services while their gender, level of education, access to cell phone and previous eHealth knowledge have very insignificant or weaker impact..
48. Md Nazmul Hossain, Hiroshi Okajima, Hironobu Kitaoka, Ashir Ahmed, Consumer Acceptance of eHealth among Rural Inhabitants in Developing Countries (A Study on Portable Health Clinic in Bangladesh), 8th International Conference on Advances in Information Technology, IAIT 2016 Procedia Computer Science, 10.1016/j.procs.2017.06.049, 111, 471-478, 2017.01, This paper explores and analyzes the current level of, reasons behind and factors affecting consumer acceptance of Portable Health Clinic (PHC), an e-Health initiative in Bangladesh. Our findings revealed that, 40% of the respondents have idea of using ICT in healthcare while 21% have their own experience of using any of the existing mHealth or eHealth systems. On the other hand, PHC's acceptance rate among our respondents is 32% i.e. they have received healthcare services from PHC at least once. This research also analyzed consumer's demographic and socio-economic factors that affect their acceptance of eHealth. Our finding says, consumer's age, occupation and purchasing power have very strong influence on their acceptance of eHealth services while their gender, level of education, access to cell phone and previous eHealth knowledge have very insignificant or weaker impact..
49. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M.Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Shozo Komaki, Cluster based architecture and network maintenance protocol for medical priority aware cognitive radio based hospital, 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016, 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7592092, 5985-5988, 2016.10, Due to the rapid growth of wireless medical devices in near future, wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issue such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), bandwidth constraint, security and finally medical data communication model. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio (CR) or opportunistic radio network enabled wireless technology is suitable for the upcoming wireless healthcare system. The up-to-date research on CR based healthcare has exposed some developments on EMI and spectrum problems. However, the investigation recommendation on system design and network model for CR enabled hospital is rare. Thus, this research designs a hierarchy based hybrid network architecture and network maintenance protocols for previously proposed CR hospital system, known as CogMed. In the previous study, the detail architecture of CogMed and its maintenance protocols were not present. The proposed architecture includes clustering concepts for cognitive base stations and non-medical devices. Two cluster head (CH selector equations are formulated based on priority of location, device, mobility rate of devices and number of accessible channels. In order to maintain the integrity of the proposed network model, node joining and node leaving protocols are also proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed network maintenance time is very low for emergency medical devices (average maintenance period 9.5 ms) and the re-clustering effects for different mobility enabled non-medical devices are also balanced..
50. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M.Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Shozo Komaki, Cluster based architecture and network maintenance protocol for medical priority aware cognitive radio based hospital, 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016, 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7592092, 5985-5988, 2016.10, Due to the rapid growth of wireless medical devices in near future, wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issue such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), bandwidth constraint, security and finally medical data communication model. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio (CR) or opportunistic radio network enabled wireless technology is suitable for the upcoming wireless healthcare system. The up-to-date research on CR based healthcare has exposed some developments on EMI and spectrum problems. However, the investigation recommendation on system design and network model for CR enabled hospital is rare. Thus, this research designs a hierarchy based hybrid network architecture and network maintenance protocols for previously proposed CR hospital system, known as CogMed. In the previous study, the detail architecture of CogMed and its maintenance protocols were not present. The proposed architecture includes clustering concepts for cognitive base stations and non-medical devices. Two cluster head (CH selector equations are formulated based on priority of location, device, mobility rate of devices and number of accessible channels. In order to maintain the integrity of the proposed network model, node joining and node leaving protocols are also proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed network maintenance time is very low for emergency medical devices (average maintenance period 9.5 ms) and the re-clustering effects for different mobility enabled non-medical devices are also balanced..
51. M. N. Hossain and A. Ahmed, Maximizing Social Return on Investment: The Role of Investment Destination and Social Business Portfolio Selection, Dhaka University Journal of Business Studies, 37, 3, 185-195, 2016.06.
52. Takuzo Osugi, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Jecinta Kamau, Abdullah Emran, Ashir Ahmed, Healthcare Service on Wheels for Unreached Communities, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6 (5), pp. 594-599, 2016., 6, 5, 594-599, 2016.04, This article introduces an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that provides multiple social services especially healthcare delivery to the unreached communities. A community car brings healthcare devices, PC and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to pre-allocated service points within villages. The measuring devices and applications are supported by a back-end data operations office using Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the healthcare and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villager were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
53. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Nazmul Hossain, Zahidul Hossein, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Hybrid multiservice demand responsive mobility service for developing countries, eChallenges e-2015 Conference eChallenges e-2015 Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/eCHALLENGES.2015.7441090, 2016.03, This paper presents the concept of a hybrid multiservice demand-responsive mobility service, to improve productivity and provide safer, reliable transportation in developing countries. The multiservice vehicle is realized by a Mobility Service Provider (MSP). The MSP manages passengers' requests by scheduling ride sharing. Service requests are also met by scheduling delivery of healthcare, internet access and goods delivery close to the customer. A user demand-responsive scheduling system ensures optimum use of a vehicle and delivery of services. A model MSP called Social Services on Wheels introduces vehicles to a community in Dhaka, Bangladesh whose operations are based on requests from the customers. We expect this pilot will provide a comfortable scheduled transit solution that minimizes vehicle idle time to maximize use of the vehicle..
54. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Nazmul Hossain, Zahidul Hossein, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Hybrid multiservice demand responsive mobility service for developing countries, eChallenges e-2015 Conference eChallenges e-2015 Conference Proceedings, 10.1109/eCHALLENGES.2015.7441090, 2016.03, This paper presents the concept of a hybrid multiservice demand-responsive mobility service, to improve productivity and provide safer, reliable transportation in developing countries. The multiservice vehicle is realized by a Mobility Service Provider (MSP). The MSP manages passengers' requests by scheduling ride sharing. Service requests are also met by scheduling delivery of healthcare, internet access and goods delivery close to the customer. A user demand-responsive scheduling system ensures optimum use of a vehicle and delivery of services. A model MSP called Social Services on Wheels introduces vehicles to a community in Dhaka, Bangladesh whose operations are based on requests from the customers. We expect this pilot will provide a comfortable scheduled transit solution that minimizes vehicle idle time to maximize use of the vehicle..
55. Mehdi Hasan, Mamoru Ito, Ashir Ahmed, Dissemination of Personalized Agricultural Knowledge for Farmers in Bangladesh, International Journal of Innovative Research and Development (IJIRD), 5, 3, 65-69, 2016.02, [URL], Bangladesh is predominately an agricultural country. To feed her 160 million people from 8.2 million hectares of cultivable land
is a tough task. 15, 089,000 families out of total 17,600,804 families are directly or indirectly involve with the agriculture. Every
year, almost 0.20 million people are being added to the total population whereas the estimated annual shrinkage of agricultural
land is about 0.08 million hectares due to various non-agricultural activities like constructions of houses, roads, etc. In 1971,
agriculture was the first contributor to the GDP 71% which is currently 20.60%. In terms of employment, agriculture still
remains to the largest source. To continue the sustainable agricultural development, farmers need updated knowledge. Currently
they have various sources to get knowledge as like TV, mobile phone, radio, private group and so on. However, 60% farmers are
still expecting knowledge from the government agriculture extension officers. But it is quite difficult to disseminate personalize
agricultural knowledge for 12,000 extension officers to 16 million farmers around the country. This research will identify the
existing gap for getting agricultural knowledge from the most preferable sources and propose the improved service design which
can support to disseminate personalize agricultural knowledge for farmers in Bangladesh..
56. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Dipok K. Choudhury, Nayeen Al Amin, Poor farmer, entrepreneurs and ICT relation in production & marketing of quality vegetables in Bangladesh, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 61, 1, 241-250, 2016.02, Bangladesh is a country where people mostly depend on agriculture. The crop sub-sector of agriculture mainly depends on extensive agrochemicals to increase production and to ensure the national food security. Although, farmers have been using agrochemicals, the production was still found not to increase significantly due to the lack of knowledge about proper and modern cultivation technology. In addition, farmers are getting less income from agriculture compared to another profession, because of the inconsistent price of agricultural produces between the rural and urban area. In order to improve the situation, Kyushu University has conducted JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) grassroots technical cooperation project which aims at income generation for BOP (Bottom of Pyramid) farmers by producing and marketing the chemical free quality vegetables using ICT (Information and Communication Technology). The project has been conducted in five rural areas in Bangladesh. Here, the farmers are producing vegetables under a quality vegetable management center (QVMC) which is well equipped with ICT tools, and a quality vegetable entrepreneur (QVE) is helping them regularly to get the desired production and also ensuring the marketing of such vegetables. The project has targeted 100 farmers for producing chemical free vegetables and already got 42 interested farmers in 1.5 years of time. It is observed that farmers get better production under this QVMC in the winter season (called "Rabi" in Bangladesh) than summer season (called "Kharif-1" in Bangladesh)..
57. Mansur Ahmed, Akinori Ozaki, Kazuo Ogata, Shoichi Ito, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takashi Okayasu, Dipok K. Choudhury, Nayeen Al Amin, Poor farmer, entrepreneurs and ICT relation in production & marketing of quality vegetables in Bangladesh, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 61, 1, 241-250, 2016.02, Bangladesh is a country where people mostly depend on agriculture. The crop sub-sector of agriculture mainly depends on extensive agrochemicals to increase production and to ensure the national food security. Although, farmers have been using agrochemicals, the production was still found not to increase significantly due to the lack of knowledge about proper and modern cultivation technology. In addition, farmers are getting less income from agriculture compared to another profession, because of the inconsistent price of agricultural produces between the rural and urban area. In order to improve the situation, Kyushu University has conducted JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) grassroots technical cooperation project which aims at income generation for BOP (Bottom of Pyramid) farmers by producing and marketing the chemical free quality vegetables using ICT (Information and Communication Technology). The project has been conducted in five rural areas in Bangladesh. Here, the farmers are producing vegetables under a quality vegetable management center (QVMC) which is well equipped with ICT tools, and a quality vegetable entrepreneur (QVE) is helping them regularly to get the desired production and also ensuring the marketing of such vegetables. The project has targeted 100 farmers for producing chemical free vegetables and already got 42 interested farmers in 1.5 years of time. It is observed that farmers get better production under this QVMC in the winter season (called "Rabi" in Bangladesh) than summer season (called "Kharif-1" in Bangladesh)..
58. Haruhisa Ichikawa, Ashir Ahmed, Hiroshi Hanafusa, Shinji Yokogawa, Yuusuke Kawakita, Kenji Sawada, Hirohide Mikami, Noriaki Yoshikawa, Virtual grid for renewable energy society, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015 Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015, 10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2015.7387117, 2016.01, Emerging economies are expected to account for more than 90% of the global net-energy-demand growth to 2035. Intensive use of renewable energy by emerging economies is inevitable to solve the problem of global warming. In this paper, we propose a grid comprising distributed small solar energy systems without electric wires, called a «virtual grid,» where lithium-ion batteries, solar panels, and appliances are wirelessly networked and the batteries are shared between users to improve the efficiency of battery usage. The states of health (SOH) of batteries are monitored and the batteries are used beyond the SOH deterioration limit defined by the makers as far as the batteries are evaluated as safe, which results in extension of the battery lifetime to more than twice. The virtual grid is projected to reach grid parity for emerging economies around 2030, assuming continued cost reduction of lithium-ion, or other high-energy-density batteries..
59. Haruhisa Ichikawa, Ashir Ahmed, Hiroshi Hanafusa, Shinji Yokogawa, Yuusuke Kawakita, Kenji Sawada, Hirohide Mikami, Noriaki Yoshikawa, Virtual grid for renewable energy society, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015 Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2015, 10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2015.7387117, 2016.01, Emerging economies are expected to account for more than 90% of the global net-energy-demand growth to 2035. Intensive use of renewable energy by emerging economies is inevitable to solve the problem of global warming. In this paper, we propose a grid comprising distributed small solar energy systems without electric wires, called a «virtual grid,» where lithium-ion batteries, solar panels, and appliances are wirelessly networked and the batteries are shared between users to improve the efficiency of battery usage. The states of health (SOH) of batteries are monitored and the batteries are used beyond the SOH deterioration limit defined by the makers as far as the batteries are evaluated as safe, which results in extension of the battery lifetime to more than twice. The virtual grid is projected to reach grid parity for emerging economies around 2030, assuming continued cost reduction of lithium-ion, or other high-energy-density batteries..
60. Ashir Ahmed, Kazi Mozaher Hossein, Md. Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Osugi, Akira Fukuda, Hiroto Yasuura, Expansion of e-Commerce Coverage to Unreached Community by using Micro-Finance Infrastructure , International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (ijacsa), 10.14569/IJACSA.2015.060904, 6, 9, 2015.09, Most people at the BOP (base of the economic pyramid, the largest but the poorest community in the world comprising 69% of world population) do not have access to e-commerce services. The way e-commerce is designed and practiced today does not enable their participation. The reasons are: their purchasing power is low, they do not have any means to make online payments, and there is no infrastructure to deliver the purchased items to their doors. To enable the participation of the people at BOP, we propose an e-commerce framework by engaging MFI resources and our recently developed ePassbook system. This paper shows how the BOP community can enjoy the benefits of the e-commerce service by using the proposed model. The advantages of making e-commerce available to the BOP are discussed, in addition to the challenges involved in implementing the model. .
61. Yukino Baba, Hisashi Kashima, Yasunobu Nohara, Eiko Kai, Partha Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Kuroda, Sozo Inoue, Tatsuo Hiramatsu, Michio Kimura, Shuji Shimizu, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Koji Tsuda, Masashi Sugiyama, Mathieu Blondel, Naonori Ueda, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Naoki Nakashima, Predictive approaches for low-cost preventive medicine program in developing countries, 21st ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2015 KDD 2015 - Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 10.1145/2783258.2788587, 1681-1690, 2015.08, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are no longer just a problem for high-income countries, but they are also a problem that affects developing countries. Preventive medicine is definitely the key to combat NCDs; however, the cost of preventive programs is a critical issue affecting the popularization of these medicine programs in developing countries. In this study, we investigate predictive modeling for providing a low-cost preventive medicine program. In our two-year-long field study in Bangladesh, we collected the health checkup results of 15,075 subjects, the data of 6,607 prescriptions, and the follow-up examination results of 2,109 subjects. We address three prediction problems, namely subject risk prediction, drug recommendation, and future risk prediction, by using machine learning techniques; our multiple-classifier approach successfully reduced the costs of health checkups, a multi-task learning method provided accurate recommendation for specific types of drugs, and an active learning method achieved an efficient assignment of healthcare workers for the follow-up care of subjects..
62. Yukino Baba, Hisashi Kashima, Yasunobu Nohara, Eiko Kai, Partha Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Kuroda, Sozo Inoue, Tatsuo Hiramatsu, Michio Kimura, Shuji Shimizu, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Koji Tsuda, Masashi Sugiyama, Mathieu Blondel, Naonori Ueda, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Naoki Nakashima, Predictive approaches for low-cost preventive medicine program in developing countries, 21st ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2015 KDD 2015 - Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 10.1145/2783258.2788587, 1681-1690, 2015.08, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are no longer just a problem for high-income countries, but they are also a problem that affects developing countries. Preventive medicine is definitely the key to combat NCDs; however, the cost of preventive programs is a critical issue affecting the popularization of these medicine programs in developing countries. In this study, we investigate predictive modeling for providing a low-cost preventive medicine program. In our two-year-long field study in Bangladesh, we collected the health checkup results of 15,075 subjects, the data of 6,607 prescriptions, and the follow-up examination results of 2,109 subjects. We address three prediction problems, namely subject risk prediction, drug recommendation, and future risk prediction, by using machine learning techniques; our multiple-classifier approach successfully reduced the costs of health checkups, a multi-task learning method provided accurate recommendation for specific types of drugs, and an active learning method achieved an efficient assignment of healthcare workers for the follow-up care of subjects..
63. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M. Muzahidul-Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Ashir Ahmed, Architecture and communication protocols for cognitive radio network enabled hospital, 9th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, ISMICT 2015 2015 9th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, ISMICT 2015, 10.1109/ISMICT.2015.7107522, 170-174, 2015.05, This Wireless communication is a key technology to improve mobility and service flexibility for different e-health applications such as remote patient monitoring, telemedicine, mobile hospital information system, etc. However, due to the increasing number of wireless devices, in near future wireless healthcare services may face challenges on medical band and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) to biomedical devices. To mitigate these issues cognitive radio network supported healthcare service system for proper utilization of medical band and EMI-aware prioritized wireless access scheme to avoid malfunction of biomedical devices may be essential. Therefore, to support an efficient wireless healthcare services system in this paper we introduce a priority scheme for medical and non-medical devices. Based on this scheme, we then propose spectrum aware cluster-based network architecture and EMI-aware communication protocols for healthcare services. The proposed architecture enhances communication facilities in a heterogeneous healthcare system where the clustering scheme is divided into three subgroups: partial mesh topology for Cognitive Base Station (CBSs) to avoid single point failure, star topology for medical devices that are connected to cognitive base stations to enable medical devices to communicate via CBSs, and tree topology for non-medical devices that may be connected to CBSs via some other devices in an ad-hoc mode. The connected subgroups then form a communication highway to support efficient communication. Proposed EMI-aware communication protocols are: communication between Medical devices, non-medical devices, and admin center..
64. Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A. K.M. Muzahidul-Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Shozo Komaki, Ashir Ahmed, Architecture and communication protocols for cognitive radio network enabled hospital, 9th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, ISMICT 2015 2015 9th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, ISMICT 2015, 10.1109/ISMICT.2015.7107522, 170-174, 2015.05, This Wireless communication is a key technology to improve mobility and service flexibility for different e-health applications such as remote patient monitoring, telemedicine, mobile hospital information system, etc. However, due to the increasing number of wireless devices, in near future wireless healthcare services may face challenges on medical band and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) to biomedical devices. To mitigate these issues cognitive radio network supported healthcare service system for proper utilization of medical band and EMI-aware prioritized wireless access scheme to avoid malfunction of biomedical devices may be essential. Therefore, to support an efficient wireless healthcare services system in this paper we introduce a priority scheme for medical and non-medical devices. Based on this scheme, we then propose spectrum aware cluster-based network architecture and EMI-aware communication protocols for healthcare services. The proposed architecture enhances communication facilities in a heterogeneous healthcare system where the clustering scheme is divided into three subgroups: partial mesh topology for Cognitive Base Station (CBSs) to avoid single point failure, star topology for medical devices that are connected to cognitive base stations to enable medical devices to communicate via CBSs, and tree topology for non-medical devices that may be connected to CBSs via some other devices in an ad-hoc mode. The connected subgroups then form a communication highway to support efficient communication. Proposed EMI-aware communication protocols are: communication between Medical devices, non-medical devices, and admin center..
65. Takuzo Osugi, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Jecinta Kamau, Abdullah Emran, Ashir Ahmed, Healthcare Service on Wheels for Unreached Communities , Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, 2015.04, This article introduces an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that provides multiple social services especially healthcare delivery to the unreached communities. A community car brings healthcare devices, PC and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to pre-allocated service points within villages. The measuring devices and applications are supported by a back-end data operations office using Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the healthcare and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villager were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
66. Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Kuroda, Sozo Inoue, Tatsuo Hiramatsu, Michio Kimura, Naoki Nakashima, Health Checkup and Telemedical Intervention Program for Preventive Medicine in Developing Countries: Verification Study, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 10.2196/jmir.3705, 17, 1, 2015.01, Background: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries.
Objective: The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention.
Methods: We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required.
Results: The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (P<.001). Based on these results, we propose a cost-effective method using a machine learning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries.
Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries..
67. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, Kunihiko Kaneko, Andrew Rebeiro-Hagrave, Akira Fukuda, Data types managed database design for dynamic content
A database design for Personal Health Book system, 2014 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2014 TENCON 2014 - 2014 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2014.7022451, 2015.01, Electronic Health Records (EHR) are digitized and stored for efficient patient management in hospitals or clinics. At the patient side, health records are not digitally stored and thus difficult to manage across different hospitals. We propose a new system, where medical sources (firms & devices) import a person's medical records into Personal Health Book (PHB). This will give the person (the owner of the records) the capability to manage, control and share his/her own Personal Health Records (PHR). However, medical sources have different structure and database design. In this paper, we propose a decomposed database design for PHB that accommodate different structured data. We test the capability of generating a meaningful report and compare it to the original EHR received from source (Hospital). We use a framework that exports the data from PHB into an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file format, then view it using predefined Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). We observe that our database design can generate a report with same content of original EHR in a meaningful manner that the owner and authorized parties can understand it..
68. Mariko Nishikitani, Yasunobu Nohara, Partha Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Naoki Nakashima, Improvement of Hemoglobin with Repeated Health Checks among Women in Bangladesh, 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, MEDINFO 2015 MEDINFO 2015 eHealth-Enabled Health - Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, 10.3233/978-1-61499-564-7-975, 2015.01, The residents of several cities and villages in Bangladesh underwent e-health checkups. The distribution of Hb increased from the first hemoglobin (Hb) measurement to the second, and some women recovered from severe anemia. A strong effect was observed in subjects who were prescribed iron supplements. The mean blood pressure improved after the first health examination, and the blood sugar level increased. In countries with shortages of health practitioners and health care providers, e-health examinations and instructions may be useful interventions because they make people health conscious and improve their health status..
69. Min Hu, Megumi Sugimoto, Andrew Rebeiro Hargrave, Yasunobu Nohara, Michiko Moriyama, Ashir Ahmed, Shuji Shimizu, Naoki Nakashima, Mobile Healthcare System for Health Checkups and Telemedicine in Post-Disaster Situations, 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, MEDINFO 2015 MEDINFO 2015 eHealth-Enabled Health - Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, 10.3233/978-1-61499-564-7-79, 79-83, 2015.01, Portable Healthcare Clinic (PHC) is a mobile healthcare system comprising of medical sensors and health assessment criteria. It has been applied in Bangladesh for the last two years as a pilot program to identify non-communicable diseases. In this study, we adapted PHC to fit post-disaster conditions. The PHC health assessment criteria are redesigned to deal with emergency cases and healthcare worker insufficiency. A new algorithm makes an initial assessment of age, symptoms, and whether the person is seeing a doctor. These changes will make the turn-around time shorter and will enable reaching the most affected patients better. We tested the operability and turn-around time of the adapted system at the debris flow disaster shelters in Hiroshima, Japan. Changing the PHC health assessment criteria and other solutions such as a list of medicine preparation makes the PHC system switch into an emergency mode more smoothly following a natural disaster..
70. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Yasunobu Nohara, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Naoki Nakashima, Hiroto Yasuura, Portable health clinic
A telehealthcare system for unreached communities, Smart Sensors and Systems, 10.1007/978-3-319-14711-6_18, 447-467, 2015.01, One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of access to quality healthcare services largely as a result of the paucity of healthcare facilities and medical experts in rural areas. We have prototyped “portable health clinic (PHC), a compact telehealth system with diagnostic equipment and GramHealth software for archiving and searching patients’ past health records. The back-end of the system consists of data servers and a medical call center. The front-end has the instances of portable briefcase consisting of medical sensors and measuring equipment operated by healthcare workers living in unreached communities. The front-end data transmission system and Skype telemedicine calls connect with the back-end using mobile network coverage and Internet. Doctors at the medical call center access GramHealth data cloud through the Internet or have a copy of the database in the call center server. Upon receiving a multimedia call from a patient, the doctor can find that patient’s previous EHR record and then create and send an e-Prescription. The healthcare worker’s PHC briefcase is designed to be low cost and portable. It is envisioned as costing less than US$300 (an amount an entrepreneur can borrow from micro-finance institutions such as Grameen Bank in Bangladesh) and light enough to be carried by a female health assistant. The PHC briefcase will be owned and operated by a village health assistant. This will be a sustainable business model as the health assistant can build a professional relationship with her local clientele. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organizations to observe the local adoption of the technology. We are looking at the applicability of our PHC system for aging societies in developed countries..
71. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, Kunihiko Kaneko, Andrew Rebeiro-Hagrave, Akira Fukuda, Data types managed database design for dynamic content
A database design for Personal Health Book system, 2014 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2014 TENCON 2014 - 2014 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 10.1109/TENCON.2014.7022451, 2015.01, Electronic Health Records (EHR) are digitized and stored for efficient patient management in hospitals or clinics. At the patient side, health records are not digitally stored and thus difficult to manage across different hospitals. We propose a new system, where medical sources (firms & devices) import a person's medical records into Personal Health Book (PHB). This will give the person (the owner of the records) the capability to manage, control and share his/her own Personal Health Records (PHR). However, medical sources have different structure and database design. In this paper, we propose a decomposed database design for PHB that accommodate different structured data. We test the capability of generating a meaningful report and compare it to the original EHR received from source (Hospital). We use a framework that exports the data from PHB into an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file format, then view it using predefined Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). We observe that our database design can generate a report with same content of original EHR in a meaningful manner that the owner and authorized parties can understand it..
72. Yasunobu Nohara, Eiko Kai, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Masahiro Kuroda, Sozo Inoue, Tatsuo Hiramatsu, Michio Kimura, Shuji Shimizu, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Yukino Baba, Hisashi Kashima, Koji Tsuda, Masashi Sugiyama, Mathieu Blondel, Naonori Ueda, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Naoki Nakashima, Health checkup and telemedical intervention program for preventive medicine in developing countries
Verification study, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10.2196/jmir.3705, 17, 1, e2, 2015.01, Background: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries. Objective: The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention. Methods: We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required. Results: The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (P<.001). Based on these results, we propose a cost-effective method using a machine learning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries..
73. Mariko Nishikitani, Yasunobu Nohara, Partha Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Naoki Nakashima, Improvement of Hemoglobin with Repeated Health Checks among Women in Bangladesh, 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, MEDINFO 2015 MEDINFO 2015 eHealth-Enabled Health - Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, 10.3233/978-1-61499-564-7-975, 2015.01, The residents of several cities and villages in Bangladesh underwent e-health checkups. The distribution of Hb increased from the first hemoglobin (Hb) measurement to the second, and some women recovered from severe anemia. A strong effect was observed in subjects who were prescribed iron supplements. The mean blood pressure improved after the first health examination, and the blood sugar level increased. In countries with shortages of health practitioners and health care providers, e-health examinations and instructions may be useful interventions because they make people health conscious and improve their health status..
74. Min Hu, Megumi Sugimoto, Andrew Rebeiro Hargrave, Yasunobu Nohara, Michiko Moriyama, Ashir Ahmed, Shuji Shimizu, Naoki Nakashima, Mobile Healthcare System for Health Checkups and Telemedicine in Post-Disaster Situations, 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, MEDINFO 2015 MEDINFO 2015 eHealth-Enabled Health - Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Health and Biomedical Informatics, 10.3233/978-1-61499-564-7-79, 79-83, 2015.01, Portable Healthcare Clinic (PHC) is a mobile healthcare system comprising of medical sensors and health assessment criteria. It has been applied in Bangladesh for the last two years as a pilot program to identify non-communicable diseases. In this study, we adapted PHC to fit post-disaster conditions. The PHC health assessment criteria are redesigned to deal with emergency cases and healthcare worker insufficiency. A new algorithm makes an initial assessment of age, symptoms, and whether the person is seeing a doctor. These changes will make the turn-around time shorter and will enable reaching the most affected patients better. We tested the operability and turn-around time of the adapted system at the debris flow disaster shelters in Hiroshima, Japan. Changing the PHC health assessment criteria and other solutions such as a list of medicine preparation makes the PHC system switch into an emergency mode more smoothly following a natural disaster..
75. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Yasunobu Nohara, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Naoki Nakashima, Hiroto Yasuura, Portable health clinic
A telehealthcare system for unreached communities, Smart Sensors and Systems, 10.1007/978-3-319-14711-6_18, 447-467, 2015.01, One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of access to quality healthcare services largely as a result of the paucity of healthcare facilities and medical experts in rural areas. We have prototyped “portable health clinic (PHC), a compact telehealth system with diagnostic equipment and GramHealth software for archiving and searching patients’ past health records. The back-end of the system consists of data servers and a medical call center. The front-end has the instances of portable briefcase consisting of medical sensors and measuring equipment operated by healthcare workers living in unreached communities. The front-end data transmission system and Skype telemedicine calls connect with the back-end using mobile network coverage and Internet. Doctors at the medical call center access GramHealth data cloud through the Internet or have a copy of the database in the call center server. Upon receiving a multimedia call from a patient, the doctor can find that patient’s previous EHR record and then create and send an e-Prescription. The healthcare worker’s PHC briefcase is designed to be low cost and portable. It is envisioned as costing less than US$300 (an amount an entrepreneur can borrow from micro-finance institutions such as Grameen Bank in Bangladesh) and light enough to be carried by a female health assistant. The PHC briefcase will be owned and operated by a village health assistant. This will be a sustainable business model as the health assistant can build a professional relationship with her local clientele. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organizations to observe the local adoption of the technology. We are looking at the applicability of our PHC system for aging societies in developed countries..
76. Jecinta Kamau, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Ashir Ahmed, Villager Centered Transport System in Unreached Communities, The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2014), 2014.10.
77. REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Hiroshi Nakajima, Ashir Ahmed, Keiichi Obayashi, Naoki Nakashima, Mitsuo Kuwabara, Islam Rafiqul, Toshikazu Shiga, Investigation into Blood Pressure Variability in Japan and Bangladesh by ICT based Healthcare Systems, The 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2014), 2014.10, Blood Pressure readings are widely accepted as a measure to determine the risk of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and stroke. Affordable healthcare devices and sensors allow individuals to monitor blood pressure at home or at a local service point on a daily basis. ICT based healthcare systems interpret the readings and give feedback to individuals or may trigger a telemedicine call to a remote doctor. This paper introduces case studies for ICT healthcare studies undertaken in Japan and Bangladesh. Blood Pressure data collected by the Omron WellnessLink (500,000 readings) and the Kyushu University/Grameen Portable Heath Clinic (21,252 readings) are examined for similarities and differences. The results show similarities in gender and temporal influences. Males have higher blood pressure and readings appear to be rhythmic according to day and month. The differences indicate that the mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) for Japanese males is higher than Bangladesh males and SBP for Bangladesh females is higher than Japanese females. The impact of climate is stronger on Japanese SBP than Bangladesh SBP. The Bangladesh data shows progressive increase in SBP in each ten year age category until 80 years; this is also reflected by BMI categories. The study reveals that affordable devices connected to basic ICT based healthcare systems reveal underlying factors in the Blood Pressure variability..
78. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, Kunihiko Kaneko, Data types managed database design for dynamic content, Proceedings of IEEE TENCON 2014, 2014.10.
79. Eiko Kai, Nohara Yasunobu, Naoki Nakashima, Ashir Ahmed, Evolving Health Consultancy by Predictive Caravan Health Sensing in Developing Countries, SmartHealthSys 2014 : ACM UbiComp International Workshop on Smart Health Systems and Applications, 2014.09.
80. Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of Portable Health Clinic for ageing Society, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International), Springer LNCS, LNCS 8530, 533-544, 2014.08, [URL], Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and af- fordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor tech- nology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly popula- tion (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
81. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Kunihiko Kaneko, Hiroto Yasuura, Design of a personal health book for ensuring healthcare data portability, International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Information Systems Research, 2014.06.
82. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Raiqul Islam, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of Portable Health Clinic for ageing Society, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International), LNCS, 8530, 533-544, 2014.06, Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and affordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor technology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly population (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
83. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Kunihiko Kaneko, Akira Fukuda, Design of a personal health book for ensuring healthcare data portability, Proceedings of ATISR 2014, 2014.06, Personal Health Records (PHR) are digitized and stored for efficient patient management in hospitals or clinics. At the patient side, the health records are not digitally stored and thus difficult to manage. In this work, we propose a new framework, we call it Personal Health Book (PHB) where a patient can own, operate, manage by herself and can also share her own data with other authorized parties. We are investigating what database design would be suitable for PHB. We considered three different database designs (wide direction, long direction and decomposed) and compared their performances. We set up a simulator and measured performance indicators to compare their performances. We observed that decomposed design has more advantage than the other two. Decompose design itself will help in managing data types along with the better results we got in a simulation we designed to compare long direction versus decomposed..
84. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Hiroaki Saito, Emran Abdullah, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Social Services on Wheels: A sustainable model to improve access in unreached communities, Proceedings of the IEEE IST-Africa, 2014.05, Unreached communities require access to fundamental social services such as healthcare, education, learning and purchasing opportunities to improve their economic sustainability. Unreached communities are characterized by informal and unsafe transport. Villagers have to travel long distances to urban centres to attain social services. In this article, we introduce an Information Communication Technology (ICT) concept called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) to provide quality transit and overcome access problems by bringing e-services directly to the community. SSW is based on a community vehicle that is as a college bus service and mobile ICT platform. SSW takes a healthcare worker, an ICT assistant and their equipment to a service point allowing villagers to access telemedicine and Internet services. SSW was tested on a rural community in Bangladesh in 2012 and 2013. A cost analysis shows that 52% of the total operating cost was covered using the existing business model. The research contributes to the discussion on sustainable ICT for Development (ICT4D)..
85. Eiko Kai, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Sozo Inoue, Nohara Yasunobu, Naoki Nakashima, Rafiqul Islam, Ashir Ahmed, Empowering the healthcare worker using the Portable Health Clinic, Proceedings of 28th IEEE-AINA, 2014.05, We present a remote healthcare consultancy system that enables healthcare workers to identify noncommunicable diseases in unreached communities. The healthcare system combines medical sensors with mobile health and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The Portable Health Clinic fits into a briefcase and is operated by the healthcare worker. The goal of this research is to empower the healthcare worker further by allowing her to recognize spurious measurements and to make lifestyle recommendations. In this paper, we show how to process the data: combine, link and compare – captured in patient electronic health records stored in database. We applied association rule technique to find common set of rules in order to build a clinical decision support system. We also showed examples of the meaningful information from the analyzed data to build a better clinical decision support..
86. Ashir Ahmed, バングラデシュにおけるICTを用いた農業情報支援による貧困層農家の所得向上, 農学国際協力, 2014.04.
87. Ashir Ahmed, REBEIRO-HARGRAVE ANDREW, Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Zahidul Hussein Ripon, Naoki Nakashima, Targeting morbidity in unreached communities using Portable Health Clinic System, IEICE Trans. Special Issue on Information and Communication Technology for Medical and Healthcare Applications, 540-545, 2014.03, This study looks at how an e-Health System can reduce morbidity (poor health) in unreached communities. The e-Health system combines affordable sensors and Body Area Networking technology with mobile health concepts and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The health clinic is portable because all the medical devices fit inside a briefcase and are carried to unreached communities by a health assistant. Patient mor- bidity is diagnosed using software stratification algorithm and categorized according to triage color-coding scheme within the briefcase. Morbid pa- tients are connected to remote doctor in a telemedicine call center using the mobile network coverage. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are used for the medical consultancy and e-Prescription is generated. The effec- tiveness of the portable health clinic system to target morbidity was tested on 8690 patients in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh during Septem- ber 2012 to January 2013. There were two phases to the experiment: the first phase identified the intensity of morbidity and the second phase re- examined the morbid patients, two months later. The experiment results show a decrease in patients to identify as morbid among those who partici- pated in telemedicine process..
88. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Nohara Yasunobu, Eiko Kai, Zahidul Hossein Ripon, Naoki Nakashima, Targeting morbidity in unreached communities using Portable Health Clinic System, IEICE Transaction on Communications, 10.1587/transcom.E97.B.540, E97-B, 3, 540-545, 2014.03, This study looks at how an e-Health System can reduce morbidity (poor health) in unreached communities. The e-Health system combines affordable sensors and Body Area Networking technology with mobile health concepts and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The health clinic is portable because all the medical devices fit inside a briefcase and are carried to unreached communities by a healthcare assistants. Patient morbidity is diagnosed using software stratification algorithm and categorized according to triage color-coding scheme within the briefcase. Morbid patients are connected to remote doctor in a telemedicine call center using the mobile network coverage. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are used for the medical consultancy and e-Prescription is generated. The effectiveness of the portable health clinic system to target morbidity was tested on 8690 patients in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh during September 2012 to January 2013. There were two phases to the experiment: the first phase identified the intensity of morbidity and the second phase re-examined the morbid patients, two months later. The experiment results show a decrease in patients to identify as morbid among those who participated in telemedicine process. .
89. Kunihiko Kaneko, Ashir Ahmed, Seddiq Alabbasi, A Data Explorer System and Rulesets of Table Functions, Proceedings of ICSIT 2014, 2014.03, In this paper, we present a data analysis and visualization system named "Data Explorer". The system read a data table, and produce analysis and visualization results interactively. The system include many types of table functions. There are different numbers and types of options for each table function. A problem to be tackled is the difficulty to set option values of the table functions. There will be many user mistakes in the option values. To solve the problem, we propose a rule set to decide a candidate set of the option values of the table functions. Here, the data-description data (i.e. metadata) of data table is employed to decide the candidate set. We use the metadata to decide the applicability of table functions, also. The feasibility of the idea is evaluated using two types of dataset. They are iris and the hospital dataset..
90. Kunihiko Kaneko, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Seddiq Alabbasi, A data explorer system and rulesets of table functions, 5th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, IMCIC 2014 and 5th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies, ICSIT 2014 5th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, IMCIC 2014 and 5th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies, ICSIT 2014 - Proceedings, 32-37, 2014.01, In this paper, we present a data analysis and visualization system named "Data Explorer". The system read a data table, and produce analysis and visualization results interactively. The system include many types of table functions. There are different numbers and types of options for each table function. A problem to be tackled is the difficulty to set option values of the table functions. There will be many user mistakes in the option values. To solve the problem, we propose a rule set to decide a candidate set of the option values of the table functions. Here, the data-description data (i.e. metadata) of data table is employed to decide the candidate set. We use the metadata to decide the applicability of table functions, also. The feasibility of the idea is evaluated using two types of dataset. They are iris and the hospital dataset..
91. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Rafiqul Islam, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of portable health clinic to ageing society, 2nd International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2014 - Held as Part of 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2014 Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions - Second International Conference, DAPI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-319-07788-8_49, 533-544, 2014.01, Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and affordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor technology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly population (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
92. Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, Atsushi Taniguchi, Yasunobu Nohara, Ashir Ahmed, Naoki Nakashima, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Evolving health consultancy by predictive caravan health sensing in developing countries, 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, UbiComp 2014 UbiComp 2014 - Adjunct Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, 10.1145/2638728.2638816, 1225-1232, 2014.01, In this paper, we introduce the predictive way to evolve the process of the health consultancy by predictive methods with machine learning. We have tried health consultancy for over 22,000 patients with caravan health sensing in Bangladesh during 2012-2014. In health consultancy with caravan health sensing, doctors' task becomes the bottleneck of the whole process because of the cost and the huge workload, and we try to delegate some of them to health workers who are less skilled. In this paper, we propose a method to predict the advices of doctors from the inquiry, vital data, and the chief complaints of the patients, and to delegate the task to health workers, resulting in eliminating the bottleneck. We also evaluate the accuracy of the prediction of advices from the 931 patients who have taken the doctors' consultancy out of the above experiment. We got the predict accuracy 76.24% with inquiry and vital data, and 82.55% with adding chief complaints data..
93. A. Ahmed, GIS and remote sensing for malaria risk mapping, Ethiopia, ISPRS Technical Commission VIII Mid-Term Symposium 2014 International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-8-155-2014, 40, 8, 155-161, 2014.01, Integrating malaria data into a decision support system (DSS) using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing tool can provide timely information and decision makers get prepared to make better and faster decisions which can reduce the damage and minimize the loss caused. This paper attempted to asses and produce maps of malaria prone areas including the most important natural factors. The input data were based on the geospatial factors including climatic, social and Topographic aspects from secondary data. The objective of study is to prepare malaria hazard, Vulnerability, and element at risk map which give the final output, malaria risk map. The malaria hazard analyses were computed using multi criteria evaluation (MCE) using environmental factors such as topographic factors (elevation, slope and flow distance to stream), land use/land cover and Breeding site were developed and weighted, then weighted overlay technique were computed in ArcGIS software to generate malaria hazard map. The resulting malaria hazard map depicts that 19.2%, 30.8%, 25.1%, 16.6% and 8.3% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria hazard areas respectively. For vulnerability analysis, health station location and speed constant in Spatial Analyst module were used to generate factor maps. For element at risk, land use land cover map were used to generate element at risk map. Finally malaria risk map of the District was generated. Land use land cover map which is the element at risk in the District, the vulnerability map and the hazard map were overlaid. The final output based on this approach is a malaria risk map, which is classified into 5 classes which is Very High-risk area, High-risk area, Moderate risk area, Low risk area and Very low risk area. The risk map produced from the overlay analysis showed that 20.5%, 11.6%, 23.8%, 34.1% and 26.4% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria risk respectively. This help to plan valuable measures to be taken in early warning, monitor, control and prevent malaria epidemics..
94. Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Hiroshi Nakajima, Ashir Ahmed, Keiichi Obayashi, Naoki Nakashima, Mitsuo Kuwabara, Islam Rafiqul, Toshikazu Shiga, Investigation into blood pressure variability in Japan and Bangladesh by ICT based healthcare systems, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2014 Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10.1109/SMC.2014.6974048, 2014-January, January, 1027-1032, 2014.01, Blood Pressure readings are widely accepted as a measure to determine the risk of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and stroke. Affordable healthcare devices and sensors allow individuals to monitor blood pressure at home or at a local service point on a daily basis. ICT based healthcare systems interpret the readings and give feedback to individuals or may trigger a telemedicine call to a remote doctor. This paper introduces case studies for ICT healthcare studies undertaken in Japan and Bangladesh. Blood Pressure data collected by the Omron WellnessLink (500,000 readings) and the Kyushu University/Grameen Portable Heath Clinic (21,252 readings) are examined for similarities and differences. The results show similarities in gender and temporal influences. Males have higher blood pressure and readings appear to be rhythmic according to day and month. The differences indicate that the mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) for Japanese males is higher than Bangladesh males and SBP for Bangladesh females is higher than Japanese females. The impact of climate is stronger on Japanese SBP than Bangladesh SBP. The Bangladesh data shows progressive increase in SBP in each ten year age category until 80 years; this is also reflected by BMI categories. The study reveals that affordable devices connected to basic ICT based healthcare systems reveal underlying factors in the Blood Pressure variability..
95. Masahiro Kuroda, Yasunobu Akaoka, Yasuyuki Koga, Yasunobu Nohara, Naoki Nakashima, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Ahmed, Reverse standardization from public e-health service, 2014 6th ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference: Living in a Converged World - Impossible Without Standards?, K 2014 Proceedings of the 2014 ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference Living in a Converged World - Impossible Without Standards?, K 2014, 10.1109/Kaleidoscope.2014.6858490, 135-142, 2014.01, Standardization activities exist for a range of e-health services concerning personal and public health, and many standard results are available. Yet these standards sometimes cover the same use area and it is difficult to select appropriate ones. This paper discusses e-health standardization activities and an e-health ecosystem targeting public health in anticipation of its continuous evolution. We introduce a portable health clinic with body area network (BAN-PHC) technologies providing affordable healthcare and telemedicine as a candidate service for health screenings that can be useful for emerging nations, which collectively have a massive population of around 5.8 billion people. The effectiveness of such health checks is evaluated through actual mass examinations in Bangladesh, and key features to accelerating standards deployment are raised. This success leads to adoption of the standards in emerging nations and can be reversely deployed in developed nations. Machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies are also important for providing scalable solutions and accelerating global integration of back-end systems. We propose integration of two key enablers - BAN-PHC and M2M technologies - to provide evolved services for quick and broad standard acceptance from emerging nations to developed nations..
96. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Reberio-Hargrave, Hiroaki Saito, Emran Abdullah, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Social services on wheels
A sustainable model to improve access in unreached communities, 2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014 2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014, 10.1109/ISTAFRICA.2014.6880624, 2014.01, Unreached communities require access to fundamental social services such as healthcare, education, learning and purchasing opportunities to improve their economic sustainability. Unreached communities are characterized by informal and unsafe transport. Villagers have to travel long distances to urban centres to attain social services. In this article, we introduce an Information Communication Technology (ICT) concept called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) to provide quality transit and overcome access problems by bringing e-services directly to the community. SSW is based on a community vehicle that is as a college bus service and mobile ICT platform. SSW takes a healthcare worker, an ICT assistant and their equipment to a service point allowing villagers to access telemedicine and Internet services. SSW was tested on a rural community in Bangladesh in 2012 and 2013. A cost analysis shows that 52% of the total operating cost was covered using the existing business model. The research contributes to the discussion on sustainable ICT for Development (ICT4D)..
97. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Reberio-Hargrave, Emran Abdullah, Islam Rafiqul, Kunihiro Nobuhara, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Villager centered transport system in unreached communities, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2014 Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10.1109/smc.2014.6974197, 2014-January, January, 1893-1897, 2014.01, This study presents an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that reduces villager's long distance trip-frequency in unreached communities. Trip frequency is decreased using a community car to eliminate villager's need to travel to urban areas by bringing welfare services - access to healthcare, education, learning and purchasing - to the rural village. The community car brings measuring devices, PC notebooks and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to temporary service points within villages. The measuring devices and notebook applications are supported a back-end data operations office using mobile network coverage and Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the SSW operations and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villagers were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
98. Kunihiko Kaneko, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Seddiq Alabbasi, A data explorer system and rulesets of table functions, 5th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, IMCIC 2014 and 5th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies, ICSIT 2014 5th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, IMCIC 2014 and 5th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies, ICSIT 2014 - Proceedings, 32-37, 2014.01, In this paper, we present a data analysis and visualization system named "Data Explorer". The system read a data table, and produce analysis and visualization results interactively. The system include many types of table functions. There are different numbers and types of options for each table function. A problem to be tackled is the difficulty to set option values of the table functions. There will be many user mistakes in the option values. To solve the problem, we propose a rule set to decide a candidate set of the option values of the table functions. Here, the data-description data (i.e. metadata) of data table is employed to decide the candidate set. We use the metadata to decide the applicability of table functions, also. The feasibility of the idea is evaluated using two types of dataset. They are iris and the hospital dataset..
99. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Rafiqul Islam, Sozo Inoue, Naoki Nakashima, Applicability of portable health clinic to ageing society, 2nd International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2014 - Held as Part of 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2014 Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions - Second International Conference, DAPI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-319-07788-8_49, 533-544, 2014.01, Portable Health Clinic is adapted to provide primary care to a super aged society. A super aged society occurs when, one third of the population is 65+ years and one fifth is 85+ years. The combination of aging society and incidence of non-communicable diseases increases the prevalence of elderly disability and places pressure on health care systems, health costs, and existing social norms. The goal is to reposition the Portable Health Clinic as a health information and affordable disability prevention system. In this paper, we show how the healthcare worker can supplement her competence on medical risk factors with sensor technology and share her knowledge with elderly patients within the community. We suggest that the remote telemedicine call center should be used to support distant screening and surveillance programs and provide early intervention to diseases. We investigate 18,278 Portable Health Clinic Electronic Health Records between 2012 and 2013 to see what are the most important risk factors for ill health in Bangladesh. The field data implies that elevated blood pressure and blood sugar and protein in the urine and the most important risk factors for the elderly population (>65 years) when compared to younger population (<65 years)..
100. Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, Atsushi Taniguchi, Yasunobu Nohara, Ashir Ahmed, Naoki Nakashima, Masaru Kitsuregawa, Evolving health consultancy by predictive caravan health sensing in developing countries, 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, UbiComp 2014 UbiComp 2014 - Adjunct Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, 10.1145/2638728.2638816, 1225-1232, 2014.01, In this paper, we introduce the predictive way to evolve the process of the health consultancy by predictive methods with machine learning. We have tried health consultancy for over 22,000 patients with caravan health sensing in Bangladesh during 2012-2014. In health consultancy with caravan health sensing, doctors' task becomes the bottleneck of the whole process because of the cost and the huge workload, and we try to delegate some of them to health workers who are less skilled. In this paper, we propose a method to predict the advices of doctors from the inquiry, vital data, and the chief complaints of the patients, and to delegate the task to health workers, resulting in eliminating the bottleneck. We also evaluate the accuracy of the prediction of advices from the 931 patients who have taken the doctors' consultancy out of the above experiment. We got the predict accuracy 76.24% with inquiry and vital data, and 82.55% with adding chief complaints data..
101. A. Ahmed, GIS and remote sensing for malaria risk mapping, Ethiopia, ISPRS Technical Commission VIII Mid-Term Symposium 2014 International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-8-155-2014, 40, 8, 155-161, 2014.01, Integrating malaria data into a decision support system (DSS) using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing tool can provide timely information and decision makers get prepared to make better and faster decisions which can reduce the damage and minimize the loss caused. This paper attempted to asses and produce maps of malaria prone areas including the most important natural factors. The input data were based on the geospatial factors including climatic, social and Topographic aspects from secondary data. The objective of study is to prepare malaria hazard, Vulnerability, and element at risk map which give the final output, malaria risk map. The malaria hazard analyses were computed using multi criteria evaluation (MCE) using environmental factors such as topographic factors (elevation, slope and flow distance to stream), land use/land cover and Breeding site were developed and weighted, then weighted overlay technique were computed in ArcGIS software to generate malaria hazard map. The resulting malaria hazard map depicts that 19.2%, 30.8%, 25.1%, 16.6% and 8.3% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria hazard areas respectively. For vulnerability analysis, health station location and speed constant in Spatial Analyst module were used to generate factor maps. For element at risk, land use land cover map were used to generate element at risk map. Finally malaria risk map of the District was generated. Land use land cover map which is the element at risk in the District, the vulnerability map and the hazard map were overlaid. The final output based on this approach is a malaria risk map, which is classified into 5 classes which is Very High-risk area, High-risk area, Moderate risk area, Low risk area and Very low risk area. The risk map produced from the overlay analysis showed that 20.5%, 11.6%, 23.8%, 34.1% and 26.4% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria risk respectively. This help to plan valuable measures to be taken in early warning, monitor, control and prevent malaria epidemics..
102. Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Hiroshi Nakajima, Ashir Ahmed, Keiichi Obayashi, Naoki Nakashima, Mitsuo Kuwabara, Islam Rafiqul, Toshikazu Shiga, Investigation into blood pressure variability in Japan and Bangladesh by ICT based healthcare systems, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2014 Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10.1109/SMC.2014.6974048, 2014-January, January, 1027-1032, 2014.01, Blood Pressure readings are widely accepted as a measure to determine the risk of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and stroke. Affordable healthcare devices and sensors allow individuals to monitor blood pressure at home or at a local service point on a daily basis. ICT based healthcare systems interpret the readings and give feedback to individuals or may trigger a telemedicine call to a remote doctor. This paper introduces case studies for ICT healthcare studies undertaken in Japan and Bangladesh. Blood Pressure data collected by the Omron WellnessLink (500,000 readings) and the Kyushu University/Grameen Portable Heath Clinic (21,252 readings) are examined for similarities and differences. The results show similarities in gender and temporal influences. Males have higher blood pressure and readings appear to be rhythmic according to day and month. The differences indicate that the mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) for Japanese males is higher than Bangladesh males and SBP for Bangladesh females is higher than Japanese females. The impact of climate is stronger on Japanese SBP than Bangladesh SBP. The Bangladesh data shows progressive increase in SBP in each ten year age category until 80 years; this is also reflected by BMI categories. The study reveals that affordable devices connected to basic ICT based healthcare systems reveal underlying factors in the Blood Pressure variability..
103. Masahiro Kuroda, Yasunobu Akaoka, Yasuyuki Koga, Yasunobu Nohara, Naoki Nakashima, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Ashir Ahmed, Reverse standardization from public e-health service, 2014 6th ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference: Living in a Converged World - Impossible Without Standards?, K 2014 Proceedings of the 2014 ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference Living in a Converged World - Impossible Without Standards?, K 2014, 10.1109/Kaleidoscope.2014.6858490, 135-142, 2014.01, Standardization activities exist for a range of e-health services concerning personal and public health, and many standard results are available. Yet these standards sometimes cover the same use area and it is difficult to select appropriate ones. This paper discusses e-health standardization activities and an e-health ecosystem targeting public health in anticipation of its continuous evolution. We introduce a portable health clinic with body area network (BAN-PHC) technologies providing affordable healthcare and telemedicine as a candidate service for health screenings that can be useful for emerging nations, which collectively have a massive population of around 5.8 billion people. The effectiveness of such health checks is evaluated through actual mass examinations in Bangladesh, and key features to accelerating standards deployment are raised. This success leads to adoption of the standards in emerging nations and can be reversely deployed in developed nations. Machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies are also important for providing scalable solutions and accelerating global integration of back-end systems. We propose integration of two key enablers - BAN-PHC and M2M technologies - to provide evolved services for quick and broad standard acceptance from emerging nations to developed nations..
104. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Reberio-Hargrave, Hiroaki Saito, Emran Abdullah, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Social services on wheels
A sustainable model to improve access in unreached communities, 2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014 2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014, 10.1109/ISTAFRICA.2014.6880624, 2014.01, Unreached communities require access to fundamental social services such as healthcare, education, learning and purchasing opportunities to improve their economic sustainability. Unreached communities are characterized by informal and unsafe transport. Villagers have to travel long distances to urban centres to attain social services. In this article, we introduce an Information Communication Technology (ICT) concept called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) to provide quality transit and overcome access problems by bringing e-services directly to the community. SSW is based on a community vehicle that is as a college bus service and mobile ICT platform. SSW takes a healthcare worker, an ICT assistant and their equipment to a service point allowing villagers to access telemedicine and Internet services. SSW was tested on a rural community in Bangladesh in 2012 and 2013. A cost analysis shows that 52% of the total operating cost was covered using the existing business model. The research contributes to the discussion on sustainable ICT for Development (ICT4D)..
105. Ashir Ahmed, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Yasunobu Nohara, Eiko Kai, Zahidul Hossein Ripon, Naoki Nakashima, Targeting morbidity in unreached communities using portable health clinic system, IEICE Transactions on Communications, 10.1587/transcom.E97.B.540, E97-B, 3, 540-545, 2014.01, This study looks at how an e-Health System can reduce morbidity (poor health) in unreached communities. The e-Health system combines affordable sensors and Body Area Networking technology with mobile health concepts and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The health clinic is portable because all the medical devices fit inside a briefcase and are carried to unreached communities by a healthcare assistants. Patient morbidity is diagnosed using software stratification algorithm and categorized according to triage color-coding scheme within the briefcase. Morbid patients are connected to remote doctor in a telemedicine call center using the mobile network coverage. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are used for the medical consultancy and e-Prescription is generated. The effectiveness of the portable health clinic system to target morbidity was tested on 8690 patients in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh during September 2012 to January 2013. There were two phases to the experiment: the first phase identified the intensity of morbidity and the second phase reexamined the morbid patients, two months later. The experiment results show a decrease in patients to identify as morbid among those who participated in telemedicine process..
106. Jecinta Kamau, Andrew Reberio-Hargrave, Emran Abdullah, Islam Rafiqul, Kunihiro Nobuhara, Hiroshi Okajima, Ashir Ahmed, Villager centered transport system in unreached communities, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2014 Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10.1109/smc.2014.6974197, 2014-January, January, 1893-1897, 2014.01, This study presents an ICT based transport system called Social Services on Wheels (SSW) that reduces villager's long distance trip-frequency in unreached communities. Trip frequency is decreased using a community car to eliminate villager's need to travel to urban areas by bringing welfare services - access to healthcare, education, learning and purchasing - to the rural village. The community car brings measuring devices, PC notebooks and team members (Village entrepreneur, healthcare worker, IT assistant) to temporary service points within villages. The measuring devices and notebook applications are supported a back-end data operations office using mobile network coverage and Internet. The villager walks to the nearest service point and interfaces with the SSW operations and information systems. Social Service on Wheels has been tested in two rural villages in Bangladesh during October 2013 to February 2014. The results showed that 4,496 long distance trips were reduced because the villagers were satisfactorily served without leaving their village. The villagers tended to associate the delivery of six social services with the Toyota community car rather than the SSW teams who performed the tests or helped with IT issues. SSW empowered the community by hiring locally and training the SSW teams. The sustainability of SSW project is a challenging area and is still being investigated..
107. Eiko Kai, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Sozo Inoue, Yasunobu Nohara, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Empowering the healthcare worker using the portable health clinic, 28th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, IEEE AINA 2014 Proceedings - 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, IEEE AINA 2014, 10.1109/AINA.2014.108, 759-764, 2014, We present a remote healthcare consultancy system that enables healthcare workers to identify noncommunicable diseases in unreached communities. The healthcare system combines medical sensors with mobile health and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The Portable Health Clinic fits into a briefcase and is operated by the healthcare worker. The goal of this research is to empower the healthcare worker further by allowing her to recognize spurious measurements and to make lifestyle recommendations. In this paper, we show how to process the data: combine, link and compare - captured in patient electronic health records stored in database. We applied association rule technique to find common set of rules in order to build a clinical decision support system. We also showed examples of the meaningful information from the analyzed data to build a better clinical decision support..
108. Eiko Kai, Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave, Sozo Inoue, Yasunobu Nohara, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Empowering the healthcare worker using the portable health clinic, 28th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, IEEE AINA 2014 Proceedings - 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, IEEE AINA 2014, 10.1109/AINA.2014.108, 759-764, 2014, We present a remote healthcare consultancy system that enables healthcare workers to identify noncommunicable diseases in unreached communities. The healthcare system combines medical sensors with mobile health and is called a Portable Health Clinic. The Portable Health Clinic fits into a briefcase and is operated by the healthcare worker. The goal of this research is to empower the healthcare worker further by allowing her to recognize spurious measurements and to make lifestyle recommendations. In this paper, we show how to process the data: combine, link and compare - captured in patient electronic health records stored in database. We applied association rule technique to find common set of rules in order to build a clinical decision support system. We also showed examples of the meaningful information from the analyzed data to build a better clinical decision support..
109. Akinori Ozaki, Md. Abiar Rahman, Kazuo Ogata, Ashir Ahmed, Ikuo Miyajima, Takashi OKAYASU, Takuzo Osugi, D. K. Choudhury, N. Al Amin, Impact of ICT based Farming knowledge Dissemination on Farmers Income- Experience of Income Generation Project for Farmers using ICT in Bangladesh, Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, 36, 96-112, 2013.12.
110. Seddiq Alabbasi, Ashir Ahmed, Andrew REBEIRO-HARGRAVE, Kazuaki Murakami, Hiroto Yasuura, Personal lifetime data and its smart management, Proceedings of ISISE2013, 2013.11, Personal data is information that identifies a person. Information in the personal data landscape is often unavailable or underused by the individual. This article defines personal data in terms of persistent data and transitory data. It suggests personal data store are a suitable repository for persistent records to be accessed by the individual using Personal Information Module. It recommends smart cards as a convenient medium to interface with data networks and capture high volumes of transitory data. Smart cards can lead to reduction of application forms, improve contract accuracy and allow individuals to record and manage their consumption behavior. Personal data can be modeled on lifetime scale and this allows for new hypothesis and general inferences to be made. .
111. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, GramHealth
A bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2013 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2013, 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609838, 1668-1671, 2013.10, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a 'portable clinic' and a software tool, 'GramHealth' for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of 'GramHealth'. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
112. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, GramHealth
A bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2013 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2013, 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609838, 1668-1671, 2013.10, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a 'portable clinic' and a software tool, 'GramHealth' for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of 'GramHealth'. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
113. Partha Pratim Ghosh, Rafiqul Islam, Naoki Nakashima, Nohara Yasunobu, Ashir Ahmed, Effectiveness of Preventive Healthcare through Telemedicine in Bangladesh, The 18th ISfTeH International Conference , 2013.09.
114. Ashir Ahmed, Partha Pratim Ghosh, Energy for small scale rural ICT centers , IMPRES2013: International Symposium on Innovative Materials for Processes in Energy Systems 2013, 2013.09.
115. Ashir Ahmed, Sozo Inoue, Eiko Kai, Naoki Nakashima, Yasunobu Nohara, Portable health clinic
A pervasive way to serve the unreached community for preventive healthcare, 1st International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2013, Held as Part of 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International 2013 Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions - First International Conference, DAPI 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Proceedings, 10.1007/978-3-642-39351-8_29, 265-274, 2013.08, One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of accessing to quality healthcare service. Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the unmet demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a portable health clinic box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a portable clinic and a software tool, GramHealth for archiving and searching patients' past health records. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organization to observe the local adoption of the technology. We also monitored the usability of the portable clinic and verified the functionality of GramHealth. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data which can be considered as BigData. We have partly analyzed the data manually to find common set of rules to build a better clinical decision support. The model of analyzing the GramHealth BigData is also presented..
116. Eiko Kai, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Technical challenges in providing remote health consultancy services for the unreached community, 27th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, WAINA 2013 Proceedings - 27th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, WAINA 2013, 10.1109/WAINA.2013.227, 1016-1020, 2013.08, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a 'gportable clinic' and a software tool, 'Gram Health' for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of 'Gram Health'. We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. Gram Health DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as Big Data and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
117. Eiko Kai, Partha P. Ghosh, Sozo Inoue, Ashir Ahmed, GramHealth BigData for Smart Healthcare Applications, Proceedings of EMBC 2013, 2013.07.
118. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, GramHeath: A bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, Proceedings of EMBC 2013, 2013.07.
119. Ashir Ahmed, Sozo Inoue, Eiko Kai, Naoki Nakashima, Nohara Yasunobu, Portable Health Clinic: A Pervasive Way to Serve the Unreached Community for Preventive Healthcare, Proceedings of HCI International 2013, Published by Springer, LNCS 8028, 265-274, 2013.07.
120. Seddiq Alkhan, Ashir Ahmed, Social information infrastructure and bigdata for smart services, Proceedings of e-CASE2013, 2013.04, Our lab has proposed and designed a social information infrastructure (SII) for BOP (Base of the Pyramid, the poorest but the largest economic group in the world). In order to make the social services of SII easily accessible by the low-literate and low-income people, an adaptation layer in SII has been proposed. We are proposing a new adaptor in the adaptation layer; we named it Labiba to be deployed in the adaptation layer of the SII model to make the access smarter. We focus on three issues- (1) data portability issue (2) service portability issue and (3) Information visualization for BOP community. In this article, we introduce Labiba, its functionality and applications and demonstrate how Labiba framework can deal with these issues. .
121. Ashir Ahmed, Takuzo Osugi, Rafiqul Islam Maruf, Naoki Nakashima, Evolution of remote health-consultancy over mobile phone, Proceedings of the 2013 IEICE, 2013.03.
122. Eiko Kai, Ashir Ahmed, Technical Challenges in Providing Remote Health Consultancy Service for Unreached Community, Proceedings of AINA 2013, 2013.03.
123. Ashir Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Eiko Kai, Sozo Inoue, GramHealth
a bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community, Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609838, 2013, 1668-1671, 2013, Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a "portable clinic" and a software tool, "GramHealth" for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of "GramHealth". We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support..
124. Eiko Kai, Ashir Ahmed, Remote health consultancy service for unreached community: Amazing facts and technical challenges, Proceedings of MJIIT-JUC Joint Symposium 2012, 2012.11.
125. Akinori Ozaki, Takashi OKAYASU, Md. Abiar Rahman, D. K. Choudhry, Kazuo Ogata, Ikuo Miyajima, Ashir Ahmed, Takuzo Osugi, Eiji Inoue, Potential of Informatization Agriculture in Bangladesh –Installation and Utilization of Field Monitoring System in Agriculture, Proceedings of Environmental Aspects Bangladesh 2012, 77-80, 2012.10.
126. Adnan Quadri Montasir Farhan Kazi Mehedi Hasan Elizabeth Anne Ali Ashir Ahmed, Next Generation Communication Technologies: Wireless Mesh Network For Rural Connectivity, Proceedings of IEEE Globecom 2011, 2011.12, The opportunities and challenges of traditional communication technologies in the area of rural communication calls for a change in perspective and usual trends of wire line and wireless connectivity. In the quest to improve rural communication with the urban market, use of smart hand held devices and easy-to-deploy wireless connectivity is catalytic according to our findings. To eradicate digital divide, we have presented a holistic approach to overcome the challenges of language barrier and information asymmetry. This paper provides an insight of $100 tablets, an interactive hand-held communication device, which allows low-literate farmers to share their information onto the network. These smart communication devices stay connected to the global network through the easy deployment of wireless mesh network (WMN) in a rural area. QoS constraints are imposed in the WMN setup and significant observation has been made regarding spectrum resource utilization at every hop by achieving certain level of cognition at the user end..
127. Ashir Ahmed, Reaching the Unreached by ICT and Social Business, Proceedings of IEEE Globecom 2011, 2011.12, The way that technologies have been commoditized does not serve the poor, the largest community in the world. Many problems in health, education, business, and agriculture can be solved simply if developers, managers and distributors of technologies consider the requirements of this largely unreached population. Kyushu University in Japan and Grameen Communications in Bangladesh undertook initiatives to explore the field of social-needs-based technology and product development. This article introduces some of our initiatives in the areas of healthcare, information platform and agriculture. Each of these projects has been developed with the involvement of industries, academia, government and the community which the product will serve. However, a central entity is required to effectively collaborate with all these organizations and to deploy them for the target population through social business. Our Grameen Technology Lab is a model to respond to these needs..
128. Ashir Ahmed, Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Ohsugi, E-commerce for the unreached community, IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, IADIS International Conference e-Democracy, Equity and Social Justice 2011, Part of the IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2011, MCCSIS 2011 Proceedings of the IADIS Int. Conf. ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Democracy, Equity and Social Justice 2011, Part of the IADIS, MCCSIS 2011, 93-100, 2011.12, Most people at the BOP (base of the economic pyramid, the largest but the poorest community in the world comprising 69% of world population) do not have access to e-commerce services. The way e-commerce is designed and practiced today does not enable their participation. The reasons are: their purchasing power is low, they do not have any means to make online payments, and there is no infrastructure to deliver the purchased items to their doors. To include these 4 billion people, we propose an e-commerce framework by engaging MFI resources and our recently developed ePassbook system. This paper shows how the BOP community can enjoy the benefits of the e-commerce service by using the proposed model. The advantages of making e-commerce available to the BOP are discussed, in addition to the challenges involved in implementing the model..
129. Adnan Quadri, Kazi Mehedi Hasan, Montasir Farhan, Elizabeth Anne Ali, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Next generation communication technologies
Wireless mesh network for rural connectivity, 2011 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, GC Wkshps 2011 2011 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, GC Wkshps 2011, 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162331, 1019-1023, 2011.12, The opportunities and challenges of traditional communication technologies in the area of rural communication calls for a change in perspective and usual trends of wire line and wireless connectivity. In the quest to improve rural communication with the urban market, use of smart hand-held devices and easy-to-deploy wireless connectivity is catalytic according to our findings. To eradicate digital divide, we have presented a holistic approach to overcome the challenges of language barrier and information asymmetry. This paper provides an insight of $100 tablets, an interactive hand-held communication device, which allows low-literate farmers to share their information onto the network. These smart communication devices stay connected to the global network through the easy deployment of wireless mesh network (WMN) in a rural area. QoS constraints are imposed in the WMN setup and significant observation has been made regarding spectrum resource utilization at every hop by achieving certain level of cognition at the user end..
130. Ashir Ahmed, Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Ohsugi, E-commerce for the unreached community, IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, IADIS International Conference e-Democracy, Equity and Social Justice 2011, Part of the IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2011, MCCSIS 2011 Proceedings of the IADIS Int. Conf. ICT, Society and Human Beings 2011, Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Democracy, Equity and Social Justice 2011, Part of the IADIS, MCCSIS 2011, 93-100, 2011.12, Most people at the BOP (base of the economic pyramid, the largest but the poorest community in the world comprising 69% of world population) do not have access to e-commerce services. The way e-commerce is designed and practiced today does not enable their participation. The reasons are: their purchasing power is low, they do not have any means to make online payments, and there is no infrastructure to deliver the purchased items to their doors. To include these 4 billion people, we propose an e-commerce framework by engaging MFI resources and our recently developed ePassbook system. This paper shows how the BOP community can enjoy the benefits of the e-commerce service by using the proposed model. The advantages of making e-commerce available to the BOP are discussed, in addition to the challenges involved in implementing the model..
131. Adnan Quadri, Kazi Mehedi Hasan, Montasir Farhan, Elizabeth Anne Ali, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Next generation communication technologies
Wireless mesh network for rural connectivity, 2011 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, GC Wkshps 2011 2011 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, GC Wkshps 2011, 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162331, 1019-1023, 2011.12, The opportunities and challenges of traditional communication technologies in the area of rural communication calls for a change in perspective and usual trends of wire line and wireless connectivity. In the quest to improve rural communication with the urban market, use of smart hand-held devices and easy-to-deploy wireless connectivity is catalytic according to our findings. To eradicate digital divide, we have presented a holistic approach to overcome the challenges of language barrier and information asymmetry. This paper provides an insight of $100 tablets, an interactive hand-held communication device, which allows low-literate farmers to share their information onto the network. These smart communication devices stay connected to the global network through the easy deployment of wireless mesh network (WMN) in a rural area. QoS constraints are imposed in the WMN setup and significant observation has been made regarding spectrum resource utilization at every hop by achieving certain level of cognition at the user end..
132. Ashir Ahmed, Income generation for the villagers: can ecommerce help?, Wheel business magazine, 2011.10.
133. Ashir Ahmed Akinori Ozaki Kazuo Ogata Ikuo Miyajima Takuzou Osugi, Income Generation Project for rural female Farmers using ICT (IGPF), Proceedings of e-Asia 2011, 2011.08, Greedy market strategies of agro-chemical industries have encouraged Bangladeshi farmers to work under the motto “More fertilizer, more product”. Similar misconceptions apply to the use of pesticides and food processing chemicals. At best careful and controlled use of such chemicals is required. They do not simply improve yield, nor does their use build customer-trust. In order to address this problem, our Income Generation Project for Farmers (IGPF) targets rural female farmers to generate income through the production and marketing of organic vegetables. Farmers will be using their fallow homesteads to grow vegetables under the supervision of IGPF experts and through our developed BIGBUS system. Information Communication Technology is used to train the farmers in crop selection and maintenance, and then to market and sell the products at a price to reflect the higher quality. Presently, we are working in two locations with 36 model-farmers. The produce is sold through a third-party e-commerce site. Demand among the affluent has been confirmed. In two years, we envision that the project will be a sustainable business benefitting thousands of farmers and consumers. .
134. Ashir Ahmed, Asifur Rahman, Takuzo Osugi, eCommerce for the unreached community, Proceedings of ICT 2011, 2011.07.
135. Ashir Ahmed, Koji Ishida, Masaharu Okada, Hiroto Yasuura, Poor-Friendly Technology Initiative in Japan: Grameen Technology Lab, The journal of social business, 1, 1, 2011.01, The way that technologies have been commoditized does not serve the poor, the largest community in the world. Many problems in health, education, business, and agriculture can be solved simply if developers, managers and distributers of technologies consider the requirements of this largely unreached population. Kyushu University in Japan and Grameen Communications in Bangladesh undertook initiatives to explore the field of social-needs-based technology and product development. This article introduces some of our innovations: ePassbook as an electronic gadget; a social information platform to bring new business opportunities to rural people; a portable clinic for the unreached patients. Each of these projects has been developed with the involvement of industries, academia, government and the community which the product will serve. However, a central entity is required to effectively collaborate with all these organizations and to deploy them for the target population through social business. Our Grameen Technology Lab is a model to respond to these needs. .
136. Ashir Ahmed, ePassbook: An electronic gadget for the poor, Wheel Business Magazine, 2010.12.
137. Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Hiroto Yasuura, An information platform for low-literate villagers, 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA2010 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2010, 10.1109/AINA.2010.147, 1271-1277, 2010.07, Presently, 75% of the world's population do not have access to the Internet. Most of them are people at the BOP (Base of the Pyramid, the poorest but largest economic group in the world). Many of the efforts to popularize ICT focus on increasing villagers' access to facilities and on training in ICT use to demonstrate the power of ICT to bring financial or social benefits. Users are viewed as information consumers only. We have developed an information platform where BOP can be both information producers and owners. In order to generate and upload web contents, the challenges observed are the villagers' text literacy limitations, the limited capability of the devices they use, and the available network capability. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a BoP adaptation layer in the current social information infrastructure. This paper introduces the BOP adaptation layer concept, its architecture, and an example of how a low-literate village farmer can generate and upload his/her product information on the web..
138. Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Lutfe Kabir, Hiroto Yasuura, An information platform for low-literate villagers, 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA2010 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2010, 10.1109/AINA.2010.147, 1271-1277, 2010.07, Presently, 75% of the world's population do not have access to the Internet. Most of them are people at the BOP (Base of the Pyramid, the poorest but largest economic group in the world). Many of the efforts to popularize ICT focus on increasing villagers' access to facilities and on training in ICT use to demonstrate the power of ICT to bring financial or social benefits. Users are viewed as information consumers only. We have developed an information platform where BOP can be both information producers and owners. In order to generate and upload web contents, the challenges observed are the villagers' text literacy limitations, the limited capability of the devices they use, and the available network capability. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a BoP adaptation layer in the current social information infrastructure. This paper introduces the BOP adaptation layer concept, its architecture, and an example of how a low-literate village farmer can generate and upload his/her product information on the web..
139. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Juliçn Villegas, and Ashir Ahmed, Narrowcasting for Articulated Privacy and Attention in SIP Conferencing, JMM: J. of Mobile Multimedia, , 5, 9, 12-28, 2009.03.
140. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Julián Villegas, Ashir Ahmed, Figurative privacy control of SIP-based narrowcasting, 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2008 Proceedings - 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2008, 10.1109/AINA.2008.128, 726-733, 2008.09, In traditional conferencing systems, participants have little or no privacy, as their voices are by default shared with all others in a session. Such systems cannot offer participants the options of muting and deafening other members. The concept of narrowcasting can be applied to make these kinds of filters available in multimedia conferencing systems. Our system treats media sinks (in the simplest case, listeners) as full citizens, peers of the media sources (conversants ' voices), and we defined therefore duals of mute & select: deafen & attend, which respectively block a sink or focus on it to the exclusion of others. In this article, we describe our prototyped system, which uses existing standard Session. Initiation Protocol (SIP) methods to control fine-grained narrowcasting sessions. The. design considers the policy configured by the participants and provides a policy evaluation algorithm for media mixing and delivery. We have integrated a "virtual reality"-style interface with this SIP backend to display and control articulated narrowcasting with figurative, avatars..
141. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Hiroto Yasuura, Digital divide
The amazing facts at the bop, ICT, Society and Human Beings 2008, MCCSIS'08 - IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems MCCSIS'08 - IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems; Proceedings of ICT, Society and Human Beings 2008, 155-162, 2008, About four billion or 69% of world population survives on an average per head daily earning of less than or equal to USD 2 or in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, annual income of USD 1500 or less. Such income group is referred to as the Base or Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP). It is conceivable that people belonging to the BoP struggle for their existence with the little income that they have. Therefore, as per conventional wisdom, they are less likely to care for adopting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which is apparently expensive and not directly related to their basic needs for survival. In this paper, we present some facts that amazingly contradict this somewhat naive perception. We argue that people at the BOP are not any less curious about ICT than the higher income groups. If a technology is properly focused to the needs of this group and is marketed with an appropriate business model, the people at BoP are willing to spend even more money for the state of the art technology. Our assertions are based on literature review and field survey that we conducted during January and February 2008 in the BOP population of our representative country Bangladesh..
142. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Ashir Ahmed, Narrowcasting - Controlling media policy in SIP multimedia conferencing, 2007 4th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2007 2007 4th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2007, 10.1109/CCNC.2007.29, 110-115, 2007.11, Media and the vectors of its transmission is private information and should be made available only to authorized participants in a conference. In a traditional conference system, users' voices might by default be shared with all others, but a participant might want to select a subset of the conference members to send his/her media to or receive streams from. We review the concept of narrowcasting, a technique for limiting such information streams in a multimedia conference, and propose manipulation of media policies in centralized conferencing systems in a SIP framework. This system allows each participant to flexibly select another participant or group of participants for media transmission using existing standard protocol (SIP) for configuring fine-grained narrowcasting sessions..
143. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Julián Villegas, Ashir Ahmed, Figurative privacy control of SIP-based narrowcasting, 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2008 Proceedings - 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA 2008, 10.1109/AINA.2008.128, 726-733, 2008.09, In traditional conferencing systems, participants have little or no privacy, as their voices are by default shared with all others in a session. Such systems cannot offer participants the options of muting and deafening other members. The concept of narrowcasting can be applied to make these kinds of filters available in multimedia conferencing systems. Our system treats media sinks (in the simplest case, listeners) as full citizens, peers of the media sources (conversants ' voices), and we defined therefore duals of mute & select: deafen & attend, which respectively block a sink or focus on it to the exclusion of others. In this article, we describe our prototyped system, which uses existing standard Session. Initiation Protocol (SIP) methods to control fine-grained narrowcasting sessions. The. design considers the policy configured by the participants and provides a policy evaluation algorithm for media mixing and delivery. We have integrated a "virtual reality"-style interface with this SIP backend to display and control articulated narrowcasting with figurative, avatars..
144. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Hiroto Yasuura, Digital divide
The amazing facts at the bop, ICT, Society and Human Beings 2008, MCCSIS'08 - IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems MCCSIS'08 - IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems; Proceedings of ICT, Society and Human Beings 2008, 155-162, 2008, About four billion or 69% of world population survives on an average per head daily earning of less than or equal to USD 2 or in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, annual income of USD 1500 or less. Such income group is referred to as the Base or Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP). It is conceivable that people belonging to the BoP struggle for their existence with the little income that they have. Therefore, as per conventional wisdom, they are less likely to care for adopting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which is apparently expensive and not directly related to their basic needs for survival. In this paper, we present some facts that amazingly contradict this somewhat naive perception. We argue that people at the BOP are not any less curious about ICT than the higher income groups. If a technology is properly focused to the needs of this group and is marketed with an appropriate business model, the people at BoP are willing to spend even more money for the state of the art technology. Our assertions are based on literature review and field survey that we conducted during January and February 2008 in the BOP population of our representative country Bangladesh..
145. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Ashir Ahmed, Narrowcasting - Controlling media policy in SIP multimedia conferencing, 2007 4th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2007 2007 4th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2007, 10.1109/CCNC.2007.29, 110-115, 2007.11, Media and the vectors of its transmission is private information and should be made available only to authorized participants in a conference. In a traditional conference system, users' voices might by default be shared with all others, but a participant might want to select a subset of the conference members to send his/her media to or receive streams from. We review the concept of narrowcasting, a technique for limiting such information streams in a multimedia conference, and propose manipulation of media policies in centralized conferencing systems in a SIP framework. This system allows each participant to flexibly select another participant or group of participants for media transmission using existing standard protocol (SIP) for configuring fine-grained narrowcasting sessions..
146. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Narrowcasting
Implementation of privacy control in SIP conferencing, IEEE International Conference onMultimedia and Expo, ICME 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, ICME 2007, 703-706, 2007.07, In traditional conferencing systems, participants' voices might by default be shared with all others. However a VOIP user might want to select a subset of session members to selectively exchange media streams. In this article, we describe an implementation of narrowcasting, a model for limiting such information streams in a multimedia conferences, as a class of policies, prototyping a system using existing standard Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) methods for controlling fine-grained narrowcasting sessions..
147. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Narrowcasting
Implementation of privacy control in SIP conferencing, IEEE International Conference onMultimedia and Expo, ICME 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, ICME 2007, 703-706, 2007, In traditional conferencing systems, participants' voices might by default be shared with all others. However a VOIP user might want to select a subset of session members to selectively exchange media streams. In this article, we describe an implementation of narrowcasting, a model for limiting such information streams in a multimedia conferences, as a class of policies, prototyping a system using existing standard Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) methods for controlling fine-grained narrowcasting sessions..
148. Mohammad Sabbir Alam, Michael Cohen, Ashir Ahmed, Design for controlling media privacy in SIP conferencing systems, International Conference on Digital Telecommunications 2006, ICDT'06 International Conference on Digital Telecommunications 2006, ICDT'06, 10.1109/ICDT.2006.32, 2006.12, We propose a new focus of research for multimedia conferencing systems which allows each user to flexibly select another participant or a group of participants to control media transmission. In a traditional conference system, participants' voices might by default be shared with all others, but a participant might want to select a subset of the conference members to send his/her media to or receive streams from. We review the concept of narrowcasting, a technique for limiting such information streams in a multimedia conference, and propose a design to use existing standard protocols (SIP and SDP) for controlling fine-grained narrowcasting sessions..
149. Zalal Uddin Mohammad Abusina, Salahuddln Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ahmed Ashir, Debasish Chakraborty, Takuo Suganuma, Norio Shiratori, An engineering approach to dynamic prediction of network performance from application logs, International Journal of Network Management, 10.1002/nem.554, 15, 3, 151-162, 2005.05, Network measurement traces contain information regarding network behavior over the period of observation. Research carried out from different contexts shows predictions of network behavior can be made depending on network past history. Existing works on network performance prediction use a complicated stochastic modeling approach that extrapolates past data to yield a rough estimate of long-term future network performance. However, prediction of network performance in the immediate future is still an unresolved problem. In this paper, we address network performance prediction as an engineering problem. The main contribution of this paper is to predict network performance dynamically for the immediate future. Our proposal also considers the practical implication of prediction. Therefore, instead of following the conventional approach to predict one single value, we predict a range within which network performance may lie. This range is bounded by our two newly proposed indices, namely, Optimistic Network Performance Index (ONPI) and Robust Network Performance Index (RNPI). Experiments carried out using one-year-long traffic traces between several pairs of real-life networks validate the usefulness of our model..
150. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Gen Kitagata, Norio Shiratori, A new approach to ensure fairness over the internet, International Journal of Network Management, 10.1002/nem.520, 14, 4, 241-255, 2004.07, Congestion signaling is an essential issue for ensuring a high network performance. Explicit congestion notification (ECN) has been proved to provide a faster indication of congestion and thus improve the QoS of a TCP/IP network. In this paper, we present a new scheme for ECN named fair in-time marking (FIM), which employs a mechanism that as well as providing an indication of incipient congestion, assures a fair service to all the connections. To facilitate such services using FIM, we propose inclusion of some simple yet effective functionalities in the routers. This is important as the client base of the Internet is increasing rapidly and the demand for a reasonably fair service is getting stronger. Experiments show that FIM offers the best fairness, sometimes better by around 20% or more without affecting efficiency, compared with other proposed schemes for ECN..
151. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ahmed Ashir, Norio Shiratori, An efficient flow control approach for TCP over wireless networks, Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 10.1142/S0218126604001416, 13, 2, 341-360, 2004.04, Recently, mobile and wireless devices are being incorporated to the Internet at a rapid pace. This initiates the need for optimizing major applications to perform satisfactorily over wireless links. TCP performance over wireless networks is affected by high link errors, low bandwidth and large delay. Existing well established solutions like the Eifel algorithm, TCP I&RW, TCP SACK and D-SACK attempt to address these issues. However, Eifel or TCP I&RW suffer from ACK losses, while TCP SACK or D-SACK introduce overhead in addition to failure in the presence of multiple packet loss. In this paper, we propose a scheme that overcomes the above problems by introducing a concept of indirect acknowledgment. We name this scheme as TCP IACK. Our proposal exploits TCP timestamp option as an additional identifier to TCP segments for the purpose. Furthermore, it deploys one padding byte following TCP timestamp option to recover from ACK loss. Our proposal is therefore, lightweight, more efficient and robust than existing approaches. We also verify these performance implications through experiments..
152. Debasish Chakraborty, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Takuo Suganuma, G. Mansfield Keeni, T. K. Roy, N. Shiratori, Self-similar and fractal nature of Internet traffic, International Journal of Network Management, 10.1002/nem.512, 14, 2, 119-129, 2004.01, The self-similar bursty Internet traffic is usually characterized by the Hurst parameter (H). Such a process is also seen to possess fractal characteristics in time described by a parameter (β), with multifractals in most cases. We observe that these highly stochastic traffics have fractals in flow density too, described by a fractal dimension (D), also with the possibiliy of multifractals as in the former. This requires another parameter for the description of Internet traffic, besides the usual self-similarity parameter β or H and the different simulations or models worked out to understand the Internet traffic to reproduce the characteristics as found in the present work. We also find a notable self-similarity feature of the autocorrelations in the data and its aggregates, in all the cases studied..
153. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Gen Kitagata, Takuo Suganuma, Norio Shiratori, Ensuring fairness among ECN and non-ECN TCP over the internet, International Journal of Network Management, 10.1002/nem.490, 13, 5, 337-348, 2003.09, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) has been proved to provide a fast indication of incipient congestion and thus better the performance of a TCP/IP network. In this work, we carry out investigations on gateway or router performance in providing fairnesss when both FIM ECN-capable and non-ECN-capable connections are employed. We propose a new packet-dropping scheme called Fair In-time Dropping (FID) which drops packets from a connection upon detecting an incipient indication of congestion depending on its share of gateway or router buffer occupancy. We also show that a combination of FIM and FID offers the best fairness compared with a combination of FIM along with other dropping schemes..
154. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ahmed Ashir, Gen Kitagata, Takuo Suganuma, Norio Shiratori, Toward ensuring fair service among ECN and non ECN TCP connections over the internet, Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 18, 5, 837-847, 2002.09, Providing fair service among TCP connections over the Internet without hampering resource utilization has recently become a major performance concern. With the rapid expansion of the Internet along with its increasingly diversified client base, the demand for a reasonably fair service is getting even stronger. To meet these requirements, congestion sensing is essential. Explicit Congestion Notification, ECN has been proved to provide a fast indication of incipient congestion and thus better the performance of a TCP/IP network. In our previous works we have proposed a strategy for ECN called Fair In-time Marking, FIM, and observed its superiority over the ECN schemes in terms of assuring a fair service. However, all TCP connections are not ECN capable. Therefore, they use packet drops for congestion signaling. In this work, we carry out investigations on gateway or router performance in providing fairness when both FIM ECN capable and non ECN capable connections are employed. We propose a new packet dropping scheme named Fair In-time Dropping, (FID) which drops packets from a connection upon detecting an incipient indication of congestion depending on its share of buffer occupancy. We also show that the combination of FIM and FID offers the best fairness compared with combining FIM with other dropping schemes..
155. Salahuddin Muhammad Salim Zabir, Ashir Uddin Ahmed, Norio Shiratori, An efficient approach to performance improvement of different TCP enhancements using ECN, IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E85-D, 8, 1250-1257, 2002.08, Providing a fair allocation of bandwidth among different connections over the Internet without affecting link efficiency has been a challenging issue in the area of network performance improvement. Congestion signaling is essential for the purpose. Conventional TCP uses packet loss as an implicit indication of congestion. Several enhancements to TCP have been proposed for faster congestion recovery and thus to improve the network performance. However, packet loss reduces TCP good-put and adds large delay. Also the variance in the share of bandwidth obtained By each connection may become unaccepatbly high. To the contrary, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) indicates a congestion explicitly before it actually occurs. Therefore, ECN facilitates a faster congestion detection and contributes to the network performance improvement. In this paper, we consider the performance implications of employing different ECN strategies along with several TCP enhancement schemes. We also introduce a new ECN packet marking strategy FIM and evaluate its relative performance and suitability for deployment along with different TCP enhancements. Simulation results show the superiority of FIM over other existing marking strategies with different TCP enhancement schemes by providing the best fairness without hampering link efficiency. We also observe FIM maintains a more consistent delay bound than other strategies and as such, is more suitable for application in practical purposes..
156. S. M.S. Zabir, A. Ashir, N. Shiratori, Estimation of network performance
An approach based on network experience, 15th International Conference on Information Networking, ICOIN 2001 Proceedings - 15th International Conference on Information Networking, ICOIN 2001, 10.1109/ICOIN.2001.905533, 657-662, 2001.01, Network application logs (squid logs, ftp logs, mail logs etc.) are a paramount source of network information. By a careful analysis of these logs, a network performance metric (throughput etc.) can be obtained. Since these records contain past information, any conventional analysis would result in network performance indices which are somehow static. On the other hand, network resources as well as the utilities are dynamic. It thus poses a difficult task to understand how the network would behave at some time in future. We present a estimation model of the network behavior dynamics exploiting its past activities. The approached model employs a sophisticated application of standard statistical estimation techniques applied in addition to a variant of genetic algorithm operators. This involves introducing new statistical operators to adapt to their genetic algorithm counterparts. We have carried out experiments using a one year long network application log archive, presented the results and displayed the evaluation of our approach..
157. A. Ashir, T. Suganuma, T. Kinoshita, T. K. Roy, G. Mansfield, N. Shiratori, Network traffic characterization and network information services - R&D on JGN, Computer Communications, 10.1016/S0140-3664(01)00352-8, 24, 17, 1734-1743, 2001.01, Unlike in the traditional QoS framework, in a Flexible QoS, intelligent network applications, and hence its users, adapt themselves to the dynamics of the network, thereby allowing a greater control over QoS. A 'Flexible Network (FN) Layer' in between the existing Application and Network Layers is proposed, enabling the applications and users to get information about the network dynamics and absorb the changes occurring inside and/or outside the network with the help of intelligent multi-agents. For understanding the changes inside the network, it is necessary to collect, process, store and service network related information from the network. A Network Information Ware House (NIWH) is designed for this purpose. A knowledge of the network traffic characteristics is required for the intelligent applications to perform satisfactorily. A Network Information Configuration and Query Language (NICQL) is designed to allow applications to specify their information requirements to the NIWH and to access information from the NIWH. As a high-speed network application, we introduce the Flexible Videoconference System (FVCS) which utilizes the concept of Flexible QoS, NIWH and NICQL and the resources of the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN) backbone..
158. Ahmed Ashir, Glenn Mansfield, Norio Shiratori, Estimation of network characteristics and its use in improving performance of network applications, IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E82-D, 4, 747-755, 1999.01, Network applications such as FTP, WWW, Mirroring etc. are presently operated with little or no knowledge about the characteristics of the underlying network. These applications could operate more efficiently if the characteristics of the network are known and/or are made available to the concerned application. But network characteristics are hard to come by. The IP Performance Metrics working group (IETP-IPPM-WG) [6] is working on developing a set of metrics that will characterize Internet data delivery services (networks). Some tools are being developed for measurements of these metrics [5]. These generally involve active measurements or require modifications in applications [16]. Both techniques have their drawbacks. In this work, we show a new and more practical approach of estimating network characteristics. This involves gathering and analyzing the network's experience. The experience is in the form of traffic statistics, information distilled from management related activities and ubiquitously available logs (squid access logs, mail logs, ftp logs etc.) of network applications. An analysis of this experience provides an estimate of the characteristics of the underlying network. To evaluate the concept we have developed and experimented with a system wherein the network characteristics are generated by analyzing the logs and traffic statistics. The network characteristics are made available to network clients and administrators by Network Performance Metric (NPM) servers. These servers are accessed using standard network management protocols. Results of the evaluation are presented and a framework for efficient operation of network operations, using the network characteristics is outlined..