九州大学 研究者情報
論文一覧
大内田 研宙(おおうちだけんおき) データ更新日:2022.04.06

准教授 /  医学研究院 臨床医学部門


原著論文
1. Valencia S, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Tsurumaru D, Chua M, Chen HC, Yao L, Ohtsuka T, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Subcutaneous fat area as a risk factor for extraction site incisional hernia following gastrectomy for gastric cancer, Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-020-02039-x , 50, 11, 1418-1426, 2020.04, Abstract
Purpose: To identify the incidence of extraction site incisional hernia following gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its significant risk factors, including the subcutaneous fat area.
Methods: We reviewed data gathered prospectively on patients with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy between 2008 and 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. The subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using axial computed tomography at the level of the L4 and L3 transverse processes, and the L2-L3 intervertebral disc. The primary endpoint of the rate of extraction site incisional hernia was based on the computed tomography and clinical data including hospital follow-up reports.
Results: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 320 patients were included in this retrospective analysis: 3.1% (10/320) had extraction site incisional hernias after a mean follow-up of 11 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the SFA were independent risk factors (age ≥ 70.5 years: P = .013, odds ratio: 9.116, 95% confidence interval 1.581-52.553; L4 SFA ≥ 124 cm2: P = .004, odds ratio: 13.752, 95% confidence interval 2.290-82.582).
Conclusion: Age and the SFA were independent risk factors for extraction site incisional hernia in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
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2. Kimura R, Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Shindo K, Nagai S, Ohtsuka T, Nakamura M, Risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after laparoscopicgastrectomy in patients aged 75 years and over with gastriccancer, Asian J Endosc Surg, 10.1111/ases.12883, 2020.04, Abstract
Introduction: The proportion of patients aged 75 years and over who undergo minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is increasing. However, the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in this age group is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether LG is safe and effective in patients aged 75 years and over.
Methods: The study included 728 patients with early and advanced gastric cancer who underwent curative LG between 2009 and 2017; 166 of these patients (22.8%) were aged 75 or over. All surgeries were performed laparoscopically. Selected clinical factors were compared between the 166 patients aged 75 years and over and the 562 patients aged under 75 years.
Results: There were significant differences in presence of comorbidity, respiratory function and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores between the older and younger groups. The older patients more frequently developed complications than the younger ones, particularly postoperative pneumonia. According to multivariate analyses of all participants, age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Advanced stage and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors in the older group, whereas only COPD was an independent risk factor in the younger group.
Conclusions: LG for gastric cancer can be safely performed in patients aged over 75 years with an acceptable complication rate. However, the present data suggest that care should be taken in selecting LG with D2 lymphadenectomy to treat advanced cancer in these patients because the risk of postoperative complications, especially postoperative pneumonia, increases.
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3. Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Matsuda R, Mori Y, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Nakamura M, High-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas: fate of the remnant pancreas after pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-019-01852-3, 50, 8, 832-840, 2020.04, Abstract:Progress in diagnostic modalities, surgical procedures, and multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic diseases has increased the number of long-term survivors after pancreatic resection. Several reports have focused on high-risk lesions (HRLs), including high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma, in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The etiology of HRLs in the remnant pancreas is thought to be either isolated local recurrence of the initial lesion in the remnant pancreas or a newly developed primary lesion. Although it is difficult to distinguish between local recurrence and a new primary lesion, comparison of genetic alterations between two lesions may help with this distinction. Early detection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas may improve the prognosis of patients, and several investigators have proposed predictive factors for HRLs in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The reported short- and long-term outcomes of surgical resection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas are relatively favorable. Life-long surveillance of the remnant pancreas is recommended after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN.
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4. Kimura R, Ohtsuka T, Kubo M, Kajihara A, Fujii A, Watanabe Y, Mori Y, Ikenaga N, Nakata K, Shindo K, Ohuchida K, Nakamura M, FoundationOne® CDx gene profiling in Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients: a single-institution experience , Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-020-02123-2 , 51, 4, 619-626, 2021.04, Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mutation profiles of Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.
Methods: Next-generation sequencing was performed using FoundationOne® CDx on 17 PDAC patients who were treated by surgical resection at Kyushu University Hospital between February 2016 and January 2019. The tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability status were also assessed.
Results: There were 16 patients (94%) with KRAS mutations, 13 (76%) with TP53 mutations, three (18%) with SMAD4 mutations, and one (6%) with a CDKN2A mutation. All patients had at least one pathogenic variant or a likely pathogenic variant. No patient had targeted therapies that matched with any clinical benefit according to FoundationOne® CDx. An unresectable PDAC patient with BRCA2-mutant disease was successfully treated by conversion surgery using platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Conclusions: Currently, FoundationOne® CDx might be difficult to use on PDAC patients, although further investigations with larger study populations are called for.
Keywords: FoundationOne; Gene profiling; Next-generation sequencing; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
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5. Ando Y, Ohuchida K, Otsubo Y, Kibe S, Takesue S, Abe T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Necroptosis in pancreatic cancer promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by release of CXCL5, Plos one, 10.1371/journal.pone.0228015, 15, 1, 2020.04.
6. Takesue S, Ohuchida K, Shinkawa T, Otsubo Y, Matsumoto S, Sagara A, Yonenaga A, Ando Y, Kibe S, Nakayama H, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Toma H, Tominaga Y, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Neutrophil extracellular traps promote liver micrometastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via the activation of cancer‑associated fibroblasts, Int J Oncol, 10.3892/ijo.2019.4951, 56, 2, 596-605, 2020.04, Abstract
Cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) via tumor‑stromal interactions. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular DNA meshworks released from neutrophils together with proteolytic enzymes against foreign pathogens. Emerging studies suggest their contribution to liver metastasis in several types of cancer. Herein, in order to investigate the role of NETs in liver metastasis in PDAC, the effects of NET inhibitors on spontaneous PDAC mouse models were evaluated. It was demonstrated that DNase I, a NET inhibitor, suppressed liver metastasis. For further investigation, further attention was paid to liver micrometastasis and an experimental liver metastasis mouse model was used that was generated by intrasplenic tumor injection. Furthermore, DNase I also suppressed liver micrometastasis and notably, CAFs accumulated in metastatic foci were significantly decreased in number. In vitro experiments revealed that pancreatic cancer cells induced NET formation and consequently NETs enhanced the migration of hepatic stellate cells, which was the possible origin of CAFs in liver metastasis. On the whole, these results suggest that NETs promote liver micrometastasis in PDAC via the activation of CAFs.
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7. Kibe S, Ohuchida K, Ando Y, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Okumura T, Iwamoto C, &160;Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Shimamoto M, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Cancer-associated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia within the invasive front of pancreatic cancer contributes to local invasion, Cancer Lett, 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.12.005, 1, 444, 70-81, 2019.04, Abstract
The pancreas is an organ prone to inflammation, fibrosis, and atrophy because of an abundance of acinar cells that produce digestive enzymes. A characteristic of pancreatic cancer is the presence of desmoplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cancer-associated acinar atrophy (CAA) within the invasive front. CAA is characterized by a high frequency of small ducts and resembles acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). However, the clinical significance of changes in acinar morphology, such as ADM with acinar atrophy, within the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. Here, we find that ADM within the invasive front of tumors is associated with cell invasion and desmoplasia in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. An analysis of resected human tumors revealed that regions of cancer-associated ADM were positive for TGFα, and that this TGFα expression was associated with primary tumor size and shorter survival times. Gene expression analysis identified distinct phenotypic profiles for cancer-associated ADM, sporadic ADM and chronic pancreatitis ADM. These findings suggest that the mechanisms driving ADM differ according to the specific tissue microenvironment and that cancer-associated ADM and acinar atrophy contribute to tumor cell invasion of the local pancreatic parenchyma.
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8. Yan Z, Ohuchida K, Zheng B, Okumura T, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, CD110 promotes pancreatic cancer progression and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 10.1007/s00432-019-02860-z , 145, 5, 1147-1164, 2019.04, Abstract
PURPOSE:This study aimed at investigating the function and significance of CD110 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS:We performed immunohistochemical staining for CD110 expression in tumor samples from 86 patients with pancreatic cancer. We evaluated clinical outcomes and other clinicopathological factors to determine the significance of CD110 on survival and liver metastasis. We examine thrombopoietin-CD110 signaling in cancer cell extravasation in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the effects of CD110 knockdown on liver metastasis in a splenic xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS:CD110 expression in cancer cells was associated with low-histological-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, and patients with high CD110 expression had poorer prognosis (P = 0.0003). High CD110 expression was an independent predictor of liver metastasis (P = 0.0422). Knockdown of CD110 expression significantly attenuated cell migration and invasion. Treatment with thrombopoietin promoted pancreatic cancer cell extravasation. In the presence of thrombopoietin, CD110 increased cell viability through the activation of the ERK-MYC signaling pathway. Knockdown of CD110 expression inhibited liver metastases in the mouse model.
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9. Gotoh Y, Ohtsuka T, Nakamura S, Shindo K, Ohuchida K, Miyasaka Y, Mori Y, Mochidome N, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Genetic assessment of recurrent pancreatic high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas: Metachronous multifocal lesion or local recurrence?, Surgery, 10.1016/j.surg.2018.10.025 , 165, 4, 767-774, 2019.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to determine whether a second high-risk lesion, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm, is a metachronous multifocal lesion or represents local recurrence after resection of the first high-risk lesion. This study attempts to clarify the characteristics of second high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas using genetic analyses.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were collected from 12 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for a second high-risk lesion in the remnant pancreas. We performed mutational and immunohistochemical analyses of 4 major genes-KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4-associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression, as well as targeted next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Mutations in the four genes in the second high-risk lesion were consistent with the first lesion in four patients but were inconsistent in the remaining eight patients, and thus we considered that the latter eight patients likely had metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions and the other four patients had local recurrence. The estimated cumulative recurrence rate after resection of the second high-risk lesion was greater in the local recurrence group compared with the metachronous multifocal group, and the estimated cumulative disease-specific survival rate was greater in the metachronous multifocal group. Targeted next-generation sequencing demonstrated that the second lesions in the metachronous multifocal high-risk lesion group showed differences in founder mutations compared with the first lesion. In the local recurrence group, the founder mutations in the second lesion were common with those in the first lesion.
CONCLUSION: Genetic assessment might help discriminate metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions from local recurrence.
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10. Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Matsuda R, Mori Y, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Nakamura M, High-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas: fate of the remnant pancreas after pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-019-01852-3, 25, 2019.04, Abstract:Progress in diagnostic modalities, surgical procedures, and multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic diseases has increased the number of long-term survivors after pancreatic resection. Several reports have focused on high-risk lesions (HRLs), including high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma, in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The etiology of HRLs in the remnant pancreas is thought to be either isolated local recurrence of the initial lesion in the remnant pancreas or a newly developed primary lesion. Although it is difficult to distinguish between local recurrence and a new primary lesion, comparison of genetic alterations between two lesions may help with this distinction. Early detection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas may improve the prognosis of patients, and several investigators have proposed predictive factors for HRLs in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The reported short- and long-term outcomes of surgical resection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas are relatively favorable. Life-long surveillance of the remnant pancreas is recommended after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN.
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11. Yan Z, Ohuchida K, Fei S, Zheng B, Guan W, Feng H, Kibe S, Ando Y, Koikawa K, Abe T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 10.1186/s13046-019-1226-8 , 38, 1, 221, 2019.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been related to multiple cancers, including breast cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. ERK1/2 inhibitor can suppress growth of KRAS-mutant pancreatic tumors by targeting cancer cell. However, no studies have shown the expression of ERK1/2 on pancreatic stromal and its effect on pancreatic cancer-stromal interaction.
METHODS:Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of p-ERK1/2 in pancreatic tissues and cells. Cell viability assay was used to study IC50 of ERK inhibitor on pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and primary cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Transwell migration, invasion, cell viability assay, senescence β-galactosidase staining were performed to determine the effect of ERK inhibitor on PCCs and PSCs in vitro and in vivo. The expression of key factors involved in autophagy and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process were evaluated by western blotting. The expression of key factors related to cell invasiveness and malignancy were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Co-transplantation of PCC Organoid and PSC using a splenic xenograft mouse model was used to evaluated combined treatment of ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor.
RESULTS:Immunohistochemical staining in pancreatic tumor samples and transgenetic mice detected p-ERK1/2 expression in both cancer cells and stromal cells. In pancreatic tissues, p-ERK1/2 was strongly expressed in cancer-associated PSCs compared with cancer cells and normal PSCs. PSCs were also significantly more sensitive to ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment. Inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed EMT transition in HMPCCs, upregulated cellular senescence markers, activated autophagy in cancer-associated PSCs; and suppressed cancer-stromal interaction, which enhanced invasiveness and viability of cancer cells. We also found that chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed ERK inhibition-induced autophagy and promoted PSC cellular senescence, leading to significantly decreased cell proliferation. The combination of an ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor suppressed liver metastasis in a splenic pancreatic cancer organoid xenograft mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis.
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12. Nakayama H, Ohuchida K, Yonenaga A, Sagara A, Ando Y, Kibe S, Takesue S, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Okumura T, Shido K, Miyoshi K, Nakata K, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Inoue S, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, S100P regulates the collective invasion of pancreatic cancer cells into the lymphatic endothelial monolayer, Int J Oncol, 10.3892/ijo.2019.4812, 55, 1, 211-222, 2019.04, Abstract
Lymph node metastasis is an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms of lymph node colonization are unknown. As a mechanism of lymphatic metastasis, it has been reported for other types of cancer that spheroids from tumor cells cause circular chemorepellent‑induced defects (CCIDs) in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. In pancreatic cancer, such mechanisms of metastasis have not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the involvement of this new mechanism of metastasis in pancreatic cancer and investigated the associated factors. In human pancreatic cancer tissue, it was observed that clusters of cancer cells penetrated the wall of lymphatic ducts around the primary tumor. An in vitro co‑culture system was then used to analyze the mechanisms of tumor cell‑mediated disruption of lymphatic vessels. Time‑lapse microscopic imaging revealed that spheroids from pancreatic cancer cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. CCID formation ability differed depending on the cell line. Neither aggregation of spheroids nor adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) exhibited a significant correlation with this phenomenon. The addition of supernatant from cultured cancer cells enhanced CCID formation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of S100 calcium binding protein P (S100P) was significantly increased when LECs were treated with supernatant from cultured cancer cells. Addition of a S100P antagonist significantly suppressed the migration of LECs and CCID formation. The present findings demonstrated that spheroids from pancreatic cancer cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These CCIDs in pancreatic cancer were partly regulated by S100P, suggesting that S100P may be a promising target to inhibit lymph node metastasis.
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13. Iwasa T, Nakadate R, Onogi S, Okamoto Y, Arata J, Oguri S, Ogino H, Ihara E, Ohuchida K, Akahoshi T, Ikeda T, Ogawa Y, Hashizume M, A new robotic-assisted flexible endoscope with single-hand control: endoscopic submucosal dissection in the ex vivo porcine stomach, Surg Endosc.
, 10.1007/s00464-018-6188-y., 32, 7, 3386-3392, 2018.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Difficulties in endoscopic operations and therapeutic procedures seem to occur due to the complexity of operating the endoscope dial as well as difficulty in performing synchronized movements with both hands. We developed a prototype robotic-assisted flexible endoscope that can be controlled with a single hand in order to simplify the operation of the endoscope. The aim of this study was to confirm the operability of the robotic-assisted flexible endoscope (RAFE) by performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
METHODS:
Study 1: ESD was performed manually or with RAFE by an expert endoscopist in ex vivo porcine stomachs; six operations manually and six were performed with RAFE. The procedure time per unit circumferential length/area was calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Study 2: We evaluated how smoothly a non-endoscopist can move a RAFE compared to a manual endoscope by assessing the designated movement of the endoscope.
RESULTS:
Study 1: En bloc resection was achieved by ESD using the RAFE. The procedure time was gradually shortened with increasing experience, and the procedure time of ESD performed with the RAFE was not significantly different from that of ESD performed with a manual endoscope. Study 2: The time for the designated movement of the endoscope was significantly shorter with a RAFE than that with a manual endoscope as for a non-endoscopist.
CONCLUSIONS:
The RAFE that we developed enabled an expert endoscopist to perform the ESD procedure without any problems and allowed a non-endoscopist to control the endoscope more easily and quickly than a manual endoscope. The RAFE is expected to undergo further development.
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14. Tsutomu Iwasa, Ryu Nakadate, Shinya Onogi, Yasuharu Okamoto, Jumpei Arata, Susumu Oguri, Haruei Ogino, Eikichi Ihara, Kenoki Ohuchida, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Tetsuo Ikeda, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Makoto Hashizume, A new robotic-assisted flexible endoscope with single-hand control:endoscopic submucosal dissection in the ex vivo porcine stomach, Surgical Endoscopy, 10.1007/s00464-018-6188-y, 32, 7, 3386-3392, 2018.04.
15. Okumura T, Ohuchida K, Kibe S, Iwamoto C, Ando Y, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Sada M, Horioka K, Mochidome N, Arita M, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are sources of cancer-associated fibroblasts and enhance tumor progression by dense collagen matrix, Int J Cancer., 10.1002/ijc.31775 , 144, 6, 1401-1413, 2018.04, Abstract
Although recent studies revealed that adipose tissue accelerates pancreatic tumor progression with excessive extracellular matrix, key players for desmoplasia in the adipose microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in desmoplastic lesions and tumor progression by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic fat invasion model using visceral fat from CAG-EGFP mice, GFP-positive fibroblastic cells infiltrated toward cancer cells. When tumor cells were inoculated into transplanted visceral fat pads in vivo, tumor weights and stromal components were enhanced compared to subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor cells inoculated without fat pads. Expression of αSMA in established human ASCs was lower compared to cancer associated fibroblasts, and the 3-D collagen matrices produced by ASCs cultured in cancer cell-conditioned medium changed from loose to dense structures that affected the motility of cancer cells. Microarray analyses revealed upregulation of S100A4 in ASCs, while S100A4-positive stromal cells were observed at extrapancreatic invasion sites of human pancreatic cancer. The present findings indicate that ASCs are recruited to extrapancreatic invasion sites and produce dense collagen matrices that lead to enhanced tumor progression. Both inhibition of ASCs recruitment and activation could lead to a novel antistromal therapy.
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16. Sadakari Y, Nagai S, Velasquez VV, Nagayoshi K, Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Nakamura M, Application of ultrasonography to high-tie and low-tie vascular ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery: technical notes., Surgical Endoscopy, 10.1007/s00464-018-6302-1, 33, 1, 309-314, 2018.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Two ligation techniques can be applied in laparoscopy for left-sided colorectal cancer: (1) high-tie (HT), transection at the level of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA); and (2) low-tie (LT), transection below the IMA, at the level of superior rectal artery (SRA), preserving the left colic artery (LCA). However, even with preoperative images, it can still be a challenge to identify these structures due to intraoperative individual conditions. In this study, we assess the use intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) to aid us in identifying the IMA and its branches to the SRA, LCA, and sigmoid artery.
METHODS:
We performed IOUS in 18 patients diagnosed with left-sided colorectal cancer. Preoperatively, a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) angiography was obtained in majority of the patients, to visualize the IMA and its branches. Two patients were contraindicated to receive a contrast study, hence, was unable to undergo 3D-CT angiography. The resected specimen was grossly examined for the study. The bifurcation types were identified and compared using different modalities: preoperative 3D-CT, IOUS, and gross examination of the resected specimen.
RESULTS:
The branching of the IMA revealed by IOUS was consistent to the findings preoperatively by the 3D-CT and postoperatively by the resected specimen. The IOUS result of the two patients without preoperative 3D-CT evaluation was also consistent with the post-operative bifurcation type.
CONCLUSIONS:
IOUS is an easy and feasible modality which aids in detecting the branching of the IMA during LT and HT ligation in laparoscopic left-sided colorectal surgery. It can serve as an adjunct modality for 3D-CT angiography and can also be considered a safe alternative option for cases wherein 3D-CT angiography is unavailable
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17. Koikawa K, Ohuchida K, Ando Y, Kibe S, Nakayama H, Takesue S, Endo S, Abe T, Okumura T, Iwamoto C, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Basement membrane destruction by pancreatic stellate cells leads to local invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Cancer Letters, 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.03.031 , 1, 425, 65-77, 2018.04, Stroma invasion is an important step in pancreatic cancer progression. However, how pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with ductal structure invades the surrounding stroma has not been clear. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of stromal invasion of PDAC, using organoids. From resected PDAC specimens, we established human PDAC organoids, which developed ductal and basement membrane (BM) structures. When the organoids were co-cultured with pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in a collagen matrix, organoids lost their BM and ductal structures, and invaded collagen matrix more frequently than did mono-cultured organoids. Interestingly, direct contact by PSCs to PDAC organoids was observed before BM destruction. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 or membrane type-1 MMP (MT1MMP) knockdown in PSCs significantly attenuated BM destruction by PSCs, and retained the ductal structures in organoids. Our results imply that direct contact by PSCs induces BM destruct
ion and stromal invasion of PDAC via MMP2 which binds to MT1MMP on PSCs..
18. Okamoto Y, Nakadate R, Nakamura S, Arata J, Oguri S, Moriyama T, Esaki M, Iwasa T, Ohuchida K, Akahoshi T, Ikeda T, Kitazono T, Hashizume M, Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection using novel articulating devices: a comparative study in a live porcine model, Surg Endosc., 10.1007/s00464-018-6408-5. , 33, 2, 651-657, 2018.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
Colonic endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is time-consuming and bears a high risk of perforation. The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy between novel articulating devices and conventional ESD in live porcine colon models.
METHODS:
Thirty ESDs in ten pigs were carried out at three different locations (15, 25, and 35 cm from the anus) by the conventional method (n = 15) and by the new method (n = 15). Procedure times, adverse events (perforation, bleeding), and damage to the muscular layer were recorded, and the ESD time per unit area of the specimens was calculated.
RESULTS:
The perforation rate using the conventional method was 6.7% (1/15), whereas that using the new method was 0.0%. The number of sites of muscular damage was significantly lower in the new than conventional method (6 vs. 37, respectively; P = 0.024). The mean procedure time was significantly shorter in the new than conventional method (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 7.0 ± 4.1 min/cm2, respectively; P = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS:
Use of the new ESD method allows for reduced adverse events and a shortened resection time.
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19. Fujimoto H, Saito Y, Ohuchida K, Kawakami E, Fujiki S, Watanabe T, Ono R, Kaneko A, Takagi S, Najima Y, Hijikata A, Cui L, Ueki T, Oda Y, Hori S, Ohara O, Nakamura M, Saito T, Ishikawa F, Deregulated Mucosal Immune Surveillance through Gut-Associated Regulatory T Cells and PD-1+ T Cells in Human Colorectal Cancer, The Journal of Immunology, 10.4049/jimmunol.1701222 , 200, 9, 3291-3303, 2018.04, Abstract
Disturbed balance between immune surveillance and tolerance may lead to poor clinical outcomes in some malignancies. In paired analyses of adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa from 142 patients, we found a significant increase of the CD4/CD8 ratio and accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) within the adenocarcinoma. The increased frequency of Tregs correlated with the local infiltration and extension of the tumor. There was concurrent maturation arrest, upregulation of programmed death-1 expression, and functional impairment in CD8+ T cells (CTLs) isolated from the adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma-associated Tregs directly inhibit the function of normal human CTLs in vitro. With histopathological analysis, Foxp3+ Tregs were preferentially located in stroma. Concurrent transcriptome analysis of epithelial cells, stromal cells, and T cell subsets obtained from carcinomatous and normal intestinal samples from patients revealed a distinct gene expression signature in colorectal adenocarcinoma-associated Tregs, with overexpression of CCR1, CCR8, and TNFRSF9, whereas their ligands CCL4 and TNFSF9 were found upregulated in cancerous epithelium. Overexpression of WNT2 and CADM1, associated with carcinogenesis and metastasis, in cancer-associated stromal cells suggests that both cancer cells and stromal cells play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer through the formation of a tumor microenvironment. The identification of CTL anergy by Tregs and the unique gene expression signature of human Tregs and stromal cells in colorectal cancer patients may facilitate the development of new therapeutics against malignancies.
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20. Ohtsuka T, Mori Y, Fujimoto T, Miyasaka Y, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Oda Y, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Feasibility of Prophylactic Pancreatojejunostomy in Possible High-Risk Patients for Prevention of Pancreatic Fistula during Enucleation or Limited Pancreatic Resection, Am Surg, 84, 1, 149-153, 2018.04, Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of prophylactic pancreatojejunostomy after enucleation or limited pancreatic resection regarding the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula (PF). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 32 patients who underwent enucleation or limited pancreatic resection and compared the clinical parameters between patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 22) prophylactic pancreatojejunostomy. Prophylactic pancreatojejunostomy was performed in patients with a possible high risk ofPF. No operation-related mortality occurred. Operation time was significantly longer (P < 0.01) and blood loss significantly greater (P < 0.01) in patients with pancreatojejunostomy. Overall complications were more frequent (P = 0.02) and postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer (P = 0.02) in patients with pancreatojejunostomy. However, other assessed factors including the prevalence of postoperative PF did not differ between groups. In conclusion, prophylactic pancreatojejunostomy is feasible, and its efficacy in preventing PF after enucleation or limited pancreatic resection in high-risk patients will require further study..
21. Gotoh Y, Ohtsuka T, Nakamura S, Shindo K, Ohuchida K, Miyasaka Y, Mori Y, Mochidome N, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Genetic assessment of recurrent pancreatic high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas: Metachronous multifocal lesion or local recurrence?, Surgery, 10.1016/j.surg.2018.10.025 , 165, 4, 767-774, 2018.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to determine whether a second high-risk lesion, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm, is a metachronous multifocal lesion or represents local recurrence after resection of the first high-risk lesion. This study attempts to clarify the characteristics of second high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas using genetic analyses.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were collected from 12 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for a second high-risk lesion in the remnant pancreas. We performed mutational and immunohistochemical analyses of 4 major genes-KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4-associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression, as well as targeted next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Mutations in the four genes in the second high-risk lesion were consistent with the first lesion in four patients but were inconsistent in the remaining eight patients, and thus we considered that the latter eight patients likely had metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions and the other four patients had local recurrence. The estimated cumulative recurrence rate after resection of the second high-risk lesion was greater in the local recurrence group compared with the metachronous multifocal group, and the estimated cumulative disease-specific survival rate was greater in the metachronous multifocal group. Targeted next-generation sequencing demonstrated that the second lesions in the metachronous multifocal high-risk lesion group showed differences in founder mutations compared with the first lesion. In the local recurrence group, the founder mutations in the second lesion were common with those in the first lesion.
CONCLUSION: Genetic assessment might help discriminate metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions from local recurrence.
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22. Koikawa K, Ohuchida K, Takesue S, Ando Y, Kibe S, Nakayama H, Endo S, Abe T, Okumura T, Horioka H, Sada M, Iwamoto C, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida R, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Pancreatic stellate cells reorganize matrix components and lead pancreatic cancer invasion via the function of Endo180, Cancer letters, 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.10.010, 1, 412, 143-154, 2018.04, Specific cell populations leading the local invasion of cancer are called “leading cells”. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we identified leading cells in pancreatic cancer and deter- mined how these cells lead and promote cancer cell invasion in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Using three-dimensional matrix remodeling assay, we found that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) frequently invaded the collagen matrix with pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs), which invaded behind the invading PSCs. In addition, invading PSCs changed the alignment of collagen fibers, resulting in ECM remodeling and an increase in the parallel fibers along the direction of invading PSCs. Endo180 expression was higher in PSCs than in PCCs, Endo180 knockdown in PSCs attenuated the invasive abilities of PSCs and co- cultured PCCs, and decreased the expression level of phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (MLC2). In mouse models, Endo180-knockdown PSCs
suppressed tumor growth and changes in collagen fiber orientation in co-transplantation with PCCs. Our findings suggest that PSCs lead the local invasion of PCCs by physically remodeling the ECM, possibly via the function of Endo180, which reconstructs the actin cell skeleton by phosphorylation of MLC2..
23. Iwamoto C, Ohuchida K, Okumura M, Usumoto Y, Kishimoto J, Murata M, Ikeda N, Hashizume M, Postmortem interval estimation using the animal model of postmortem gas volume changes, Leg Med (Tokyo)., 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.12.010 , 32, 66-70, 2018.04, Abstract
It is important to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic autopsy. Many methods to estimate the postmortem interval have been reported, and are typically associated with internal examination. However, there are issues such as rejection of autopsy by the family and a lack of forensic doctor in internal examination. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new methods, such as autopsy imaging, that can substitute for internal examination. Here, we first evaluated whether gas volume in the body increased with postmortem interval. Time-dependent X-ray CT imaging of euthanized Crl:CD (SD) rats (n = 3) was performed immediately after euthanasia and at seven subsequent time points up to 168 h (7 days) at 24-hour intervals. The data revealed that gas volume in the body increased in a time-dependent manner. Next, we reconstructed 3D images of isolated gas and calculated the gas volume using Amira software. In all cases, the volume of both portal venous gas and intestinal gas increased in a time-dependent manner. The volume of portal venous gas increased exponentially, while the volume of intestinal gas increased in a linearly with time. These data might be suggested that the postmortem gas volume change is one of indicators for estimating the postmortem interval. In addition, it would be possible to estimate more accurate postmortem interval by combining not only gas volume changes at the above two sites but also gas volume changes of the other sites such as heart cavities, kidney parenchyma, or abdominal aorta.
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24. Abe T, Nakata K, Kibe S, Mori Y, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Prognostic Value of Preoperative Nutritional and Immunological Factors in Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Ann Surg Oncol., 10.1245/s10434-018-6761-6, 25, 13, 3996-4003, 2018.04.
25. Takahito Kawano, Masaharu Murata, Jeong-Hun Kang, Jing Shu Piao, Sayoko Narahara, Fuminori Hyodo, Nobuhito Hamano, Jie Guo, Susumu Oguri, Kenoki Ohuchida, Makoto Hashizume, Ultrasensitive MRI detection of spontaneous pancreatic tumors with nanocage-based targeted contrast agent., Biomaterials, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.10.029. , 152, 37-46, 2018.04.
26. Nobuhiro Torata, Makoto Kubo, Daisuke Miura, Kenoki Ohuchida, Yusuke Mizuuchi, Yoshinori Fujimura, Eisuke Hayakawa, Masaya Kai, Yoshinao Oda, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Makoto Hashizume, Masafumi Nakamura, Visualizing Energy Charge in Breast Carcinoma Tissues by MALDI Mass-spectrometry Imaging Profiles of Low-molecular-weight Metabolites, Anticancer Res, doi:10.21873/anticanres.12723, 38, 7, 4267-4272, 2018.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM:
Metabolomics is widely used for biomarker discovery, but conventional mass-spectrometry extraction procedures lose the spatial localization of metabolites. In this study, we directly analyzed breast carcinoma tissues embedded in frozen tissue microarrays (fTMAs) using MALDI mass-spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 119 breast tissues (84 carcinoma and 35 normal) were used. MSI data were extracted from each tissue.
RESULTS:
Overall, 185 of 1,915 peaks which were commonly detected in 60% of target areas were subjected to further analysis. One hundred and fifty-two peaks of carcinoma showed significantly higher intensity than normal. Comparing metabolite profiles from carcinoma and normal tissues, energy charge (EC) and the sum of adenosine phosphate compound (AXP) indicated significantly higher intensities in cancerous tissues than normal. But comparisons of EC and AXP among lymph node metastasis, tumor size and tumor subtypes indicated no significant differences.
CONCLUSION:
Breast carcinoma tissues had higher EC and AXP values than normal. MALDI-MSI could be a tool for characterizing breast carcinoma.
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27. Endo S, Nakata K, Sagara A, Koikawa K, Ando Y, Kibe S, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Abe T, Okumura T, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Autophagy inhibition enhances antiproliferative effect of salinomycin in pancreatic cancer cells, Pancreatology, 10.1016/j.pan.2017.08.009, 17, 6, 990-996, 2017.04, Background: Salinomycin has cytotoxic effects on various types of malignancy and induces autophagy.However, it has not been clarified whether autophagy induced by salinomycin treatment has a protectiveor cytotoxic role. We investigated whether salinomycin affects autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells andwhether autophagy induced by salinomycin treatment has a protective or cytotoxic role in these cells.Methods: We investigated the effect of salinomycin using three pancreatic cancer cell lines. We investigatedeffect on proliferation and the CD133 positive fraction using flow cytometry. In addition, wemonitored the change in autophagic activity after salinomycin treatment using fluorescent immunostaining,western blotting, and flow cytometry. Finally, knockdown of ATG5 or ATG7 by siRNA was usedto investigate the impact of autophagy inhibition on sensitivity to salinomycin.Results: Salinomycin suppressed the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in a co
ncentration dependentmanner, and reduced the CD133 positive fraction. Salinomycin enhanced autophagy activity in these cellsin a concentration dependent manner. Autophagy inhibition made pancreatic cancer cells more sensitiveto salinomycin.Conclusions: Our data provide the first evidence indicating that autophagy induced by salinomycin havea protective role in pancreatic cancer cells. A new therapeutic strategy of combining salinomycin,autophagy inhibitors, and anticancer drugs could hold promise for pancreatic cancer treatment..
28. Endo S, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Abe T, Koikawa K, Okumura T, Sada M, Horioka K, Zheng B, Mizuuchi Y, Iwamoto C, Murata M, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Autophagy Is Required for Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells, Associated With Pancreatic Cancer Progression and Promotes Growth of Pancreatic Tumors in Mice, Gastroenterology, 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.010, 152, 6, 1492-1506, 2017.04, BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) changefrom a quiescent to activated state in the tumor environmentand secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cytokinesto increase the aggressiveness of tumors. However, it is notclear how PSCs are activated to produce these factors, orwhether this process can be inhibited. PSCs have morphologicand functional similarities to hepatic stellate cells, whichundergo autophagy to promote fibrosis and tumor growth. Weinvestigated whether autophagy activates PSCs, which promotesdevelopment of the tumor stroma and growth ofpancreatic tumors in mice. METHODS: We used immunofluorescencemicroscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyzepancreatic tumor specimens from 133 patients who underwentpancreatectomy in Japan from 2000 to 2009. PSCs werecultured from pancreatic tumor tissues or tissues of patientswith chronic pancreatitis; these were analyzed by immunofluorescencemicroscopy, immunoblots, quantitative
reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction, and in assays forinvasiveness, proliferation, and lipid droplets. Autophagy wasinhibited in PSCs by administration of chloroquine or transfectionwith small interfering RNAs. Proteins were knockeddown in immortalized PSCs by expression of small hairpinRNAs. Cells were transplanted into pancreatic tails of nudemice, and tumor growth and metastasis were quantified. RESULTS:Based on immunohistochemical analyses, autophagywas significantly associated with tumor T category (P シ .018),histologic grade (P シ .001), lymph node metastases (P < .001),stage (P シ .009), perilymphatic invasion (P シ .001), and perivascularinvasion (P シ .003). Autophagy of PSCs was associatedwith shorter survival times of patients with pancreatic cancer.PSC expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 lightchain 3, a marker of autophagosomes, was associated with pooroutcomes (shorter survival time, disease recurrence) forpati
ents with pancreatic cancer (relative risk of shorter survivaltime, 1.56). Immunoblots showed that PSCs from pancreatictumor samples expressed higher levels of markers of autophagythan PSCs from chronic pancreatitis samples. Inhibitorsof autophagy increased the number of lipid droplets of PSCs,indicating a quiescent state of PSCs, and reduced their productionof ECM molecules and interleukin 6, as well as theirproliferation and invasiveness in culture. PSCs exposedto autophagy inhibitors formed smaller tumors in nude mice(P シ .001) and fewer liver metastases (P シ .018) with lessperitoneal dissemination (P シ .018) compared to PSCs notexposed to autophagy inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: AutophagicPSCs produce ECM molecules and interleukin 6 and areassociated with shorter survival times and disease recurrencein patients with pancreatic cancer. Inhibitors of PSC autophagymight reduce pancreatic tumor invasiveness by altering thetumor stroma..
29. Abe T, Ohuchida K, Koikawa K, Endo S, Okumura T, Sada M, Horioka K, Zheng B, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Cancer-associated peritoneal mesothelial cells lead the formation of pancreatic cancer peritoneal dissemination, Int J Oncol, 50, 2, 457-467, 2017.04, The interaction between the cancer cells and the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) plays an important role in the peritoneal dissemination in several types of cancer. However, the role of PMCs in the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between the pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and the PMCs in the formation of peritoneal dissemination in vitro and in vivo. The tumor-stromal interaction of PCCs and PMCs significantly enhanced their mobility and invasiveness and enhanced the proliferation and anoikis resistance of PCCs. In a 3D organotypic culture model of peritoneal dissemination, co-culture of PCCs and PMCs significantly increased the cells invading into the collagen gel layer compared with mono-culture of PCCs. PMCs pre-invaded into the collagen gel, remodeled collagen fibers, and increased parallel fiber orientation along the direction of cell invasion. In the tissues
of peritoneal dissemination of the KPC (LSL-KrasG12D/+; LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre) transgenic mouse, the monolayer of PMCs was preserved in tumor-free areas, whereas PMCs around the invasive front of peritoneal dissemination proliferated and invaded into the muscle layer. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of PCCs with PMCs significantly promoted peritoneal dissemination compared with PCCs alone. The present data suggest that the cancer-associated PMCs have important promoting roles in the peritoneal dissemination of PCCs. Therapy targeting cancer-associated PMCs may improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer..
30. Abe T, Ohuchida K, Endo S, Ookubo F, Mori Y, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Nagai E, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Clinical importance of intraoperative peritoneal cytology in patients with pancreatic cancer, Surgery, 161, 4, 951-958, 2017.04, BACKGROUND:The clinical importance of intraoperative peritoneal cytology in patients with pancreatic cancer remains incompletely understood.METHODS:Peritoneal washing samples were collected from 411 consecutive patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from 1996 to 2014. Of the 411 patients, 335 underwent macroscopically curative resection and 76 with noncurative factors did not undergo resection. We compared long-term outcomes between patients with positive cytology (cytology+) and those with negative cytology (cytology-) and investigated the importance of clinicopathologic factors.RESULTS:Of 335 patients with curative resection, 300 (89.6%) were cytology- and 35 (10.4%) were cytology+. The median overall survival of cytology+ patients was less than that of cytology- patients (16 vs 31 months, respectively; P < .0001). The median overall survival of cytology+ patients with noncurative factors was significantly worse than that of cytology+ pat
ients with curative resection (6.9 vs 16.0 months, respectively; P = .0023). The median disease-free survival of cytology+ patients was less than that of cytology- patients (6.5 vs 16 months, respectively; P < .0001). In the multivariate analysis, cytology+ was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival.CONCLUSION:Cytology+ without noncurative factors was a predictive factor for a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to regard patients with pancreatic cancer characterized by cytology+ as a special group that may warrant more aggressive adjuvant therapy..
31. Ohtsuka T, Mori Y, Ishigami K, Fujimoto T, Miyasaka Y, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Oda Y, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Clinical significance of circumportal pancreas, a rare congenital anomaly, in pancreatectomy, Am J Surg, 214, 2, 267-272, 2017.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Circumportal pancreas is a rare congenital pancreatic anomaly. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with circumportal pancreases undergoing pancreatectomy.
METHODS:
The medical records of 508 patients who underwent pancreatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of circumportal pancreas and related anatomical variations were assessed. Surgical procedures and postoperative outcomes were compared in patients with and without circumportal pancreas.
RESULTS:
Circumportal pancreas was observed in 9 of the 508 patients (1.7%). In all nine patients, the portal vein was completely encircled by the pancreatic parenchyma above the level of the splenoportal junction, and the main pancreatic duct ran dorsal to the portal vein. The rate of variant hepatic artery did not differ significantly in patients with and without circumportal pancreas. Pancreatic fistula developed more frequently in patients with than without circumportal pancreas (44% vs. 14%, p = 0.03), but other clinical parameters did not differ significantly in these two groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite being rare, circumportal pancreas may increase the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula in patients undergoing pancreatectomy. However, a prospective, large-cohort study is necessary to determine the real incidence of relevant anatomical variations and the definitive clinical significance of this rare anomaly..
32. Nakayama H, Ohuchida K, Yoshida M, Miyazaki T, Takesue S, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Okumura T, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Shirahane K, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Toma H, Tominaga Y, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Degree of desmoplasia in metastatic lymph node lesions is associated with lesion size and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients, Oncol Lett, 10.3892/ol.2017.6549, 14, 3, 3141-3147, 2017.04, Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by increased hyperplasia of fibrotic tissue, termed desmoplasia, and lymph node metastasis is an independent prognostic factor in this disease. However, there are no reports focused on desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer lymph node metastases. The present study evaluated a range of factors and investigated their association with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer cases with lymph node metastasis, including the degree of desmoplasia in lesions. To identify the poor prognostic factors associated with lymph node metastasis, the present study retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 65 patients with lymph node metastases that underwent surgical pancreatic cancer resection between 2007 and 2012 at a single institution. The investigation focused on the degree of fibrosis in metastatic lesions in 216 lymph nodes, and investigated associations with prognosis or clinicopathological findings. The ratios of the fibrotic area in metastatic lymph node lesions were evaluated and classified into three categories, high (≥70%), moderate (10-70%) and low (<10%). Desmoplasia was not observed in cancer-free lymph nodes. The size of metastatic lymph node lesions was additionally measured, and a significant association between metastatic lesion size and the degree of desmoplasia was observed (P<0.001). The degree of desmoplasia was additionally associated with local extranodal invasion. In the analysis of 65 pancreatic cancer patients with metastatic lymph nodes, the presence of multiple metastatic lymph nodes with moderate or high desmoplasia was significantly associated with poor survival (high, P=0.0048; moderate/high, P=0.0075). Of several clinicopathological factors, the presence of multiple metastatic lymph nodes with high or moderate desmoplasia was associated with overall survival in univariate (P=0.0098) and multivariate (P=0.0466) analyses. The degree of desmoplasia in metastatic lymph nodes is associated with lesion size, and the presence of multiple metastatic lymph nodes with desmoplasia is an independent poor prognostic factor, suggesting that the desmoplasia may have an important role in the malignant progression of lymph node metastases.
KEYWORDS:
desmoplasia; locally extranodal invasion; lymph node metastasis; pancreatic cancer; prognostic factor.
33. Okumura T, Ohuchida K, Sada M, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Iwamoto C, Miura D, Mizuuchi Y, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Extra-pancreatic invasion induces lipolytic and fibrotic changes in the adipose microenvironment, with released fatty acids enhancing the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells, Oncotarget, 10.18632/oncotarget.15430., 8, 11, 18280-18295, 2017.04, Abstract
Pancreatic cancer progression involves components of the tumor microenvironment, including stellate cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, and the extracellular matrix. Although peripancreatic fat is the main stromal component involved in extra-pancreatic invasion, its roles in local invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. This study investigated the role of adipose tissue in pancreatic cancer progression using genetically engineered mice (Pdx1-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D; Trp53R172H/+) and an in vitro model of organotypic fat invasion. Mice fed a high fat diet had significantly larger primary pancreatic tumors and a significantly higher rate of distant organ metastasis than mice fed a standard diet. In the organotypic fat invasion model, pancreatic cancer cell clusters were smaller and more elongated in shape and showed increased fibrosis. Adipose tissue-derived conditioned medium enhanced pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness and gemcitabine resistance, as well as inducing morphologic changes in cancer cells and increasing the numbers of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The concentrations of oleic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acids were higher in adipose tissue-derived conditioned medium than in normal medium, with these fatty acids significantly enhancing the migration of cancer cells. Mature adipocytes were smaller and the concentration of fatty acids in the medium higher when these cells were co-cultured with cancer cells. These findings indicate that lipolytic and fibrotic changes in peripancreatic adipose tissue enhance local invasiveness and metastasis via adipocyte-released fatty acids. Inhibition of fatty acid uptake by cancer cells may be a novel therapy targeting interactions between cancer and stromal cells.
KEYWORDS:
adipose microenvironment; extra-pancreatic invasion; fatty acids; lipolysis; pancreatic cancer.
34. Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Moriyama T, Shindo K, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Feasibility and safety of modified inverted T-shaped method using linear stapler with movable cartridge fork for esophagojejunostomy following laparoscopic total gastrectomy, Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol., 23, 2, 50, 2017.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We previously reported the use of an inverted T-shaped method to obtain a suitable view for hand sewing to close the common entry hole when the linear stapler was fired for esophagojejunostomy after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). This conventional method involved insertion of the fixed cartridge fork to the Roux limb and the fine movable anvil fork to the esophagus to avoid perforation of the jejunum. However, insertion of the movable anvil fork to the esophagus during this procedure often requires us to strongly push down the main body of the stapler with the fixed cartridge fork to bring the direction of the anvil fork in line with the direction of the long axis of the esophagus while controlling the opening of the movable anvil fork. We therefore modified this complicated inverted T-shaped method using a linear stapler with a movable cartridge fork. This modified method involved insertion of the movable cartridge fork into the Roux limb followed by natural, easy insertion of the fixed anvil fork into the esophagus without controlling the opening of the movable cartridge fork.
METHODS:
We performed LTG in a total of 155 consecutive patients with gastric cancer from November 2007 to December 2015 in Kyushu University Hospital. After LTG, we performed the conventional inverted T-shaped method using a linear stapler with a fixed cartridge fork in 61 patients from November 2007 to July 2011 (fixed cartridge group). From August 2011, we used a linear stapler with a movable cartridge fork and performed the modified inverted T-shaped method in 94 patients (movable cartridge group). We herein compare the short-term outcomes in 94 cases of LTG using the modified method (movable cartridge fork) with those in 61 cases using the conventional method (fixed cartridge fork).
RESULTS:
We found no significant differences in the perioperative or postoperative events between the movable and fixed cartridge groups. One case of anastomotic leakage occurred in the fixed cartridge group, but no anastomotic leakage occurred in the movable cartridge group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Although there were no remarkable differences in the short-term outcomes between the movable and fixed cartridge groups, we believe that the modified inverted T-shaped method is technically more feasible and reliable than the conventional method and will contribute to the improved safety of LTG..
35. Yukio Oshiro, Kenoki Ohuchida, Toshiyuki Okada, Makoto Hashizume, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi, Novel imaging using a touchless display for computer-assisted hepato-biliary surgery, Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-017-1541-7, 47, 12, 1512-1518, 2017.04, Abstract
PURPOSE:
We developed a touchless display system that allows the user to control the medical imaging software via hand gestures in the air. We conducted this study to verify the effectiveness of this novel touchless display system as a tool for assisting with surgical imaging.
METHODS:
The patient's computed tomography (CT) data are generally observed on a display during surgery. The "Dr. aeroTAP" touchless display system was developed to generate virtual mouse events based on the position of one hand. We conducted comparative analyses of using the Dr. aeroTAP vs. using a regular mouse (control group) by measuring the time to select a 3D image from 24 thumbnail images on a screen (study 1) and to then see the CT image on the DICOM viewer (study 2).
RESULTS:
We used the Dr. aeroTAP in 31 hepato-biliary operative procedures performed at our hospital. In study 1, which measured the time required to select one of 24 thumbnails, there were significant differences between the mouse and Dr. aeroTAP groups for all five surgeons who participated (P < 0.001). In study 2, there were also significant differences in the time required for CT DICOM images to be displayed (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
The touchless interface proved efficient for allowing the observation of surgical images while maintaining a sterile field during surgery.
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36. Matsunaga T, Ohtsuka T, Asano K, Kimura H, Ohuchida K, Kitada H, Ideno N, Mori Y, Tokunaga S, Oda Y, Guha S, Raimondo M, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, S100P in Duodenal Fluid Is a Useful Diagnostic Marker for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Pancreas, 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000940, 46, 10, 1288-1295, 2017.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The development of an effective screening method for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is of paramount importance. This study assessed the diagnostic utility in pancreatic diseases of duodenal markers during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) or endoscopic ultrasonography.

METHODS:
This study prospectively enrolled 299 consecutive participants, including 94 patients with PDACs, 144 patients with other pancreatic diseases, and 61 normal individuals as control subjects. All subjects underwent upper GIE or endoscopic ultrasonography either at Kyushu University Hospital (Fukuoka, Japan) or the Mayo Clinic (Jacksonville, Fla) from October 2011 to July 2014. Duodenal fluid (DF) was collected without secretin stimulation and of carcinoembryonic antigen and S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) concentrations were measured.

RESULTS:
Concentrations of S100P in DF were significantly higher in patients with PDAC and chronic pancreatitis than in control subjects (P < 0.01). A logistic regression model that included age found that the sensitivity and specificity of S100P concentration in diagnosing stages 0/IA/IB/IIA PDAC were 85% and 77%, respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. Carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations in DF of patients with pancreatic disease did not differ significantly from control subjects.

CONCLUSIONS:
Analysis of S100P concentration in DF, in combination with routine screening upper GIE, may facilitate the detection of PDAC..
37. 大塚隆生, 宮坂義浩, 森泰寿, 仲田興平, 大内田研宙, 真鍋達也, 永井英司, 中村雅史, 膵臓疾患, 臨床外科, 72, 1, 42-45, 2017.04, Abstract:<ポイント>腹腔鏡下膵手術を保険診療として実施する場合には,厚生労働省や学会が示す適応と指針を熟知する必要がある.腹腔鏡下膵頭十二指腸切除術の保険診療下での運用に際しては,施設認定,学会との連携,National Clinical Database(NCD)への登録を行うことが義務付けられており,学会連携申請制度と,NCD術前登録制度が整備されている.保険診療として定められていない腹腔鏡下膵手術を実施する場合には,当該厚生局と内議のうえ保険診療準用の是非を確認するか,公費負担もしくは自費診療としなければならない.いずれの場合も自施設倫理委員会の認可を受けることが必須である.(著者抄録).
38. Yoshida M, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Okumura T, Zheng B, Torata N, Fujita H, Nabae T, Manabe T, Shimamoto M, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Calpain inhibitor calpeptin suppresses pancreatic cancer by disrupting cancer-stromal interactions in a mouse xenograft model., Cancer Sci, 107, 10, 1443-1452, 2016.04, Desmoplasia contributes to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer. However, recent clinical trials testing several antifibrotic agents on pancreatic cancer have not shown clear efficacy. Therefore, further investigation of desmoplasia-targeting antifibrotic agents by another mechanism is needed. Calpeptin, an inhibitor of calpains, suppressed fibroblast function and inhibited fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of calpeptin on pancreatic cancer. We investigated whether calpeptin inhibited tumor progression using a mouse xenograft model. We used quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 mRNA in pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). We also undertook functional assays, including proliferation, migration, and invasion, to evaluate the inhibitory effects of calpeptin on PCCs and PSCs. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that PCCs and PSCs expressed calpain-2 mRNA. C
alpeptin reduced tumor volume (P = 0.0473) and tumor weight (P = 0.0471) and inhibited the tumor desmoplastic reaction (P < 0.001) in xenograft tumors in nude mice. Calpeptin also inhibited the biologic functions of PCCs and PSCs including proliferation (P = 0.017), migration (P = 0.027), and invasion (P = 0.035) in vitro. Furthermore, calpeptin reduced the migration of PCCs and PSCs by disrupting the cancer-stromal interaction (P = 0.0002). Our findings indicate that calpeptin is a promising antitumor agent for pancreatic cancer, due not only to its suppressive effect on PCCs and PSCs but also its disruption of the cancer-stromal interaction..
39. Zheng B, Ohuchida K, Chijiiwa Y, Zhao M, Mizuuchi Y, Cui L, Horioka K, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, CD146 Attenuation in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Progression, Molecular Carcinogenesis, 55, 1560-1572, 2016.04.
40. Abe T, Ohuchida K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Comparison of Surgical Outcomes Between Radical Antegrade Modular Pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) and Standard Retrograde Pancreatosplenectomy (SPRS) for Left-Sided Pancreatic Cancer, World J Surg, 40, 9, 2267-75, 2016.04, BACKGROUND: Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) is a modification of standard retrograde pancreatosplenectomy (SRPS) used to achieve the dissection of N1 lymph nodes, early vascular control, and negative posterior margins. However, there have been few comparative studies regarding the clinical outcomes of the RAMPS and SRPS procedures.METHODS: Ninety-three patients underwent distal pancreatectomy for the treatment of pancreas body and tail adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2014. Clinicopathologic data were retrospectively analyzed in this study. We compared short- and long-term outcomes between RAMPS and SRPS. In addition, we investigated the significance of clinicopathologic factors in left-sided pancreatic cancers.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients underwent RAMPS and 40 patients underwent SRPS. RAMPS revealed a larger number of retrieved lymph nodes [28.4 ± 11.6 vs 20.7 ± 10.1; P = 0.0016], more frequent R0 resection [90.5 vs 67.5
%; P = 0.0053], less intraoperative bleeding than SRPS [485.4 ± 63.3 vs 682.3 ± 72.8 ml; P = 0.0444], and shorter operating time (267.3 ± 11.5 vs 339.4 ± 13.2 min; P < 0.0001) as compared with SRPS. In comparing RAMPS and SRPS, RAMPS showed a tendency for improvement of the median survival times than SRPS (47 vs 34 months) (P = 0.1920). In the multivariate analysis, R1 resection, histologic grade, and vascular invasion for overall survival (OS) were found to be independent factors.CONCLUSIONS: There were a decrease of intraoperative bleeding and an increase in the number of retrieved lymph nodes and the R0 resection rate using RAMPS as compared with SRPS..
41. Tamura K, Ohtsuka T, Date K, Fujimoto T, Matsunaga T, Kimura H, Watanabe Y, Miyazaki T, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Ishigami K, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, Distinction of Invasive Carcinoma Derived From Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms From Concomitant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas Using Molecular Biomarkers, Pancreas, 45, 6, 826-835, 2016.04, OBJECTIVES:To clarify the usefulness of molecular biomarkers for distinguishing invasive carcinoma derived from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs [Inv-IPMN]) from concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).METHODS:Data from 19 patients with resected concomitant PDAC were retrospectively reviewed. KRAS/GNAS mutations and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 and p16/CDKN2A were assessed in both IPMN and distinct PDAC. As controls, KRAS/GNAS mutations and IHC labeling were assessed between invasive and noninvasive components in 1 lesion of 22 independent patients.RESULTS:KRAS/GNAS mutation status of invasive and noninvasive components in Inv-IPMN was consistent in 18 (86%) of 21 patients. Conversely, mutational patterns in IPMN and distinct PDAC in the same pancreas differed from each other in 17 (89%) of 19. There were 10 (53%) and 8 (42%) of 19 patients who showed the same p53 and p16/CDKN2A staining between concomitant PDAC and d
istinct IPMN. In the Inv-IPMN cohort, 19 (86%) of 22 patients showed the same IHC expression pattern between the noninvasive and invasive components.CONCLUSIONS:It may be possible to distinguish Inv-IPMN from concomitant PDAC by assessing these molecular biomarkers. More precise distinction of Inv-IPMN and concomitant PDAC will lead to adequate recognition of the natural history of IPMNs and hence optimal management..
42. Tomikawa M, Uemura M, Kenmotsu H, Konishi K, Ohuchida K, Okazaki K, Ieiri S, Tanoue K, Hashizume M, Evaluation of the 10-year history of a 2-day standardized laparoscopic surgical skills training program at Kyushu University., Surg Today, 46, 6, 750-756, 2016.04, PURPOSE:Laparoscopic and open surgical skills differ distinctly from one another. Our institute provides laparoscopic surgical skills training for currently active surgeons throughout Japan. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of our 2-day standardized laparoscopic surgical skills training program over its 10-year history.METHODS:We analyzed the data on trainee characteristics, outcomes of skills assessments at the beginning and end of the program, and self-assessment after 6 months using a questionnaire survey.RESULTS:From January 2004 to December 2013, 914 surgeons completed the 2-day training program. Peaks in postgraduate years of experience occurred at years 2, 8, and 17. Suturing and knot tying times were significantly shorter at the end than beginning of the program (p < 0.001). However, the numbers of misplaced and loose sutures, maximum misplacement distance, and number of injuries to the rubber sheet were significantly
higher at the end of the program (p < 0.001). A questionnaire at 6 months post-training revealed significant improvements in the overall skills and forceps manipulation (p < 0.0001) and a significantly shorter mean operation time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p < 0.001).CONCLUSION:Our 2-day training program for active Japanese surgeons is thus considered to be effective; however, continued voluntary training is important and further outcomes assessments are needed..
43. Sada M, Ohuchida K, Horioka K, Okumura T, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility, Cancer Letters, 372, 2, 210-218, 2016.04, Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs abrogated para
llel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer..
44. Chijiiwa Y, Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Nabae T, Ohtsuka T, Miyasaka Y, Fujita H, Maeyama R, Manabe T, Abe A, Mizuuchi Y, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Overexpression of microRNA-5100 decreases the aggressive phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells by targeting PODXL, Int J Oncol, 48, 4, 1688-1700, 2016.04, Abstract

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-associated death, and metastasis of pancreatic cancer remains difficult to treat because of its aggressiveness. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the regulation of various human transcripts, and many miRNAs have been reported to correlate with cancer metastasis. We identified an anti-metastatic miRNA, miR-5100, by investigating differences in miRNA profiling between highly metastatic pancreatic cancer cells and their parental cells. Overexpression of miR-5100 inhibited colony formation (P<0.05), cell migration (P<0.0001) and invasion (P<0.0001) of pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, we identified a possible target of miR-5100, podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL), and demonstrated miR-5100 directly binds to the 3' untranslated region of PODXL and post-transcriptionally regulates its expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Silencing PODXL resulted in diminished cell migration (P<0.0001) and invasion (P<0.05). We also clarified the close relationship between expression of PODXL in human pancreatic cancer specimens and liver metastasis (P=0.0003), and determined that post-operative survival was longer in the low-PODXL expression group than in the high-PODXL expression group (P<0.05). These results indicate that miR-5100 and PODXL have considerable therapeutic potential for anti-metastatic therapy and could be potential indicators for cancer metastases in patients with pancreatic cancer.
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45. Horioka K, Ohuchida K, Sada M, Zheng B, Moriyama T, Fujita H, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Shimamoto M, Miyazaki T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Suppression of CD51 in pancreatic stellate cells inhibits tumor growth by reducing stroma and altering tumor-stromal interaction in pancreatic cancer, Int J Oncol, 48, 4, 1499-1508, 2016.04, Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) enhance the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer by interacting with cancer cells and producing extracellular matrix (ECM). To date, several stroma-targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have been attempted, but these therapies are still not in practical use. Integrins expressed in stromal cells are involved in fibrosis of several organs, as well as promoting tumor malignancy. We investigated whether CD51, also known as integrin αV, expressed in PSCs was associated with stromal formation of pancreatic cancer and enhancement of tumor malignancy. We also assessed the effects of suppression of CD51 in PSCs on pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry for CD51 in resected pancreatic cancer tissues showed that high expression of CD51 in the tumor stroma was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.025), positive pathologic margin (P=0.025), and shorter patient survival times (P=0.043). Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of CD51 decreased the proliferation and migration of PSCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that expression levels of genes related with ECM and tumor-stromal interactions were decreased by CD51 knockdown in PSCs. In a co-implantation model of pancreatic cancer cells and PSCs, tumor growth in vivo was inhibited by CD51 knockdown in PSCs (P<0.05). We also found reduced tumor stroma and decreased proliferation of cancer cells in implanted cancer tissues with CD51-silenced PSCs (P<0.05). Our results showed that CD51 expression in pancreatic cancer stroma is associated with enhanced tumor malignancy and that CD51 may be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. .
46. 伊達健治朗, 大塚隆生, 森泰寿, 仲田興平, 宮坂義浩, 大内田研宙, 永井英司, 中村雅史, IPMNの診断と治療はどう変わったか? 非切除例のフォローアップをどのように行うか?, 胆と膵, 37, 11, 1489-1493, 2016.04, Abstract:2012年改訂版IPMN/MCN国際診療ガイドラインでは、IPMNの手術適応の閾値が引き上げられ、経過観察が選択されることが多くなった。IPMNの認知度が高まり、画像診断技術も進歩し、IPMNは日常診療でも遭遇する頻度の高い疾患となったため、今後も経過観察されるIPMNが増加することが予想される。非切除IPMNの経過観察では、IPMN自体の悪性化だけでなく、IPMNとは別に発生する通常型膵癌にも注意が必要である。IPMNの進行は緩徐なため、短期間での経過観察を必要としない一方で、通常型膵癌の生物学的悪性度を考慮すると、短期間での経過観察を必要とする可能性もある。しかしいまだ至適経過観察方法は確立されていない。現在、日本膵臓学会主導で「分枝型IPMN前向き追跡調査」が進行中であり、この研究結果によりIPMNの自然史が明らかとなり、至適経過観察方法が確立されることが期待される。.
47. Uemura M, Tomikawa M, Kumashiro R, Miao T, Souzaki R, Ieiri S, Ohuchida K, Lefor AT, Hashizume M, Analysis of hand motion differentiates expert and novice surgeons., J Surg Res., 188, 1, 8-13, 2015.04, BACKGROUND:The number of operations performed by a surgeon may be an indicator of surgical skill. The hand motions made by a surgeon also reflect skill and level of expertise. We hypothesized that the hand motions of expert and novice surgeons differ significantly, regardless of whether they are familiar with specific tasks during an operation.METHODS:This study compared 11 expert surgeons, each of whom had performed >100 laparoscopic procedures, and 27 young surgeons, each of whom had performed <15 laparoscopic procedures. Each examinee performed a specific skill assessment task, in which instrument motion was monitored using magnetic tracking system. We analyzed the paths of the centers of gravity of the tips of the needle holders and the relative paths of the tips using two mathematical methods of detrended fluctuation analysis and unstable periodic orbit analysis.RESULTS:Detrended fluctuation analysis showed that the exponent in the function
describing the initial scaling exponent (α1) differed significantly for experts and novices, being close to 1.0 and 1.5, respectively (P < 0.01). This indicated that the expert group had a greater long-range coherence with an intrinsic sequence and smooth continuity among a series of motions. Likewise, unstable periodic orbit analysis showed that the second period of unstable orbit was significantly longer for experts in comparison with novices (P < 0.01). This demonstrates mathematically that the hands of experts are more stable when performing laparoscopic procedures.CONCLUSIONS:Objective evaluation of hand motion during a simulated laparoscopic procedure showed a significant difference between experts and novices..
48. Mizuuchi Y, AishimaS, Ohuchida K, Shindo K, Fujino M, Hattori M, Miyazaki T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Anterior gradient 2 downregulation in a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a prognostic factor indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Lab Invest, 95, 2, 193-206, 2015.04, Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, has been implicated in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is known to promote cancer progression. However, the prognostic value of AGR2 expression and the interaction with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain unclear. We investigated the clinical significance of AGR2 and EMT markers in PDAC patients by immunohistochemical analyses. Although AGR2 expression was not observed in normal pancreas, all pancreatic precursor neoplastic lesions were positive for AGR2, even at the earliest stages, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A, AGR2 expression was reduced in 27.7% (54/195 cases) of PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation correlated with EMT markers (vimentin overexpression and reduced membranous E-cadherin expression), high Union for International Cancer Control stage (P<0.0001), high histological cellular grade (P<0.0001), and adverse outcome (P<0.0001). In vitro, targeted silencing of AGR2 in cancer cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasiveness, and migration, but did not alter EMT markers. To confer a more aggressive phenotype and induce EMT in PDAC cells, we co-cultured PDAC cell lines with primary-cultured pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and found that AGR2 was downregulated in co-cultured PDAC cells compared with PDAC monocultures. Treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β), secreted from PSCs, decreased AGR2 expression, whereas inhibition of TGF-β signaling using recombinant soluble human TGF-β receptor type II and TGF-β-neutralizing antibodies restored AGR2 expression. We conclude that AGR2 downregulation is a useful prognostic marker, induced by EMT, and that secreted TGF-β from PSCs may partially contribute to AGR2 downregulation in PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation does not induce EMT or a more aggressive phenotype, but is a secondary effect of these processes in advanced PDAC.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 24 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.138..
49. Tamura K, Ohtsuka T, Matsunaga T, Kimura H, Watanabe Y, Ideno N, Aso T, Miyazaki T, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Ito T, Ushijima Y, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Assessment of Clonality of Multisegmental Main Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Based on GNAS Mutation Analysis, Surgery, 157, 2, 277-284, 2015.04, Background: Main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (MD-IPMNs) may occur in one or multiple segments of the pancreatic duct. Unlike multifocal branch duct (BD)-IPMNs, the clonality of multisegmental MD-IPMNs remains unclear. GNAS mutations are common and specific for IPMNs, and mutational assessment might be useful to determine the clonality of IPMNs as well as to detect high-risk IPMN with distinct ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our aim was to clarify clonality using GNAS status in multisegmental MD-IPMNs.Methods: Medical records of 70 patients with MD-IPMN were retrospectively reviewed. Histological subtypes and KRAS/GNAS mutations were investigated, and the clonal relationships among multisegmental MD-IPMNs were assessed. Mutational analysis was performed using high-resolution melting analysis and subsequent Sanger/pyrosequencing.Results: Thirteen patients had multiple synchronous and/or metachronous lesions. Seven of these 13 patients had multip
le MD-IPMNs; three had multiple MD-IPMNs and distinct BD-IPMNs; one had multiple MD-IPMNs and a distinct PDAC; one had a solitary MD-IPMN, BD-IPMN, and PDAC; and one had a solitary MD-IPMN and PDAC. KRAS/GNAS mutations were consistent in 10 of 11 multisegmental MD-IPMNs, while MD-IPMNs, BD-IPMNs, and PDACs tended to show different mutational patterns. The frequency of malignant IPMNs was significantly higher in the multisegment cohort; malignant IPMNs constituted 90% (9/10) of the multiple cohort and 56% (32/57) of the solitary cohort (P=0.04). Mutant GNAS was more frequently observed in the intestinal subtype (94%) than the others.Conclusions: MD-IPMNs can be characterized by monoclonal skip progression. Close attention should be paid to the possible presence of skip areas during/after partial pancreatectomy..
50. Ideno N, Ohtsuka T, Matsunaga T, Kimura H, Watanabe Y, Tamura K, Aso T, Aishima S, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Takahata S, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Clinical Significance of GNAS Mutation in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas With Concomitant Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Pancreas, 44, 2, 311-320, 2015.04, OBJECTIVE:

The aims of this study were to investigate the GNAS mutational status in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with and without distinct pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to evaluate the significance of GNAS analysis using duodenal fluid (DF) in patients with IPMN.

METHODS:

The clinicopathologic features of 110 patients with IPMN including 16 with distinct PDAC were reviewed. The GNAS status in the IPMN tissue and 23 DF specimens was assessed by sensitive mutation scanning methods.

RESULTS:

The GNAS mutation rate in IPMN with distinct PDAC was significantly lower than that in IPMN without PDAC (4/16, 25%, vs 61/94, 65%; P = 0.0047). By multivariate analysis, GNAS wild-type and gastric type IPMNs were significantly associated with distinct PDAC. Of 45 GNAS wild-type IPMNs, 10 (43%) of 23 gastric type IPMNs had distinct PDAC, whereas only 2 (9%) of 22 non-gastric type IPMNs had distinct PDAC (P = 0.017). The GNAS status in DF was consistent with that in tissue in 21 (91%) of 23 patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Distinct PDACs frequently develop in the pancreas with gastric type IPMN without GNAS mutations. Duodenal fluid DNA test would predict the GNAS status of IPMN, whereas the detection of the gastric subtype using noninvasive test remains to be determined.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
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51. Murata M, Narahara S, Kawano T, Hamano N, Piao JS, Kang JH, Ohuchida K, Murakami T, Hashizume M, Design and Function of Engineered Protein Nanocages as a Drug Delivery System for Targeting Pancreatic Cancer Cells via Neuropilin-1., Mol Pharm., 12, 5, 1422-1430, 2015.04, We describe the development of neuropilin 1-binding peptide (iRGD)-nanocages that specifically target human pancreatic cancer cells in which an iRGD is joined to the surface of naturally occurring heat shock protein (HSP) cages. Using a genetic engineering approach, the iRGD domain was joined to the C-terminal region of the HSP cage using flexible linker moieties. The characteristics of the interdomain linkages between the nanocage and the iRGD domain play an important role in the specificity and affinity of the iRGD-nanocages for their target cells. An engineered L30-iRGD-nanocage with 30 amino acid linkers, (GGS)10, showed greater binding affinity for pancreatic cancer cells relative to that of other linkers. Furthermore, a moderately hydrophobic anticancer drug, OSU03012, was successfully incorporated into the L30-iRGD-nanocage by heating the mixture. The OSU03012-loaded L30-iRGD-nanocage induced cell death of pancreatic cancer cells by activating
the caspase cascade more effectively than the same concentrations of free OSU03012. The iRGD-nanocages show great potential as a novel nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer-targeted drug delivery..
52. Nakadate R, Nakamura S, Moriyama T, Kenmotsu H, Oguri S, Arata J, Uemura M, Ohuchida K, Akahoshi T, Ikeda T, Hashizume M, Gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection using novel 2.6-mm articulating devices: an ex vivo comparative and in vivo feasibility study., Endoscopy, 47, 9, 820-824, 2015.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:
The conventional procedure of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically demanding. This study investigated the efficiency of novel articulating devices (maximum diameter 2.6 mm), which can be used with commercially available, standard endoscopes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
In an ex vivo comparative study, eight endoscopists were divided into novices and experienced operators, and performed ESD using new devices and the conventional setup. An in vivo animal experiment was performed by two experts. Procedure times for incision and dissection were recorded, and unit times for circumferential length and area of specimens were calculated.
RESULTS:
All procedures were successfully completed with en bloc resection. In the ex vivo study, the unit procedure times for incision and dissection by novices were significantly shorter using the new system (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference for experienced endoscopists. Perforation occurred during one procedure in which the new system was used. The in vivo experiments were successfully completed without adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS:
ESD using novel articulating devices was feasible. These devices were able to reduce the procedure time for novices..
53. Uemura M, Yamashita M, Tomikawa M, Obata S, Souzaki R, Ieiri S, Ohuchida K, Matsuoka N, Katayama T, Hashizume M, Objective assessment of the suture ligature method for the laparoscopic intestinal anastomosis model using a new computerized system., Surg Endosc, 29, 2, 444-452, 2015.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The purpose of this study was to develop a new objective assessment system for the suture ligature method employed in the laparoscopic intestinal anastomosis model. Suturing skills were evaluated objectively using this system.
METHODS:
This study compared 17 expert surgeons, each of whom had performed >500 laparoscopic procedures, with 36 novice surgeons, each of whom had performed <15 laparoscopic procedures. Each examinee performed a specific skill assessment task using an artificial model that mimics living tissue, which is linked with the Suture Simulator Instruction Evaluation Unit. The model used internal air pressure measurements and image processing to evaluate suturing skills. Five criteria were used to evaluate the skills of participants.
RESULTS:
The volumes of air pressure leak in the expert and novice groups were 21.13 ± 6.68 and 8.51 ± 8.60 kPa, respectively. The numbers of full-thickness sutures in the expert and novice groups were 2.94 ± 0.24 pairs and 2.47 ± 0.77 pairs, respectively. Suture tensions in the expert and novice groups were 60.99 ± 11.81 and 80.90 ± 16.63 %, respectively. The areas of wound-opening in the expert and novice groups were 1.76 ± 2.17 and 11.06 ± 15.37 mm(2), respectively. The performance times in the expert and novice groups were 349 ± 120 and 750 ± 269 s, respectively. Significant differences between the expert and novice groups for each criterion were observed. The acceptable range of values for each criterion except for the number of full-thickness sutures was statistically defined by the performance of the expert group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our system is useful for the quantitative assessment of suturing skill in laparoscopic surgery. We believe that this system is a useful tool for training and assessment of laparoscopic surgeons..
54. Nakata K, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Nakamura K, Tanaka M, Outcomes of Cervical End-to-Side Triangulating Esophagogastric Anastomosis with Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy, World J Surg, 10.1007/s00268-014-2925-0 , 39, 5, 1099-1104, 2015.04, BACKGROUND:

Esophagogastric anastomosis after esophagectomy has been performed with a variety of techniques during the past decade. However, anastomotic leakage and stricture are still important clinical problems after esophagogastric anastomosis, causing burdensome symptoms and poor quality of life. Herein, we describe a novel cervical end-to-side triangulating esophagogastric anastomoasis using linear stapler.

METHODS:

A total of 90 patients (85 % male; mean age 63 years) with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent cervical end-to-side esophagogastric triangular anastomosis using a linear stapler after minimally invasive esophagectomy between November 2006 and April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS:

The median operation time was 602 min (range 424-936 min). The volume of blood loss during the entire operative procedure was 127 ml (range 0-700 ml). There were no cases of anastomotic leakage in this study, although four patients (4.4 %) developed dysphagia associated with benign anastomotic stricture formation. All patients with a benign anastomotic stricture underwent balloon dilation, which resulted in improvement in their symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS:

Considering the absence of anastomotic leakage and low rate of anastomotic stricture formation in this study, our modified triangular esophagogastric anastomosis technique appears promising and may contribute to reduced morbidity and mortality rates following esophagectomy.
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55. Zheng B, Ohuchida K, Cui L, Zhao M, Shindo K, Fujiwara K, Manabe T, Torata N, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Tanaka M, TM4SF1 as a prognostic marker of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is involved in migration and invasion of cancer cells, Int J Oncol, 47, 2, 490-498, 2015.04, The cell surface protein Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 1 (TM4SF1) has been detected in various tumors, and its expression on tumor cells is implicated in cancer cell metastasis and patient prognosis. The role of TM4SF1 in malignant tumors remains poorly understood, particularly in pancreatic cancer. We performed immunohistochemical staining to analyze the expression of TM4SF1 in resected pancreatic tissues and investigated the correlation between TM4SF1 expression and prognosis. The function of TM4SF1 in the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells was analyzed in vitro using an RNA interference technique. In pancreatic cancer tissues, TM4SF1 expression was detected in cancer cells, and patients with high tumor levels of TM4SF1 showed longer survival times than those with low TM4SF1 levels (P=0.0332). In vitro, reduced TM4SF1 expression enhanced the migration (P<0.05) and invasion (P<0.05) of pancreatic cancer cells partially via decreased E-cadherin expression. TM4SF1 protein levels were also reduced after TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).TM4SF1 expression is associated with better prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Loss of TM4SF1 contributes to the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells..
56. Uemura M, Sakata K, Tomikawa M, Nagao Y, Ohuchida K, Ieiri S, Akahoshi T, Hashizume M, Novel Surgical Skill Evaluation with Reference to Two-handed Coordination., Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, 106, 7, 213-222, 2015.04, INTRODUCTION:We evaluated the differences in instrument manipulation skills between expert laparoscopic surgeons and novices.METHODS:Six expert surgeons who had performed more than 500 laparoscopic surgeries and one skilled instructor at Kyushu University Training Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, and 20 medical students who had experienced no laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. A new skill assessment task was designed using zippers on an unstable, mobile platform in a box trainer. The examinees were asked to close the zippers, while trying to avoid moving the platform. The path lengths of the tips of the instruments and of the platform were measured, and the performance time was also recorded. Surgical skill score was calculated from the correlation between the path lengths of the instruments and that of the platform, in addition to the performance time.RESULTS:The path lengths of the tips of both instruments and of the platform were significant
ly shorter in the experts than in the novices (all p < 0.05). The performance time was also significantly shorter for experts than novices (p < 0.05). The surgical skill score was significantly higher for experts than novices (p < 0.01).CONCLUSION:The differences in the instrument manipulation skills between expert laparoscopic surgeons and novices could therefore be evaluated using our surgical skill scoring system..
57. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Sada M, Horioka K, Ulrich CD 3rd, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Tanaka M, CD166/ALCAM expression is characteristic of tumorigenicity and invasive and migratory activities of pancreatic cancer cells, PLoS One., 9, 9, e107247, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:

CD166, also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is expressed by various cells in several tissues including cancer. However, the role of CD166 in malignant tumors is controversial, especially in pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to clarify the role and significance of CD166 expression in pancreatic cancer.

METHODS:

We performed immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry to analyze the expression of CD166 in surgical pancreatic tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. The differences between isolated CD166+ and CD166- pancreatic cancer cells were analyzed by invasion and migration assays, and in mouse xenograft models. We also performed quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analyses to evaluate the expression levels of CD166 and related genes in cultured cells.

RESULTS:

Immunohistochemistry revealed high expression of CD166 in pancreatic cancer tissues (12.2%; 12/98) compared with that in normal pancreas controls (0%; 0/17) (p = 0.0435). Flow cytometry indicated that CD166 was expressed in 33.8-70.2% of cells in surgical pancreatic tissues and 0-99.5% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Invasion and migration assays demonstrated that CD166- pancreatic cancer cells showed stronger invasive and migratory activities than those of CD166+ cancer cells (p<0.05). On the other hand, CD166+ Panc-1 cells showed a significantly stronger colony formation activity than that of CD166- Panc-1 cells (p<0.05). In vivo analysis revealed that CD166+ cells elicited significantly greater tumor growth than that of CD166- cells (p<0.05) in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse tumor models. mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition activator Zeb1 was over-expressed in CD166- cells (p<0.001). Microarray analysis showed that TSPAN8 and BST2 were over-expressed in CD166+ cells, while BMP7 and Col6A1 were over-expressed in CD166- cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

CD166+ pancreatic cancer cells are strongly tumorigenic, while CD166- pancreatic cancer cells exhibit comparatively stronger invasive and migratory activities. These findings suggest that CD166 expression is related to different functions in pancreatic cancer cells.
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58. Aso T, Ohtsuka T, Tamura K, Ideno N, Kono H, Nagayoshi Y, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Takahata S, Shindo K, Aishima S, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Elevated Expression Level of MicroRNA-196a Is Predictive of Intestinal-Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas, Pancreas, 43, 3, 361-366, 2014.04, AbstractOBJECTIVES: Aberrant expression of several microRNAs (miRs) has been reported in various neoplasms including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. MicroRNA-196a (miR-196a) is up-regulated in Barrett esophagus (characterized by intestinal metaplasia) and in colorectal cancer; this relationship between intestinal characteristics and miR-196a might also be applicable to intestinal-type IPMNs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intestinal-type IPMNs can be discriminated from non-intestinal-type IPMNs by the expression level of miR-196a in tissue and pancreatic juice samples.METHODS: Thirty-seven formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (including 3 of normal pancreatic ducts) and 36 pancreatic juice samples were obtained. The expression level of miR-196a measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays was compared between intestinal-type and non-intestinal-type IPMNs.RESULTS: Mi
croRNA-196a expression in intestinal-type IPMN tissue samples (n = 18) was significantly higher than that of non-intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 16) (P < 0.001). Similarly, miR-196a expression in pancreatic juice samples of intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 6) was significantly higher than that of non-intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 30) (P = 0.008), and the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of intestinal-type IPMNs using pancreatic juice samples were both 83%.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated expression of miR-196a in pancreatic juice samples is predictive of intestinal-type IPMNs..
59. Cases AI, Ohtsuka T, Fujino M, Ideno N, Kozono S, Zhao M, Ohuchida K, Aishima S< Nomura M, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Expression of glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor and its effects on biologic behavior in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors., Pancreas, 43, 1, 1-6, 2014.04, OBJECTIVES:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) interacts with its specific high-affinity receptor, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), and induces cellular growth and inhibition of apoptosis in pancreatic β cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of GLP-1R expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).

METHODS:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 50 resected PNETs, and the correlation between the GLP-1R expression and clinicopathologic features was investigated.

RESULTS:

There were 23 PNETs with positive expression and 27 PNETs with negative expression of GLP-1R. Positive expression of GLP-1R was more frequently observed in insulinoma than in gastrinoma and nonfunctioning tumor (P < 0.05). Although expression status of GLP-1R did not affect the prognosis of the patients with PNETs (P = 0.82), most of the metastatic sites such as lymph node and liver showed positive staining for GLP-1R (8 of 11 PNETs, 73%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor would be a diagnostic marker of insulinoma and might become a molecular target for treatment of metastatic PNETs and hormonal regulation of insulin.
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60. Nagai E, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Miyasaka Y, Shimizu S, Tanaka M, Laparoscopic total gastrectomy for remnant gastric cancer: feasibility study, Surg Endosc., 28, 1, 289-296, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:

The benefits and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery for remnant gastric cancer are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to describe the detailed procedure and to evaluate the clinical short-term outcomes of laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) compared with open total gastrectomy (OTG) for remnant gastric cancer (RGC).

METHODS:

Of 1,247 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer in our department at Kyushu University Hospital from January 1996 to May 2012, 22 patients who underwent successful curative resection of RGC with precise nodal dissection were enrolled in this study. Twelve patients underwent LTG and the remaining ten patients underwent OTG. We analyzed the clinical short-term outcomes of LTG and compared the results between LTG and OTG groups to evaluate the safety and feasibility of LTG.

RESULTS:

Twelve patients with RGC successfully underwent LTG without open conversion and morbidity. The mean operation time of LTG, 362.3 ± 68.4 min, was significantly longer than that of OTG (p = 0.0176), but the mean blood loss of LTG, 65.8 ± 62 g, was smaller than that of OTG (p < 0.01). The mean postoperative times to resumption of water and food intake were significantly shorter in the LTG group than in the OTG group (p < 0.01). The overall 3-year survival rate was comparable between the LTG and OTG groups (77.8 vs. 100 %; p = 0.9406).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study shows that LTG is a feasible and reliable procedure for the treatment of RGC in terms of short-term outcomes.
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61. Fujimura Y, Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Setoyama D, Irie M, Miura D, Wariishi H, Murata M, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, Mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, Pancreas, 43, 2, 311-318, 2014.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Gemcitabine resistance (GR) is one of the critical issues for therapy for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Our aim was to increase the understanding of GR by metabolic profiling approach.
METHODS:
To establish GR cells, 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1, were exposed to increasing concentration of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells obtained by this treatment were subjected to metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS:
Multivariate statistical analyses, both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, distinguished metabolic signature of responsiveness and resistance to gemcitabine in both SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 cells. Among significantly different (P < 0.005) metabolite peaks between parental and GR cells, we identified metabolites related to several metabolic pathways such as amino acid, nucleotide, energy, cofactor, and vitamin pathways. Decreases in glutamine and proline levels as well as increases in aspartate, hydroxyproline, creatine, and creatinine levels were observed in chemoresistant cells from both cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that metabolic profiling can isolate distinct features of pancreatic cancer in the metabolome of gemcitabine-sensitive and GR cells. These findings may contribute to the biomarker discovery and an enhanced understanding of GR in pancreatic cancer..
62. Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Aishima S, Oda Y, Nagai E, Tanaka M, Micro RNA-373 is Down-regulated in Pancreatic Cancer and Inhibits Cancer Cell Invasion, Annals of Surgical Oncology, 21, suppl4, S564-S574, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:

Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have gained attention as key molecules in the malignant characteristics of cancers, and several recent investigations also have identified some miRNAs as potential key regulators to inhibit the malignant characteristics of tumors. MiRNA-373 (miR-373) has recently been reported to induce E-cadherin, which is a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of miR-373 in the characteristics of cancer cells is not still well known.

METHODS:

We investigated the expression levels of miR-373 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and its effect on the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer by using in vitro and in vivo models. We also analyzed the expression of miR-373 using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (n = 152) and microdissected frozen (n = 57) samples from pancreatic tissues.

RESULTS:

The levels of miR-373 expression were low in pancreatic cancer cell lines. In formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and microdissected frozen samples, miR-373 expression was significantly down-regulated in pancreatic cancer compared with that in healthy pancreas (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). We also found that reexpression of miR-373 repressed transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT, leading to inhibition of invasiveness of cancer cells. Furthermore, reexpression of miR-373 significantly inhibited peritoneal dissemination in vivo (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

MiR-373 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer, and its reexpression represses the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells.
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63. Akagawa S, Ohuchida K, Torata N, Hattori M, Eguchi D, Fujiwara K, Kozono S, Cui L, Ikenaga N, Ohtsuka T, Aishima S, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Tanaka M, Peritoneal myofibroblasts at metastatic foci promote dissemination of pancreatic cancer, Int J Oncol. , 45, 1, 113-120, 2014.04, Myofibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic cancers promote tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis by increasing extracellular matrix and secretion of several growth factors. In contrast, the role of myofibroblasts at peritoneally disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer has not yet been determined. This study was designed to assess the role of myofibroblasts at peritoneally disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer. Three primary cultures of human peritoneal myofibroblasts (hPMFs) were established from disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer and their interactions with the SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 human pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed in vitro. Using a model in BALB/c nu/nu mice, we compared the dissemination ability of intraperitoneally implanted pancreatic cancer cells, with and without hPMFs, and examined the presence of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hPMFs at peritoneally disseminated sites in mice. hPMFs significantly promoted the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells (P<0.05), while the cancer cells significantly promoted the migration and invasion of hPMFs (P<0.05). In vivo, the number of peritoneally disseminated nodules, more than 3 mm in size, was significantly greater in mice implanted with cancer cells plus hPMFs compared to mice implanted with cancer cells alone, with GFP-labeled hPMFs surviving in the peritoneal cavity of the former. hPMFs promote the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer. The cancer-stromal cell interaction in the peritoneal cavity may be a new therapeutic target to prevent the dissemination of pancreatic cancer. .
64. Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Podoplanin expression in the cyst wall correlates with the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Virchows Arch. , 465, 3, 265-273, 2014.04, A thickened, enhanced cyst wall on imaging examinations is one of the "worrisome features" described in the consensus guidelines for management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). Podoplanin (PDPN) expression by cancer-associated fibroblasts is known to be an indicator of poor prognosis in some types of cancer. We performed immunohistochemical staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in IPMN lesions and determined the pathological wall thickness by measuring the thinnest and thickest α-SMA-positive parts of the wall of the largest cyst in each case, and the mean of these two values was recorded as the wall thickness. The thickness of the pathological wall increased with progression from IPMN with low-grade dysplasia to IPMN with an invasive carcinoma. The pathological wall was thicker in IPMN with main duct involvement, nongastric-type IPMN, and IPMN with mural nodules. We also stained for PDPN and assessed the thickness of cyst wall staining as for α-SMA. The thickness of the PDPN-positive cyst wall varied in a pattern similar to the thickness of the α-SMA-positive pathological cyst wall. PDPN-positive stromal fibroblasts in the invasive component of IPMN-IC were evaluated as a ratio to α-SMA-positive fibroblasts. A high ratio (>50 %) of PDPN-positive stromal fibroblasts was a predictor of poor outcome. PDPN expression in the cyst wall correlates with the progression of IPMN. PDPN may be a significant prognostic marker of IPMN-IC..
65. Uemura M, Tomikawa M, Nagao Y, Yamashita N, Kumashiro R, Tsutsumi N, Ohuchida K, Ieiri S, Ohdaira T, Hashizume M, Significance of metacognitive skills in laparoscopic surgery assessed by essential task simulation., Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol., 23, 3, 165-172, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:Metacognition is the knowledge about one's own methods of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and acting. This study determined the significance of metacognitive skills in laparoscopic surgery with the aim of applying the findings in a laparoscopic surgery training program.MATERIAL AND METHODS:Eighteen medical students with no experience in laparoscopic surgery (novice group) and eight expert surgeons who had each performed >100 laparoscopic surgeries (expert group) were enrolled. The examinees in each group performed an evaluation task using a virtual reality simulator and answered questions about the task.RESULTS:The longest performance times, longest path lengths, and most frequent tissue damage occurred at 135° in the novice group and at 180° in the expert group. The greatest recognition of task difficulties, impatience, and irritation occurred at 135° in the novice group and at 180° in the expert group. Th
ere were statistically significant correlation coefficients between the instrument path length and task difficulty (metacognition) at 135° (R = 0.74, p = 0.03) and 180° (R = 0.79, p = 0.02) in the expert group, but there were no significant correlations in the novice group.CONCLUSION:We elucidated the significance of metacognitive skills in laparoscopic surgery. A training program should include recognition feedback systems..
66. Nakata K, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Shimizu S, Tanaka M, Technical feasibility of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with splenectomy for gastric cancer: clinical short-term and long-term outcomes., Surg Endosc. , 29, 7, 1817-22, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:

Since its widespread acceptance for the treatment of early gastric cancer, laparoscopic gastrectomy has been gaining popularity as a treatment option for advanced gastric cancer. However, laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) with splenectomy is seldom performed, because of its difficulty of removal of station 10 lymph nodes; splenectomy is technically essential for complete removal of these lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to describe the details of the LTG procedure and to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of LTG with splenectomy.

METHODS:

Of 725 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection in our institution from January 1996 to December 2012, 18 consecutive patients who underwent LTG with splenectomy were enrolled in this study.

RESULTS:

No operative mortality occurred, and the pathological margins were free from cancer cells in all patients. The mean operation time was 388 min (range 324-566 min). The mean volume of blood loss was 45 ml (range 5-347 ml), and the mean number of dissected lymph nodes was 51 (range 40-105). Postoperative morbidity occurred in six patients (33.3 %) (each with grade B postoperative pancreatic fistula, postoperative bleeding, chylous ascites, atelectasis, ileus, and intra-abdominal infection). Five patients (27.8 %) developed recurrence (four in the peritoneum and one in the liver), and the overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 83.0 and 72.6 %, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Considering the 0 % mortality rate and low rates of postoperative morbidity and locoregional recurrence, LTG with splenectomy is technically and oncologically acceptable. This procedure can be expanded to include advanced gastric cancer, which generally requires splenectomy for lymph node dissection.
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67. Torata N, Ohuchida K, Akagawa S, Cui L, Kozono S, Mizumoto K, Aishima S, Oda Y, Tanaka M, Tissue tablet method: an efficient tissue banking procedure applicable to both molecular analysis and frozen tissue microarray, Hum Pathol. , 45, 1, 143-152, 2014.04, Frozen human tissues are necessary for research purposes, but tissue banking methods have not changed for more than a decade. Many institutions use cryovial tubes or plastic molds with an optimal cutting temperature compound. However, these methods are associated with several problems, such as samples sticking to one another and the need for a larger storing space. We established an efficient tissue freezing and storing procedure ("tissue tablet method") applicable to both molecular analysis and frozen tissue microarray. Tissue samples were chopped into tiny fragments and embedded into tablet-shaped frozen optimal cutting temperature compound using our original tissue-freezing plate. These tablets can be sectioned and stored in cryovial tubes. We compared the tissue quality of tablet-shaped samples with that of conventional optimal cutting temperature blocks and found no significant difference between them. Tissue microarray is a key method to utilize tissue-banking specimens. However, most tissue microarrays require the coring out of cylindrically shaped tissues from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Antigenic changes and mRNA degradation are frequently observed with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Therefore, we have applied tablet-shaped samples to construct frozen tissue microarrays with our original mounting base. Constructed tissue microarray sections showed good morphology without obvious artifact and good immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization results. These results suggest that the quality of arrayed samples was sufficiently appropriate for research purposes. In conclusion, the tissue tablet method and frozen tissue microarray procedure can save time, provides easy tissue handling and processing, and satisfies the demands of research methodologies and tissue banking. .
68. Tamura K, Ohtsuka T, Ideno N, Aso T, Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Ushijima Y, Ito T, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Treatment Strategy for Main Duct Intraductal PapillaryMucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Based on the Assessmentof Recurrence in the Remnant Pancreas After ResectionA Retrospective Review, Annals of Surgery, 259, 2, 360-368, 2014.04, OBJECTIVES:

To clarify the recurrence pattern after resection of main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (MD-IPMNs) using molecular analyses and determine the most adequate treatment strategy.

BACKGROUND:

The most appropriate resection line for MD-IPMNs remains an unresolved issue.

METHODS:

Medical records of 56 patients with pancreatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Histological subtypes and Kras/GNAS mutations were assessed in patients with recurrence in the remnant pancreas.

RESULTS:

Forty-nine patients underwent partial pancreatectomy and 7 underwent total pancreatectomy. Thirty-six patients (64%) had malignant MD-IPMNs. Recurrence was observed in 7 of 49 patients (14%), including 6 with malignant IPMNs and 1 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, all of whom underwent remnant pancreatectomy. The cumulative disease-specific survival rate of patients with pancreatic recurrence was greater than that of patients with extrapancreatic recurrence (P < 0.001). Although the pancreatic margin status at the initial operation did not affect the pancreatic recurrence rate, all 4 recurrent IPMNs examined had histological subtypes and Kras/GNAS mutations identical to those of the initial lesions. Four patients experienced recurrence in the remnant pancreas or systemic recurrence after resection of high-grade dysplasia of MD-IPMN. Three of the 56 patients had concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and MD-IPMNs.

CONCLUSIONS:

One-step total pancreatectomy can be avoided, and remnant total pancreatectomy would lead to favorable outcomes even in patients with pancreatic recurrence, some cases of which seem to involve residual lesions. Postoperative surveillance of high-grade dysplasia should be performed as if malignant, and close attention should be paid to the occurrence of concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in patients with MD-IPMNs.
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69. Mori Y, Otsuka T, Kono H, Nagayoshi Y, Ideno N, Aso T, Kozono S, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Nakamura M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, A minimally invasive and simple screening test for detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using biomarkers in duodenal juice., Pancreas., 42, 2, 187-192, 2013.04, OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to establish a minimally invasive and simple screening test for detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) using duodenal juice (DJ).

METHODS:

Duodenal juice was collected prospectively before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 46 patients. A protease inhibitor was not added to the samples collected during the initial 2.5 minutes but was added in the latter 2.5 minutes. Thereafter, secretin was administered intravenously, and DJ was subsequently collected for additional 10 minutes. The sensitivities of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P), and interleukin 8 in DJ and pancreatic juice were assessed.

RESULTS:

There were 30 patients with PDAC and 16 with benign lesions. It was possible to collect an adequate amount of DJ without secretin administration. In the PDAC group, CEA concentrations in DJ were significantly higher than those in the benign group, even without the use of a protease inhibitor. S100P levels in DJ in the PDAC group were significantly higher than those in the benign group in the presence of the protease inhibitor.

CONCLUSIONS:

Duodenal juice collection during routine upper endoscopy and assessments of CEA and S100P in DJ might become a useful screening test for detection of PDAC.
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70. Souzaki R, Ieiri S, Uemura M, Ohuchida K, Tomikawa M, Kinoshita Y, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Kohashi K, Oda Y, Hara T, Hashizume M, Taguchi T, An augmented reality navigation system for pediatric oncologic surgery based on preoperative CT and MRI images., J Pediatr Surg, 48, 12, 2479-2483, 2013.04, PURPOSE:In pediatric endoscopic surgery, a limited view and lack of tactile sensation restrict the surgeon's abilities. Moreover, in pediatric oncology, it is sometimes difficult to detect and resect tumors due to the adhesion and degeneration of tumors treated with multimodality therapies. We developed an augmented reality (AR) navigation system based on preoperative CT and MRI imaging for use in endoscopic surgery for pediatric tumors.METHODS:The patients preoperatively underwent either CT or MRI with body surface markers. We used an optical tracking system to register the reconstructed 3D images obtained from the CT and MRI data and body surface markers during surgery. AR visualization was superimposed with the 3D images projected onto captured live images. Six patients underwent surgery using this system.RESULTS:The median age of the patients was 3.5 years. Two of the six patients underwent laparoscopic surgery, two patients underwent thoracoscopi
c surgery, and two patients underwent laparotomy using this system. The indications for surgery were local recurrence of a Wilms tumor in one case, metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma in one case, undifferentiated sarcoma in one case, bronchogenic cysts in two cases, and hepatoblastoma in one case. The average tumor size was 22.0±14.2 mm. Four patients were treated with chemotherapy, three patients were treated with radiotherapy before surgery, and four patients underwent reoperation. All six tumors were detected using the AR navigation system and successfully resected without any complications.CONCLUSIONS:The AR navigation system is very useful for detecting the tumor location during pediatric surgery, especially for endoscopic surgery..
71. Toita R, Murata M, Abe K, Narahara S, Piao JS, Kang JH, Ohuchida K, Hashizume M, Biological evaluation of protein nanocapsules containing doxorubicin., Int J Nanomedicine., 8, 1989-1999, 2013.04, This study describes the applications of a naturally occurring small heat shock protein (Hsp) that forms a cage-like structure to act as a drug carrier. Mutant Hsp cages (HspG41C) were expressed in Escherichia coli by substituting glycine 41 located inside the cage with a cysteine residue to allow conjugation with a fluorophore or a drug. The HspG41C cages were taken up by various cancer cell lines, mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cages were detected in acidic organelles (endosomes/lysosomes) for at least 48 hours, but none were detected in the mitochondria or nuclei. To generate HspG41C cages carrying doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer agent, the HspG41C cages and DOX were conjugated using acid-labile hydrazone linkers. The release of DOX from HspG41C cages was accelerated at pH 5.0, but was negligible at pH 7.2. The cytotoxic effects of HspG41C-DOX against Suit-2 and HepG2 cells were slightly weaker than those of free DOX, but the ef
fects were almost identical in Huh-7 cells. Considering the relatively low release of DOX from HspG41C-DOX, HspG41C-DOX exhibited comparable activity towards HepG2 and Suit-2 cells and slightly stronger cytotoxicity towards Huh-7 cells than free DOX. Hsp cages offer good biocompatibility, are easy to prepare, and are easy to modify; these properties facilitate their use as nanoplatforms in drug delivery systems and in other biomedical applications..
72. Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Maeyama R, Toma H, Shimizu S, Tanaka M, Feasibility and safety of intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy after laparoscopic total gastrectomy: Inverted T-shaped anastomosis using linear staplers., Surgery, 153, 5, 732-738, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:

Although laparoscopic distal gastrectomy has been widely accepted in clinical practice, laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) is not yet familiar because of the difficulty in esophagojejunostomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate perioperative and short-term outcomes of our procedure of intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy using linear staplers after LTG.

METHODS:

Of 98 consecutive patients who underwent LTG for gastric cancer in our department between August 2002 and December 2010, 94 patients underwent esophagojejunostomy with a linear stapling device. After October 2007, we modified the esophagojejunostomy; ie, the most recent 57 patients underwent transection of the esophagus in the ventrodorsal direction and insertion of a linear stapler from the anterior wall of the Roux limb to the posterior wall so as to make an inverted T-shaped anastomosis. We evaluated the results in these 57 patients (recent group) and compared them with the results in the earlier 37 patients (early group).

RESULTS:

The mean operative time in the recent group was 368 to 94.6 min, and the mean estimated blood loss was 57 to 33 g; both were comparable with those in the early group. Neither open conversion nor intraoperative complications were encountered. Two patients experienced anastomotic leakage in the earlier group, but anastomotic leakage did not occur in the recent group. No mortality was encountered.

CONCLUSION:

We herein report our procedure of intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy using linear staplers after LTG. Our procedure of esophagojejunostomy using linear staplers is safe and feasible and has acceptable morbidity.

Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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73. Yamanaka N, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Toma H, Shimizu S, Oda Y, Tanaka M, Feasibility of laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer with positive peritoneal cytology, Surg Today, 43, 8, 859-864, 2013.04, Abstract


PURPOSE:

The role of gastrectomy for patients with positive peritoneal cytology, but a negative macroscopic peritoneal implant (P-/cy+), remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate laparoscopic gastrectomy for P-/cy+ patients.

METHODS:

This study reviewed a prospectively maintained gastric cancer database of gastric-cancer patients those underwent surgical resection. P-/cy+ gastric cancer that had invaded the subserosa, or deeper layers, of the stomach wall without distant organ metastases was considered operable in this institution. P-/cy+ patients underwent either open or laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. The short-term results were examined to assess differences in outcome between the two groups.

RESULTS:

Eighteen P-/cy+ patients without distant organ metastases underwent surgery between 2000 and 2010. Laparoscopic gastrectomy was performed in nine patients and open gastrectomy in nine patients. The estimated blood loss was significantly smaller, the resumption of food intake earlier, and the length of postoperative hospital stay shorter in the patients that underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy than in the patients that underwent open gastrectomy. There were no significant differences in the 2-year survival rates between the groups.

CONCLUSION:

Laparoscopic gastrectomy for P-/cy+ patients is a minimally invasive and safe oncologic procedure with good short-term results.
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74. Eguchi D, Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Kozono S, Cui L, Fujiwara K, Fujino M, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Hypoxia enhances the interaction between pancreatic stellate cells and cancer cells via increased secretion of connective tissue growth factor, Journal of surgical research, 181, 2, 225-233, 2013.04, Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pancreatic cancer (PC), a hypovascular tumor, thrives under hypoxic conditions. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote PC progression by secreting soluble factors, but their functions in hypoxia are poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the effects of hypoxic conditions on the interaction between PC cells and PSCs.

METHODS:

We isolated human PSCs from fresh pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and analyzed functional differences in PSCs between normoxia (21% O(2)) and hypoxia (1% O(2)), including expression of various factors related to tumor-stromal interactions. We particularly analyzed effects on PC invasiveness of an overexpressed molecule-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-in PSCs under hypoxic conditions, using RNA interference techniques.

RESULTS:

Conditioned media from hypoxic PSCs enhanced PC cell invasiveness more intensely than that from normoxic PSCs (P < 0.01). When co-cultured with PSCs, PC cell invasion was more enhanced under hypoxia than under normoxia (P < 0.05). Among various soluble factors, which were related to invasiveness, CTGF was one of the overexpressed molecules in hypoxic PSCs. A higher level of CTGF expression was also found in supernatant of hypoxic PSCs than in supernatant of normoxic PSCs. PC cell invasiveness was reduced by CTGF knockdown in hypoxic PSCs co-cultured with PC cells (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Hypoxia induces PSCs' secretion of CTGF, leading to enhancement of PC invasiveness. CTGF derived from hypoxia-stimulated PSCs may be a new therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
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75. Ideno N, Ohtsuka T, Kono H, Fujiwara K, Oda Y, Aishima S, Ito T, Tokunaga S, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Nakamura M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas with Distinct Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Are Frequently of Gastric Subtype, Ann Surg., 258, 1, 141-151, 2013.04, OBJECTIVE:: To identify a high-risk group of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), independently arising in the pancreas with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), using histopathologic subtypes. BACKGROUND:: Pathologic features of IPMN with distinct PDAC, including histopathologic subtypes of IPMN and PDAC phenotypes, have not been well characterized. Mucin expression patterns and the mutational status of GNAS and KRAS are useful to explore the relationship between these 2 lesion types. METHODS:: Clinicopathologic data of 179 resected IPMNs and 180 resected PDACs without IPMNs as a control group were reviewed. IPMNs were classified into 4 grades (low-grade, intermediate-grade, high-grade dysplasia, and an associated invasive carcinoma) and 4 subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic). The expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CDX2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in IPMNs and PDACs with an
d without IPMNs. The mutational status of GNAS and KRAS was evaluated by cycle sequencing in PDACs and pre-/coexisting IPMNs. RESULTS:: Twenty-six synchronous or metachronous PDACs were identified in 20 patients (11.2%) with IPMNs. Occurrence of concomitant PDACs was more frequently observed in gastric-type IPMNs (18/110, 16.4%) compared with intestinal (1/49, 2.0%), pancreatobiliary (1/17, 5.9%), or oncocytic-type (0/3, 0%) (P = 0.047). Both PDACs with and without IPMNs were frequently positive for MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, but were negative for MUC2 and CDX2. The mucin-staining patterns were similar to those of invasive tubular adenocarcinoma arising from gastric-type IPMNs. Mutation of GNAS within codon 201 was not detected in PDACs and gastric-type IPMNs, whereas most of these exhibited KRAS mutations. However, the R201H GNAS mutation was detected in 1 intestinal-type IPMN with distinct PDAC. CONCLUSIONS:: Mucin expression pa
tterns demonstrate that PDAC without GNAS mutations of an aggressive phenotype frequently arise in the pancreas with benign gastric-type IPMN in the absence of GNAS mutations..
76. Mahawithitwong P, Ohuchida K, Ikenaga N, Fujita H, Zhao M, Kozono S, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Aishima S, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Kindlin-1 expression is involved in migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer , International journal of oncology, 42, 4, 1360-1366, 2013.04, Abstract
Kindlin-1 is a novel focal adhesion protein that belongs to the kindlin family. Expression of kindlin-1 has recently been reported in lung and colon cancers, but there have been no studies on its expression in pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of kindlin-1 in pancreatic cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR of Kindlin-1 mRNA was performed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines as well as normal pancreatic epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical analysis of kindlin-1 was performed for pancreatic cancer tissues. The effects of kindlin-1 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated using an RNA interference technique. Kindlin-1 mRNA was highly expressed in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, but only slightly expressed in normal pancreatic epithelial cells and fibroblasts. The Kindlin-1 protein was heterogeneously expressed in the cytoplasm and membrane of pancreatic cancer cells, while normal ductal epithelial cells and stromal cells showed no expression. In vitro experiments involving knockdown of kindlin-1 in AsPC-1 and KP-2 cells revealed that the migratory and invasive abilities of the cells were significantly decreased (P<0.001), while the proliferation abilities were not affected. The present findings suggest that kindlin-1 expression is involved in the progression of pancreatic cancer via enhancement of cell migration and invasion..
77. Eguchi D, Ohuchida K, Kozono S, Ikenaga N, Shindo K, Cui L, Fujiwara K, Akagawa S, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Tokunaga S, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, MAL2 expression predicts distant metastasis and short survival in pancreatic cancer, Surgery. , 154, 3, 573-582, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:

Pancreatic cancer is associated with a devastating prognosis, partially because of its aggressive metastatic ability. Identification of prognostic markers of metastasis would be useful in the clinical management of postoperative patients with pancreatic cancer. Mal, T-cell differentiation protein 2 (MAL2) has been identified as a molecule predictive of metastases; the clinical relevance of MAL2 in pancreatic cancer is unknown.

METHODS:

Orthotopic human pancreatic cancer xenografts from the pancreatic cancer cell line SUIT-2 were established in nude mice. Only liver metastasis was harvested and cultured. These metastatic cycles were repeated 5 times to establish a highly metastatic cell line, termed metastatic SUIT-2 (MS). We investigated proliferation and motility of MS cells compared with those of the parent SUIT-2. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate differences in gene expression. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of 89 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreatic cancer tissue samples to investigate the clinical significance of MAL2 expression.

RESULTS:

MS cells showed a greater metastatic rate after orthotopic implantation than parental SUIT-2. MS cells had increased motility but decreased proliferation compared with parental SUIT-2. Microarray analyses showed that 26 genes were significantly upregulated (>10-fold) in MS cells compared with parental SUIT-2, particularly MAL2 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that high expression of MAL2 was associated with a lesser survival of postoperative patients (P = .03) and a high rate of distant metastasis (P = .008).

CONCLUSION:

We characterized a newly established pancreatic cancer cell line with highly metastatic potential. MAL2 is a promising predictive marker for distant metastasis and short survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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78. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Shindo K, Ikenaga N, Cui L, Takahata S, Aishima S, Tanaka M, Migratory Activity of CD105+ Pancreatic Cancer Cells Is Strongly Enhanced by Pancreatic Stellate Cells
, Pancreas, 42, 8, 1283-1290, 2013.04, OBJECTIVES: CD105 expression correlates with prognosis for several cancers. However, its significance in pancreatic cancer is unclear.METHODS: We analyzed CD105 expression in resected pancreatic cancer tissue and pancreatic cancer cell lines, compared the properties of CD105 and CD105 cells using quantitative RT-PCR and migration assays, and evaluated the relationship between CD105 cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs).RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that the frequency of CD105 expression was higher in pancreatic cancer than that in normal tissue (8% vs 0%, respectively). In flow cytometry, CD105 was expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, whereas weak CD105 expression was detected in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that E-cadherin mRNA expression was suppressed and vimentin mRNA was overexpressed in CD105 cells (P < 0.05). Migration of CD105 cancer cells was strongly enhanced (more than that of CD105 c
ells) in coculture with PSCs (P < 0.05). CD105 expression did not correlate to clinicopathologic characteristics or the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.CONCLUSIONS: Suppression of an epithelial marker and overexpression of a mesenchymal marker suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is induced in CD105 pancreatic cancer cells. CD105 pancreatic cancer cell migration is strongly enhanced by PSCs, suggesting that these cells play a role in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment..
79. Kozono S, Ohuchida K, Eguchi D, Ikenaga N, Fujiwara K, Cui L, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Pirfenidone inhibits pancreatic cancer desmoplasia by regulating stellate cells, Cancer Research, 73, 7, 2345-2356, 2013.04, Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which are implicated in desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer, enhance the malignancy of cancer cells and confer resistance to established treatments. We investigated whether the antifibrotic agent pirfenidone can suppress desmoplasia and exert anti-tumor effects against pancreatic cancer. Primary PSCs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained during surgery. In vitro, pirfenidone inhibited the proliferation, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Although supernatants of untreated PSCs increased the proliferation, invasiveness, and migration of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs), supernatants of pirfenidone-treated PSCs decreased these effects. Exposure to PCC supernatant increased the production of platelet-derived growth factor-A, hepatic growth factor, collagen type I, fibronectin, and periostin in PSCs, which was significantly reduced by pirfenidone. Mice were subcutaneously implante
d with PCCs (SUIT-2 cells) andPSCs into the right flank and PCCs alone into the left flank. Oral administration of pirfenidone to these mice significantly reduced tumor growth of co-implanted PCCs and PSCs, but not of PCCs alone. Pirfenidone also decreased the proliferation of PSCs and the deposition of collagen type I and periostin in tumors. In mice with orthotopic tumors consisting of PCCs co-implanted with PSCs, pirfenidone suppressed tumor growth, reduced the number of peritoneal disseminated nodules, and reduced the incidence of liver metastasis. Pirfenidone in combination with gemcitabine more effectively suppressed orthotopic tumor growth compared with pirfenidone or gemcitabine alone. In conclusion, our findings indicate that pirfenidone is a promising antitumor agent for pancreatic cancer, owing to its suppression of desmoplasia through regulating PSCs..
80. Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Fujiwara K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Hattori M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances tumor progression of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, Mol Cancer., 12, 1, 168, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:

Interactions between cancer cells and surrounding cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in cancer progression. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas is characterized by abundant fibrous connective tissue called desmoplasia. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a lymphatic vessel marker (D2-40), and expression of PDPN by stromal CAFs has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in various types of cancer.

METHODS:

Expression of PDPN in pancreatic IDCs was assessed by immunohistochemical examination in 105 patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Primary CAFs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained by surgery. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate PDPN expression in CAFs. We sorted CAFs according to PDPN expression, and analyzed the functional differences between PDPN+ CAFs and PDPN- CAFs using indirect co-culture with pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also investigated the culture conditions to regulate PDPN expression in CAFs.

RESULTS:

PDPN expression in stromal fibroblasts was associated with lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0461), vascular invasion (P = 0.0101), tumor size ≥ 3 cm (P = 0.0038), histological grade (P = 0.0344), Union for International Cancer Control classification T stage (P = 0.029), and shorter survival time (P < 0.0001). Primary CAFs showed heterogeneous PDPN expression in vitro. Moreover, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and SUIT-2) were associated with PDPN expression in CAFs (P < 0.01) and expression of CD10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP3. In cultured CAFs, PDPN positivity changed over time under several conditions including co-culture with cancer cells, different culture media, and addition of growth factor.

CONCLUSIONS:

PDPN-expressing CAFs enhance the progression of pancreatic IDC, and a high ratio of PDPN-expressing CAFs is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Understanding the regulation of the tumor microenvironment is an important step towards developing new therapeutic strategies.
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81. Kozono S, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Cui L, Eguchi D, Fujiwara K, Zhao M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, S100A4 mRNA expression level is a predictor of radioresistance of pancreatic cancer cells, Oncol Rep. , 30, 4, 1601-1608, 2013.04, Improving poor outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer requires a greater understanding of the biological mechanisms contributing to radioresistance. We, therefore, sought to identify genes involved in the radioresistance of pancreatic cancer cells. Two pancreatic cancer cell lines, CFPAC-1 and Capan-1, were repeatedly exposed to radiation, establishing two radioresistant cell lines. Gene expression profiling using cDNA microarrays was performed to identify genes responsible for radioresistance. The levels of expression of mRNAs encoded by selected genes and their correlation with radiation dose resulting in 50% survival rate were analyzed in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The radiation dose resulting in a 50% survival rate was significantly higher in irradiated (IR) compared to parental CFPAC-1 cells (8.31 ± 0.85 Gy vs. 2.14 ± 0.04 Gy, P<0.0001), but was lower in IR compared with parental Capan-1 cells (2.66 ± 0.24 Gy vs. 2.25 ± 0.03 Gy, P=0.04). cDNA microarray analysis identified 4 genes, including S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4), overexpressed and 23 genes underexpressed in the IR compared with the parental cell lines. The levels of S100A4 mRNA expression were correlated with radiation dose resulting in a 50% survival rate (Pearson's test, R2=0.81, P=0.0025). S100A4 mRNA expression may predict radioresistance of pancreatic cancer cells and may play an important role in the poor response of pancreatic cancer cells to radiation therapy..
82. Inoue D, Yoshimoto K, Uemura M, Yoshida M, Ohuchida K, Kenmotsu H, Tomikawa M, Sasaki T, Hashizume M, Three-dimensional high-definition neuroendoscopic surgery: a controlled comparative laboratory study with two-dimensional endoscopy and clinical application., J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg, 74, 6, 357-365, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:The purpose of this research was to investigate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy compared with two-dimensional (2D) endoscopy in neuroendoscopic surgeries in a comparative study and to test the clinical applications.METHODS:Forty-three examinees were divided into three groups according to their endoscopic experience: novice, beginner, or expert. Examinees performed three separate tasks using 3D and 2D endoscopy. A recently developed 3D high-definition (HD) neuroendoscope, 4.7 mm in diameter (Shinko Optical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used. In one of the three tasks, we developed a full-sized skull model of acrylic-based plastic using a 3D printer and a patient's thin slice computed tomography data, and evaluated the execution time and total path length of the tip of the pointer using an optical tracking system. Sixteen patients underwent endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery using both 3D and 2D endoscop
y.RESULTS:Horizontal motion was evaluated using task 1, and anteroposterior motion was evaluated with task 3. Execution time and total path length in task 3 using the 3D system in both novice and beginner groups were significantly shorter than with the 2D system (p < 0.05), although no significant difference between 2D and 3D systems in task 1 was seen. In both the novice and beginner groups, the 3D system was better for depth perception than horizontal motion. No difference was seen in the expert group in this regard. The 3D HD endoscope was used for the pituitary surgery and was found very useful to identify the spatial relationship of carotid arteries and bony structures.CONCLUSIONS:The use of a 3D neuroendoscope improved depth perception and task performance. Our results suggest that 3D endoscopes could shorten the learning curve of young neurosurgeons and play an important role in both general surgery and neurosurgery..
83. Ieiri S, Uemura M, Konishi K, Souzaki R, Nagao Y, Tsutsumi N, Akahoshi T, Ohuchida K, Ohdaira T, Tomikawa M, Tanoue K, Hashizume M, Taguchi T, Augmented reality navigation system for laparoscopic splenectomy in children based on preoperative CT image using optical tracking device., Pediatr Surg Int., 28, 4, 341-346, 2012.04, PURPOSE:In endoscopic surgery, limited views and lack of tactile sensation restrict the surgeon's abilities and cause stress to the surgeon. Therefore, an intra-operative navigation system is strongly recommended. We developed an augmented reality (AR) navigation system based on preoperative CT imaging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness, feasibility, and accuracy of this system using laparoscopic splenectomy in children.METHODS:Volume images were reconstructed by three-dimensional (3D) viewer application. We used an optical tracking system for registration between volume image and body surface markers. The AR visualization was superimposed preoperative 3D CT images onto captured laparoscopic live images. This system was applied to six cases of laparoscopic splenectomy in children. To evaluate registration accuracy, distances from the marker position to the volume data were calculated.RESULTS:The operator recognized the hidden vas
cular variation of the splenic artery and vein, accessory spleen, and pancreatic tail by overlaying an image onto a laparoscopic live image. The registration accuracy of six cases was 5.30 ± 0.08, 5.71 ± 1.70, 10.1 ± 0.60, 18.8 ± 3.56, 4.06 ± 1.71, and 7.05 ± 4.71.CONCLUSION:This navigation system provides real-time anatomical information, which cannot be otherwise visualized without navigation. The registration accuracy was acceptable in clinical operation..
84. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Shindo K, Eguchi D, Kozono S, Ikenaga N, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Aishima S, Tanaka M, CD271⁺ subpopulation of pancreatic stellate cells correlates with prognosis of pancreatic cancer and is regulated by interaction with cancer cells., PLOS one, 0.1371/journal.pone.0052682, 7, 12, e52682, 2012.04, Abstract
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a crucial role in the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer. Although heterogeneity of PSCs has been identified, the functional differences remain unclear. We characterized CD271⁺ PSCs in human pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry for CD271 was performed for 31 normal pancreatic tissues and 105 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We performed flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, and assessed CD271 expression in PSCs isolated from pancreatic tissues and the changes in CD271 expression in PSCs cocultured with cancer cells. We also investigated the pattern of CD271 expression in a SCID mouse xenograft model. In the immunohistochemical analyses, the CD271-high staining rates in pancreatic stroma in normal pancreatic tissues and PDACs were 2/31 (6.5%) and 29/105 (27.6%), respectively (p = 0.0069). In PDACs, CD271⁺ stromal cells were frequently observed on the edge rather than the center of the tumors. Stromal CD271 high expression was associated with a good prognosis (p = 0.0040). Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated CD271-positive rates in PSCs were 0-2.1%. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that CD271 mRNA expression was increased in PSCs after coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. However, the level of CD271 mRNA expression subsequently decreased after the transient increase. Furthermore, CD271 mRNA expression was decreased in PSCs migrating toward pancreatic cancer cells through Matrigel. In the xenograft model, CD271⁺ PSCs were present at tumor margins/periphery and were absent in the tumor core. In conclusion, CD271 was expressed in PSCs around pancreatic tumors, but not in the center of the tumors, and expression decreased after long coculture with pancreatic cancer cells or after movement toward pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that CD271⁺ PSCs appear at the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis and that CD271 expression is significantly correlated with a better prognosis in patients with PDAC..
85. Aso T, Ohtsuka T, Ideno N, Kono H, Nagayoshi Y, Mori Y, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Takahata S, Morimatsu K, Aishima S, Igarashi H, Ito T, Ishigami K, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Diagnostic significance of a dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, Gastrointest Endosc, 76, 2, 313-320, 2012.04,
BACKGROUND:

A dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla found during screening endoscopy or ERCP is well-known as one of the specific findings of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). However, its clinical significance is still unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the diagnostic significance of a dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla and evaluate whether this could be a factor predictive of malignancy or a subtype of IPMN.

DESIGN:

Retrospective study.

SETTING:

University hospital.

PATIENTS:

This study involved 149 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for IPMN between January 1987 and June 2011.

INTERVENTION:

ERCP.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:

The rate of malignant and intestinal type IPMNs in patients with and without papillary dilation.

RESULTS:

A dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla was significantly associated with intestinal type IPMN (P < .001), but this finding could not predict the malignant grade of IPMN (P = .13). Multivariate analysis revealed that a dilated orifice was a significant factor for predicting intestinal type in both main duct (P = .01) and branch duct IPMNs (P < .001).

LIMITATIONS:

The validity of the definition of papillary dilation, selection bias, and a retrospective study.

CONCLUSION:

A dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla could be a significant factor for predicting intestinal type IPMN. This may lead to better clinical management of patients with IPMN.

Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


Comment in
Pancreatic cancer: Dilated orifice of the duodenal papilla predicts intestinal type IPMN. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012]
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86. Murata M, Narahara S, Umezaki K, Toita R, Tabata S, Piao JS, Abe K, Kang JH, Ohuchida K, Cui L, Hashizume M, Liver cell specific targeting by the preS1 domain of hepatitis B virus surface antigen displayed on protein nanocages., Int J Nanomedicine., 7, 4353-4362, 2012.04, Protein nanocages are self-organized complexes of oligomers whose three-dimensional architecture can been determined in detail. These structures possess nanoscale inner cavities into which a variety of molecules, including therapeutic or diagnostic agents, can be encapsulated. These properties yield these particles suitable for a new class of drug delivery carrier, or as a bioimaging reagent that might respond to biochemical signals in many different cellular processes. We report here the design, synthesis, and biological characterization of a hepatocyte-specific nanocage carrying small heat-shock protein. These nanoscale protein cages, with a targeting peptide composed of a preS1 derivative from the hepatitis B virus on their surfaces, were prepared by genetic engineering techniques. PreS1-carrying nanocages showed lower cytotoxicity and significantly higher specificity for human hepatocyte cell lines than other cell lines in vitro. These results sug
gested that small heat-shock protein-based nanocages present great potential for the development of effective targeted delivery of various agents to specific cells..
87. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Lin C, Yamaguchi H, Ohtsuka T, Sato N, Toma H, Nakamura M, Nagai E, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, MicroRNA-10a is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and involved in its invasiveness partially via suppression of the HOXA1 gene, Ann Surg Oncol., 19, 7, 2394-2402, 2012.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
There is increasing evidence that microRNAs are differentially expressed in many types of cancers. Despite progress in analyses of microRNAs in several types of cancers, the functional contributions of microRNAs to pancreatic cancer remain unclear.
METHODS:
In the present study, the expression levels of specific microRNAs identified by microarray analyses were examined in a panel of 15 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We then investigated the functional roles of these microRNAs in the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
RESULTS:
Based on the microarray data, we found frequent and marked overexpression of miR-10a, miR-92, and miR-17-5p in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Microdissection analyses revealed that miR-10a was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells isolated from a subset of primary tumors (12 of 20, 60%) compared with precursor lesions and normal ducts (P<.01). In vitro experiments revealed that miR-10a inhibitors decreased the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells (P<.01), but had no effect on their proliferation. Inhibition of HOXA1, a target of miR-10a, promoted the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells (P<.01).
CONCLUSIONS:
The present data suggest that miR-10a is overexpressed in a subset of pancreatic cancers and is involved in the invasive potential of pancreatic cancer cells partially via suppression of HOXA1..
88. Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Akagawa S, Fujiwara K, Eguchi D, Kozono S, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Tanaka M, Pancreatic cancer cells enhance the ability of collagen internalization during epithelial-mesenchymal transition., PLoS One, 7, 7, e40434, 2012.04, Abstract


BACKGROUND:

Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is predominantly mediated by fibroblasts using intracellular and extracellular pathways. Although it is well known that extracellular degradation of the ECM by proteases derived from cancer cells facilitates cellular invasion, the intracellular degradation of ECM components by cancer cells has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to characterize collagen internalization, which is the initial step of the intracellular degradation pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, in light of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

We analyzed the function of collagen internalization in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and KP-2, and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) using Oregon Green 488-gelatin. PSCs had a strong ability for collagen uptake, and the pancreatic cancer cells also internalized collagen although less efficiently. The collagen internalization abilities of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells were promoted by EMT induced by human recombinant transforming growth factor β1 (P<0.05). Expression of Endo180, a collagen uptake receptor, was high in mesenchymal pancreatic cancer cell lines, as determined by EMT marker expression (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that Endo180 expression was also increased by EMT induction in SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells. Endo180 knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the collagen uptake (P<0.01) and invasive abilities (P<0.05) of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:

Pancreatic cancer cells are capable of collagen internalization, which is enhanced by EMT. This ECM clearance system may be a novel mechanism for cellular invasion and a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
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89. Zhao M, Tominaga Y, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Cui L, Kozono S, Fujita H, Maeyama R, Toma H, Tanaka M, Significance of combination therapy of zoledronic acid and gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer.
, Cancer Sci. , 103, 1, 58-66, 2012.04, Abstract
In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of combination therapy with zoledronic acid (ZOL) and gemcitabine (GEM) on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Four human pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with ZOL, GEM or a combination of both, and the effects of the respective drug regimens on cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression were examined. A pancreatic cancer cell line was also intrasplenically or orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and the effects of these drugs on tumor metastasis and growth in vivo were evaluated by histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Combination treatment with low doses of ZOL and GEM efficiently inhibited the proliferation (P < 0.001) and invasion (P < 0.001) of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Western blotting assay revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels were decreased after ZOL treatment. In vivo, combined treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < 0.05) and the development of liver metastasis (P < 0.05). These data revealed that, when used in combination, ZOL and GEM have significant antitumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on pancreatic cancer cells. In the present study, we first reported the significance of the combination treatment of ZOL and GEM in pancreatic cancer using an in vivo model. These data show promise for the future application of this drug regimen in patients with pancreatic cancer.

© 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

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90. Nakata K, Nagai E, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Otsuka T, Toma H, Hirahashi M, Aishima S, Oda Y, Tanaka M, The risk of lymph node metastasis in mucosal gastric carcinoma: especially for a mixture of differentiated and undifferentiated adenocarcinoma., Hepatogastroenterology, 59, 118, 1855-1858, 2012.04, BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is gaining wider acceptance for the treatment of early gastric carcinoma (EGC) and its indication has been extended to mucosal gastric carcinoma with undifferentiated component in some institutes. Our aims were to confirm the frequency of lymph node metastasis in such cases and clarify the demarcation in indications for ESD.

METHODOLOGY:

We evaluated medical data of 287 patients with mucosal gastric carcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 1996 and 2008. The tumours were histologically classified into purely differentiated (PD), differentiated-predominant mixed (DPM), undifferentiated-predominant mixed (UPM) and purely undifferentiated (PU) types.

RESULTS:

Lymph node metastasis was identified in seven (2.4%) of the 287 patients and was detected more frequently in UPM (10%, two of 20) and PU (4%, four of 98), compared with PD (none of 148) (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). In mixed-type carcinoma, size was a significant risk factor for lymph node metastasis (p=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

It might be better to select gastrectomy rather than ESD for the treatment of mucosal gastric carcinoma with an undifferentiated component.
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91. Yasui T, Ohuchida K, Zhao M, Cui L, Onimaru M, Egami T, Fujita H, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto M, Matsumoto K, Tanaka M, Adenoviral therapy is more effective in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer than in gemcitabine-sensitive cells.
, Anticancer Res. , 31, 4, 1279-1288, 2011.04, BACKGROUND: Although gemcitabine is the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, this particular type of cancer develops rapidly and has intrinsic chemoresistance. Chemoresistance plays a critical role in tumor progression, invasion and migration. Nevertheless, the effect of adenoviral therapy on chemoresistant cancer cells has not been studied. In this study, we compared the efficacy of adenoviral therapy in parental and chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To establish gemcitabine-resistant cells, pancreatic cancer SUIT2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells were infected with adenoviruses expressing either green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) or the hepatocyte growth factor antagonist, NK4 (Ad-NK4). To investigate the transduction efficacy, GFP expression and NK4 concentrations were measured and an invasion assay was used to investigate the efficacy of the adenoviral therapy.

RESULTS: The 50% inhibitory concentration of gemcitabine was <10 nM in the parental SUIT-2 cells, while it was >1 μM in gemcitabine-resistant cells. A large number of gemcitabine-resistant cells were GFP-positive compared with only a small number of parental cells (p<0.05). The NK4 expression level was significantly higher in gemcitabine-resistant cells than in parental cells (p<0.05). The supernatant from Ad-NK4-infected gemcitabine-resistant cells significantly inhibited the invasion of cancer cells compared with that from Ad-NK4-infected parental cells (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Both the efficiency of transduction and the therapeutic efficacy of adenoviral therapy were higher in gemcitabine-resistant cells than in parental cells, suggesting that adenoviral gene therapy is more effective in patients with gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer.

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92. Tsutsumi K, Sato N, Tanabe R, Mizumoto K, Morimatsu K, Kayashima T, Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, Claudin-4 Expression Predicts Survival in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
, Ann Surg Oncol. , 19, Suppl3, S491-499, 2011.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: Identification of prognostic markers would be useful in the clinical management of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The clinical relevance of claudin-4 (CLDN4), recently identified as overexpressed in PDAC, is unknown.

METHODS: Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we analyzed CLDN4 mRNA expression in a panel of 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 100 patients with PDAC. The CLDN4 expression levels were then correlated with clinicopathological variables and patient outcome. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis in 20 FFPE samples of PDAC to investigate the expression of CLDN4 protein.

RESULTS: Increased expression of CLDN4 was confirmed in all the pancreatic cancer cell lines tested compared with normal ductal epithelial cells and fibroblasts. We found that low expression of CLDN4 was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with PDAC (hazard ratio; 1.362, 95% confidence interval; 1.011-1.873, P = 0.0419). Patients with high CLDN4 expression survived longer for a median of 63.0 months, compared with 14.7 months in patients with low CLDN4 expression (P = 0.0067). In immunohistochemical analysis, the level of CLDN4 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the expression of CLDN4 protein (P = 0.0168).

CONCLUSION: Increased expression of CLDN4 mRNA predicts better prognosis in PDAC.

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93. Tsutsumi K, Sato N, Cui L, Mizumoto K, Sadakari Y, Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Tanaka M , Expression of claudin-4 (CLDN4) mRNA in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas
, Mod Pathol, 24, 4, 533-541, 2011.04, Claudin-4, encoding a protein for tight junction formation and function, is highly overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is also associated with invasive adenocarcinomas arising in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. However, the expression pattern of claudin-4 during neoplastic progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms remains unknown. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we analyzed claudin-4 mRNA in a panel of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines and in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 80 patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of different histological grades and papillary subtypes. Increased expression of claudin-4 was confirmed in all the pancreatic cancer cell lines tested as compared with normal ductal epithelial cells and fibroblast cultures. The claudin-4 expression was significantly higher in high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (borderline neoplasm and carcinoma) than in low-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (adenoma) (P<0.0001). In addition, claudin-4 mRNA levels were significantly higher in intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms than in non-intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms based on papillary subclassification (P<0.0001). Our findings suggest that claudin-4 expression is associated with neoplastic progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and, especially, with a distinct pathway to intestinal differentiation.

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94. Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Itaba S, Ito T, Nakata K, Yu J, Kayashima T, Hayashi A, Souzaki R, Tajiri T, Onimaru M, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M , High EGFR mRNA expression is a prognostic factor for reduced survival in pancreatic cancer after gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
, International journal of oncology
, 38, 3, 629-641, 2011.04, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still presents a major therapeutic challenge and a phase III clinical trial has revealed that the combination of gemcitabine and a human epidermal growth factor receptor type I (HER1/EGFR) targeting agent presented a significant benefit compared to treatment with gemcitabine alone. The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR mRNA expression in resected PDAC tissues and its correlation with patient prognosis. We obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 88 patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy, and measured EGFR mRNA levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The high-level EGFR group had significantly shorter disease-free-survival (p=0.029) and overall-survival (p=0.014) as shown by univariate analyses, although these did not reach statistical significance, as shown by multivariate analyses. However, we found that high EGFR expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients receiving gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.023). Furthermore, we measured EGFR mRNA levels in 20 endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytological specimens. Altered EGFR levels were distinguishable in microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytological specimens compared to those in whole cell pellets. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of EGFR mRNA expression using FFPE tissue samples and microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytological specimens could be useful in predicting prognosis and sensitivity to gemcitabine in PDAC patients.

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95. Sakai H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Cui L, Nakata K, Toma H, Nagai E, Tanaka M, Inhibition of p600 expression suppresses both invasiveness and anoikis resistance of gastric cancer.
, Ann Surg Oncol. , 18, 7, 2057-2065, 2011.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: Advanced gastric cancers often metastasize to distant organs and the peritoneum, leading to a poor prognosis. Both invasiveness and resistance to anchorage-independent cell death (anoikis) are important factors in the process of metastasis. p600 (600-kDa protein), recently identified from a cervical cancer cell line, plays a role in both anoikis resistance and cell migration. In this study, we examined whether p600 is involved in the progression of gastric cancer.

METHODS: We used both normal gastric mucosal cells and cancer cells laser-microdissected from 42 gastric cancers and their normal counterparts, and compared their p600 mRNA expression levels with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We inhibited p600 expression in two gastric cancer cell lines with siRNA and examined its effect on the invasiveness and anoikis resistance both in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS: Expression of p600 mRNA was significantly higher in gastric cancer cells than in normal mucosal cells (P = 0.027). The invasion assay revealed that invasiveness was significantly reduced by inhibition of p600 (P < 0.01). In vitro experiments revealed that cell viability and colony-formation capacity under anchorage-independent conditions were significantly reduced by inhibition of p600 (P < 0.05). In vivo experiments also showed that the establishment of intraperitoneal disseminated tumors was significantly suppressed by transient inhibition of p600 (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that p600 is involved in gastric cancer progression, and has a potential to be a new molecular target for gastric cancer therapy.

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96. Kayashima T, Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Shirahane K, Fujita H, Cui L, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Insig2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and its expression is induced by hypoxia.
, Cancer Science, 102, 6, 1137-1143, 2011.04, Abstract
A hypoxic microenvironment is a characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer, and induces the expressions of various genes involved in malignant behaviors. Insulin-induced gene 2 (Insig2) has recently been shown to be correlated with cellular invasion in colon cancer. However, there have been no reports regarding its expression in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we evaluated Insig2 mRNA expression and the biological function of Insig2 in pancreatic cancer. We measured Insig2 mRNA expression in cultured pancreatic cancer cell lines and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells, normal pancreatic epithelial cells, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection. We also investigated the effects of Insig2-targeting siRNAs on the cell proliferation and cell invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines. All pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed Insig2 mRNA. The PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines showed >2-fold higher Insig2 mRNA expression levels under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) than under normoxic conditions (21% O2 ). Cell proliferation was significantly decreased in SUIT-2 cells and cell invasion was significantly decreased in SUIT-2, Capan-2, and CFPAC-1 cells after transfection of the Insig2-targeting siRNAs. In analyses of microdissected cells, cells from IDC tissues expressed significantly higher levels of Insig2 mRNA than normal pancreatic cells (P < 0.001) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells (P = 0.082). In analyses of IDC cells, the levels of Insig2 mRNA expression were significantly higher in late-stage patients than in early-stage patients. The present data suggest that Insig2 is associated with the malignant potential of pancreatic cancer under hypoxic conditions.

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97. Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Aishima S, Sadakari Y, Kayashima T, Miyasaka Y, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, Oda Y, Invasive carcinoma derived from intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is associated with minimal invasion, colloid carcinoma, and less invasive behavior, leading to a better prognosis.
, Pancreas. , 40, 4, 581-587, 2011.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Although intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) is reported to have a better prognosis, few studies have addressed its invasive pattern. The meaning of "minimal invasion" (MI) in IPMC also remains unclear. We investigated the prognosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) focusing on MI and subtypes.

METHODS: We evaluated 71 patients with IPMC among a total of 179 patients with resected IPMN.

RESULTS: Although 2 of 10 MI-IPMC patients had lymph node metastasis, there were no disease-specific deaths among the MI-IPMC patients. Minimally invasive IPMCs were more frequently observed in intestinal-type IPMC (23/33 cases) than in non-intestinal-type IPMCs (16/38 cases; P = 0.019). Among 32 patients with massively invasive IPMC, the prognosis was significantly better for patients with intestinal-type IPMC than for patients with non-intestinal-type IPMC (P = 0.013). When confined to massively invasive IPMC, tubular invasion (P < 0.001) and lymphatic (P = 0.001) or serosal (P = 0.021) invasion were less frequently observed in intestinal-type IPMC than in non-intestinal-type IPMC.

CONCLUSIONS: Invasive carcinoma derived from intestinal-type IPMN is associated with MI, colloid carcinoma, and less invasive behavior.

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98. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Kayashima T, Fujita H, Moriyama T, Otsuka T, Ueda J, Nagai E, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, MicroRNA expression as a predictive marker for gemcitabine response after surgical resection of pancreatic cancer.
, Ann Surg Oncol. , 18, 8, 2381-2387, 2011.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: To improve the prognosis of patients after resection of pancreatic cancer, the most appropriate and efficient treatment should be provided to specific subsets of patients. Our aim was to identify promising microRNAs as markers to predict responses to gemcitabine in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

METHODS: Two gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines were established, and global microRNA expression analyses was performed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Eleven miRNAs were selected as putative predictive markers and analyzed by means of macrodissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples obtained from 90 patients with or without gemcitabine treatment after resection of pancreatic cancer.

RESULTS: We identified 24 microRNAs whose expression was altered in gemcitabine-resistant cells. qRT-PCR analyses showed that patients with high miR-142-5p and miR-204 expression had significantly longer survival times than those with low miR-142-5p (P = 0.0077) and miR-204 (P = 0.0054) expression in the gemcitabine-treated group. This was not seen in the nontreated group. Multivariate analyses showed that miR-142-5p expression was an independent prognostic marker only in patients treated with gemcitabine (P = 0.034).

CONCLUSIONS: miR-142-5p is a promising predictive marker for gemcitabine response in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

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99. Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Kayashima T, Ikenaga N, Sakai H, Lin C, Fujita H, Otsuka T, Aishima S, Nagai E, Oda Y, Tanaka M, MicroRNA-10b is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, promotes its invasiveness, and correlates with a poor prognosis., Surgery. , 150, 5, 916-922, 2011.04, BACKGROUND:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been gaining attention as new, key molecules that contribute to carcinogenesis. In pancreatic cancer, previous profiling analyses of miRNA expression have shown that several miRNAs are differently expressed in normal and cancerous tissues. Several pancreatic cancer-specific miRNAs differed, however, in each analysis.

METHODS:

We investigated the miRNA expression profiles of the pancreatic cancer cell lines CAPAN-1 and CFPAC1 and an immortalized human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE) using a high-throughput, TaqMan, qRT-PCR array analysis. We also analyzed the expression levels of this miRNA in microdissected (n = 15) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) (n = 115) samples from pancreatic cancers by quantitative RT-PCR. Finally, we investigated the effects of this miRNA on the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells.

RESULTS:

Based on the microarray analysis, miR-372, miR-146a, miR-204, miR-10a, and miR-10b showed particularly large differences (>10-fold changes) between both pancreatic cell lines and HPDE cells. Thirteen of the 15 pancreatic cancer cell lines showed 2.1- to 36.4-fold (median, 15.3-fold) greater levels of miR-10b than HPDE cells. Microdissection analysis revealed that miR-10b exhibited greater expression levels in pancreatic cancer cells (n = 5) than in normal pancreatic ductal cells (n = 10) (P < .020). Analysis of FFPE samples showed that high miR-10b expression was associated with a lesser overall survival (P = .014). Furthermore, miR-10b correlated with the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells (P < .01).

CONCLUSION:

miR-10b is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and may be involved in the invasiveness in pancreatic cancer cells, thereby leading to a poor prognosis.
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100. Kurata N, Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Mahawithitwong P, Sakai H, Onimaru M, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M, Predicting the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells by quantifying the expression levels of genes associated with the metabolism of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil
, international journal of oncology, 39, 2, 473-482, 2011.04, Abstract
Gemcitabine (GEM) is the standard treatment for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, there is a substantial subset of patients in whom the efficacy of GEM, when used as a single agent, is inadequate. Recently, the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrugs capecitabine and S-1 have been used as an alternative, either alone or in combination with GEM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of genes that render pancreatic cancer cells sensitive to GEM and 5-FU, and to identify markers for individualized chemotherapy, even in patients who have developed resistance. We investigated the correlation between the expression of genes associated with the metabolism of GEM and 5-FU, and sensitivity to these drugs in 15 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also established GEM- and 5-FU-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines to investigate changes in the expression levels of these genes and the effects of one drug on cells resistant to the other. We found no correlation between pancreatic cancer cell sensitivity to either GEM- or 5-FU. GEM-resistant cells did not become resistant to 5-FU and vice versa. High expression of RRM1 (P=0.048) and TS x DPD (P=0.035) correlated significantly with sensitivity to GEM and 5-FU, respectively. 5-FU-resistant cells expressed significantly higher levels of TP than parental cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, pancreatic cancer cells showed no cross-resistance to GEM and 5-FU. Quantitative analyses of RRM1, TP, DPD and TS mRNA levels in pancreatic cancer cells may be useful for predicting their sensitivity to GEM and 5-FU.

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101. Cui L, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Moriyama T, Onimaru M, Nakata K, Nabae T, Ueki T, Sato N, Tominaga Y, Tanaka M, Prospectively isolated cancer-associated CD10(+) fibroblasts have stronger interactions with CD133(+) colon cancer cells than with CD133(-) cancer cells.
, PLoS One. , 5, 8, e12121, 2011.04, Abstract
Although CD133 has been reported to be a promising colon cancer stem cell marker, the biological functions of CD133+ colon cancer cells remain controversial. In the present study, we investigated the biological differences between CD133+ and CD133- colon cancer cells, with a particular focus on their interactions with cancer-associated fibroblasts, especially CD10+ fibroblasts. We used 19 primary colon cancer tissues, 30 primary cultures of fibroblasts derived from colon cancer tissues and 6 colon cancer cell lines. We isolated CD133+ and CD133- subpopulations from the colon cancer tissues and cultured cells. In vitro analyses revealed that the two populations showed similar biological behaviors in their proliferation and chemosensitivity. In vivo analyses revealed that CD133+ cells showed significantly greater tumor growth than CD133- cells (P=0.007). Moreover, in cocultures with primary fibroblasts derived from colon cancer tissues, CD133+ cells exhibited significantly more invasive behaviors than CD133- cells (P<0.001), especially in cocultures with CD10+ fibroblasts (P<0.0001). Further in vivo analyses revealed that CD10+ fibroblasts enhanced the tumor growth of CD133+ cells significantly more than CD10- fibroblasts (P<0.05). These data demonstrate that the in vitro invasive properties and in vivo tumor growth of CD133+ colon cancer cells are enhanced in the presence of specific cancer-associated fibroblasts, CD10+ fibroblasts, suggesting that the interactions between these specific cell populations have important roles in cancer progression. Therefore, these specific interactions may be promising targets for new colon cancer therapies.

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102. Miyasaka Y, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Fujita H, Nakata K, Hayashi A, Mizumoto K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Senescence in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.
, Human Pathology , 42, 12, 2010-2017, 2011.04, Abstract
CD24 is a molecule involved in cell adhesion and tumor metastasis. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the association between CD24 expression and the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and (2) to investigate the association between CD24 expression in pancreatic cancer and the prognosis of patients who underwent curative pancreatectomy. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD24 was performed for 95 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and 83 pancreatic cancers. We investigated the association between CD24 expression and the histologic grade of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, the clinicopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancers, and the survival time of pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreatectomy. The positive rates of CD24 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma, borderline intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma, and invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma were 5 (20%) of 24, 12 (48%) of 25, 10 (43%) of 23, and 15 (65%) of 23, respectively. The CD24-positive rates were significantly higher in borderline intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma compared with intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (P = .046 and P = .007, respectively). The staining scores, which were determined from the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity, were significantly higher in invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma than in noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (P = .043). In the pancreatic cancers, higher tumor stage (P = .007), nodal metastasis (P = .021), and higher-grade tumors (P < .001) were more frequent in the CD24-positive group compared with the CD24-negative group. CD24 expression was associated with shorter survival in univariate analysis (P = .028) However, based on the multivariate analysis, the CD24 expression was not associated with survival. In conclusion, CD24 is involved in the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and in the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancers.

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103. Yasui T, Ohuchida K, Zhao M, Onimaru M, Egami T, Fujita H, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M , Tumor-stroma interactions reduce the efficacy of adenoviral therapy through the HGF-MET pathway.
, Cancer science

, 102, 2, 484-491, 2011.04, Many preclinical studies have shown the potential of adenovirus-based cancer gene therapy. However, successful translation of these promising results into the clinic has not yet been achieved. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by abundant desmoplastic stroma, and tumor-stromal cell interactions play a critical role in tumor progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that tumor-stroma interactions reduce the efficacy of adenoviral therapy. We investigated the effect of fibroblasts on adenovirus-based gene therapy using SUIT-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells cultured with or without fibroblast-conditioned culture supernatant then infected with Ad-LacZ. After 48 h, the cells were stained for β-galactosidase. The results showed that the number of β-galactosidase-positive cells was significantly reduced after culture with fibroblast-conditioned supernatant (P < 0.05). Because the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway plays an important role in tumor-stroma interactions we next investigated the involvement of this pathway in tumor-stroma interactions leading to the decreased efficacy of adenoviral therapy. SUIT-2 cells were cultured with or without SU11274 (a MET inhibitor) and/or fibroblast-conditioned culture supernatant, then infected with Ad-GFP. After 48 h, GFP-positive cells were counted. The number of GFP-positive cells in cultures containing fibroblast-conditioned supernatant plus SU11274 was significantly greater than in cultures without SU11274. In conclusion, our results suggest that stromal cells in PDAC reduce the efficacy of adenoviral therapy through a mechanism involving the HGF/MET pathway. Control of such tumor-stroma interactions may lead to improvements in adenoviral gene therapy for PDAC.

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104. 鬼丸学, 大内田研宙, 家入里志, 富川盛雅, 永井英司, 橋爪誠, 新規ドーム型立体内視鏡映像提示システムの臨床例における有用性の検討, 日本臨床外科学会雑誌, 72, 7, 1673-1677, 2011.04, Abstract:鏡視下手術における2次元映像の奥行き情報の欠如は,技術精度が要求される外科医にとって大きなストレスである.今回,われわれはドーム型立体内視鏡映像(3DD)提示システムを臨床症例に導入し評価したので報告する.2010年1月までに15例に使用し,9名の熟練した術者にアンケート調査を行った.3DDは奥行き情報を提示することで縫合結紮など煩雑な操作を容易にし,また実質臓器の病変などの凹凸の認識にも有効であった.また,屈曲可能鉗子の使用や単孔式手術など,奥行き情報が重要な場面で特に有用であった.高度な技術をもつ外科医がより難度の高い手術を行う際の手術支援システムとして3DDは今後普及していくと考えられる.(著者抄録)
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105. Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Cui L, Kayashima T, Morimatsu K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Fujita H, Tanaka M, CD10+ pancreatic stellate cells enhance the progression of pancreatic cancer , Gastroenterology, 139, 3, 1041-1051, 2010.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by producing extracellular matrix and soluble factors. However, the functional heterogeneity of PSCs has not been identified until now. Detailed characterization of the PSCs in human pancreatic cancer would provide a set of potential targets for stroma-directed therapy.

METHODS: We isolated PSCs from fresh pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue and sorted them by flow cytometry according to cell surface expression of CD10, which is a stromal prognostic marker for various tumors. We analyzed the functional differences between CD10(+) PSCs and CD10(-) PSCs.

RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the frequency of CD10 expression by PSCs was markedly higher in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (33.7% vs 0%, respectively, P = .028). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, CD10 expression by PSCs was associated with positive nodal metastases (P = .011) and a shorter survival time (P < .001). In vitro coculture experiments showed that CD10(+) PSCs promoted the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and Panc-1 cells more intensively than CD10(-) PSCs. CD10(+) PSCs significantly increased the tumor growth and invasiveness of SUIT-2 cells in a murine cotransplantation model. CD10(+) PSCs secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 than CD10(-) PSCs, and knockdown of matrix metalloproteinase 3 in cocultured PSCs reduced the invasion of SUIT-2 and Panc-1 cells.

CONCLUSIONS: CD10(+) PSCs enhance the progression of pancreatic cancer cells. CD10(+) PSCs may be a candidate for selective therapeutic targeting in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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106. Miyasaka Y, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, Hayashi A, Mizumoto K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, CD44v6 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, Pancreas, 39, 1, 31-35, 2010.04, OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine
CD44v6 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs)
and clarify the role of CD44v6 in progression, invasion, metastasis, and
morphogenesis of IPMNs. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one samples of IPMNs
and 30 normal controls were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis
for CD44v6. The IPMNs were divided into 4 groups according to the grade
of atypia (adenoma, borderline IPMN, noninvasive carcinoma, and invasive
carcinoma) and 5 subtypes according to histological phenotype (gastric,
intestinal, pancreatobiliary, oncocytic, and unclassified). Correlations
were investigated between CD44v6 expression and clinicopathological
characteristics including grade of atypia, subtype, lymph node
metastasis, and invasion pattern. RESULTS: Whereas normal ductal
epithelium did not express CD44v6, CD44v6 expression was observed from
the early stage of IPMNs and up-regulated in the progression of IPMNs
to invasive carcinoma. CD44v6 expression in intestinal-type IPMNs was
significantly lower compared with that in other subtypes. Whereas no
correlation was observed between lymph node metastasis and CD44v6
expression in invasive IPM carcinomas, the invasion pattern was
significantly correlated to CD44v6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The present
data indicate that CD44v6 expression determines the morphology and
aggressiveness of IPMNs and is involved in development and invasion of
IPMNs..
107. Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yu J, Kayashima T, Hayashi A, Nakata K, Tanaka M , Characterization of CD24 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and ductal carcinoma of the pancreas
, Human Pathology, 41, 10, 1466-1474, 2010.04, CD24 is a molecule involved in cell adhesion and tumor metastasis. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the association between CD24 expression and the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and (2) to investigate the association between CD24 expression in pancreatic cancer and the prognosis of patients who underwent curative pancreatectomy. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD24 was performed for 95 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and 83 pancreatic cancers. We investigated the association between CD24 expression and the histologic grade of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, the clinicopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancers, and the survival time of pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreatectomy. The positive rates of CD24 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma, borderline intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma, and invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma were 5 (20%) of 24, 12 (48%) of 25, 10 (43%) of 23, and 15 (65%) of 23, respectively. The CD24-positive rates were significantly higher in borderline intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma compared with intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (P = .046 and P = .007, respectively). The staining scores, which were determined from the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity, were significantly higher in invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma than in noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (P = .043). In the pancreatic cancers, higher tumor stage (P = .007), nodal metastasis (P = .021), and higher-grade tumors (P < .001) were more frequent in the CD24-positive group compared with the CD24-negative group. CD24 expression was associated with shorter survival in univariate analysis (P = .028) However, based on the multivariate analysis, the CD24 expression was not associated with survival. In conclusion, CD24 is involved in the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and in the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancers.

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108. Onimaru M, Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Egami T, Cui L, Sato N, Uchino J, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, Combination with low-dose gemcitabine and hTERT-promoter-dependent conditionally replicative adenovirus enhances cytotoxicity through their crosstalk mechanisms in pancreatic cancer., Cancer Lett, 294, 2, 178-186, 2010.04, Abstract

To overcome the limited clinical efficacy of conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds), we investigated the effects of combination therapy with gemcitabine (GEM) and the hTERT-promoter-dependent CRAd (hTERT-CRAd), Ad5/3hTERTE1. This combination therapy exhibited enhanced cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we revealed that this enhancement effect was due to the multiple bidirectional interactions between hTERT-CRAd and GEM. The GEM-sensitizing effect of E1 expression derived from hTERT-CRAd, and the enhancement effect by GEM on hTERT promoter activity which led to the increase of adenovirus E1 and viral infectivity. This combination therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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109. Ieiri S, Nakatsuji T, Higashi M, Akiyoshi J, Uemura M, Konishi K, Onimaru M, Ohuchida K, Hong J, Tomikawa M, Tanoue K, Hashizume M, Taguchi T, Effectiveness of basic endoscopic surgical skill training for pediatric surgeons., Pediatr Surg Int., 26, 10, 947-954, 2010.04, PURPOSE:Pediatric surgeons require highly advanced skills when performing endoscopic surgery, but their experience with such cases tend to be limited in comparison to general surgeons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of basic endoscopic surgery training for less-experienced young pediatric surgeons and then compare their skills with those of general surgeons.METHODS:The surgeons (n = 477) subjected to this study underwent a 2-day endoscopic skill training program, consisting of lectures, box training, VR simulator training, tissue training, and live tissue training. The trainees were divided into two groups: P (pediatric surgeons, n = 33) and G (general surgeons, n = 444). The trainees were required to make a continuous suture along a circle measuring 2.5 cm in diameter and the findings were evaluated both before and after training. A statistical analysis was conducted using the unpaired t test.RESULTS:The number of experienced
cases totaled 20.8 ± 23.9 in P and 60.6 ± 80.5 in G (p < 0.001). The number of completed sutures before training was 1.4 ± 1.1 in P and 1.9 ± 1.5 in G (p < 0.05). The number of completed sutures after training was 4.1 ± 1.3 in P and 3.9 ± 1.9 in G (p > 0.05). The economy and speed of the forceps improved, however, the number of errors increased.CONCLUSION:Less-experienced pediatric surgeons improved their surgical skill and ability until reaching almost the same level as that observed in more experienced general surgeons during training, however, the number of errors after training increased in comparison to before training. As a result, this program needs to be modified to reduce the number of errors while enabling pediatric surgeons to master the safe and precise surgical techniques needed in this field..
110. Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Cui L, Ikenaga N, Sato N, Tanaka M, Enhanced cell migration and invasion of CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells cocultured with pancreatic stromal cells, Cancer, 116 , 14, 3357-3368, 2010.04, BACKGROUND: Recently, cancer stem cells have been reported as a new therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer as well as other cancers, but the specific role of these cells is unknown. METHODS: The authors investigated the functional roles of CD133+ cells, 1 of the putative cancer stem cell candidates in pancreatic cancer. CD133 expression was assessed in human pancreatic cancer and cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Next, they compared the ability of CD133+ and CD133- cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade using 2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. In particular, they evaluated the relationship between CD133+ cells and primary pancreatic stromal cells. RESULTS: CD133 was expressed in primary human pancreatic cancer tissues and some cancer cell lines, whereas there was little expression in primary normal pancreatic epithelial cells and primary pancreatic stromal cells. CD133+ cells, isolated by flow cytometry, showed increased cell proliferation under anchorage-independent conditions (P<.01), and enhanced migration and invasion, particularly when cocultured with primary pancreatic stromal cells (P<.001). Chemokine-related receptor-4 (CXCR4), markedly overexpressed in CD133+ cells, may be responsible for the increased invasive ability of the cells cocultured with pancreatic stromal cells, which express stromal derived factor-1, the ligand to CXCR4. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CD133+ cells exhibit more aggressive behavior, such as increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, especially in the presence of pancreatic stromal cells. The targeting therapy for the interaction between CD133+ cancer cells and stromal cells may be a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

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111. Onimaru M, Ohuchida K, Egami T, Mizumoto K, Nagai E, Cui L, Toma H, Matsumoto K, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, Gemcitabine synergistically enhances the effect of adenovirus gene therapy through activation of the CMV promoter in pancreatic cancer cells., Cancer Gene Ther, 17, 8, 541-549, 2010.04, Abstract

Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy shows remarkable promise as a new strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer, but satisfactory clinical results have not yet been obtained. To improve this gene therapy, we investigated the effects of gemcitabine (GEM) on transgene expression by adenoviral vectors and their biological effects. We used Ad-lacZ and adenoviral vector-expressing NK4 (Ad-NK4) as representative adenoviral vectors. These vectors express beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and NK4 (which inhibits the invasion of cancer cells), respectively, under the control of the CMV promoter. Cells were infected with the individual adenoviruses and then treated with GEM. GEM increased beta-gal mRNA expression and beta-gal activity, and increased NK4 expression in both culture media and within infected cells, in dose-dependent manners. The increased expression of NK4 delivered by Ad-NK4 had biological effects by inhibiting the invasion of cancer cells. GEM also enhanced NK4 expression in SUIT-2 cells transfected with an NK4-expressing plasmid, suggesting that GEM enhanced CMV promoter activity. In in vivo experiments, NK4 expression within subcutaneously implanted tumors was increased in GEM-treated mice compared with control mice. These results suggest that adenovirus-mediated gene therapy with GEM may be a promising approach for treating pancreatic cancer, and that this combination therapy may decrease the risks of side effects.
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112. Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Itaba S, Ito T, Nakata K, Yu J, Kayashima T, Souzaki R, Tajiri T, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M, Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy, NEOPLASIA, 12, 10, 807-817, 2010.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The standard palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is gemcitabine-based chemotherapy; however, PDAC still presents a major therapeutic challenge. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of genes involved in gemcitabine sensitivity in resected PDAC tissues and to determine correlations of gene expression with treatment outcome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 70 patients with PDAC. Of the 70 patients, 40 received gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). We measured hENT1, dCK, CDA, RRM1, and RRM2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and determined the combined score (GEM score), based on the expression levels of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, and RRM2, to investigate the association with survival time. By determining the expression levels of these genes in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytologic specimens, we investigated the feasibility of individualized chemotherapy.

RESULTS: High dCK (P = .0067), low RRM2 (P = .003), and high GEM score (P = .0003) groups had a significantly longer disease-free survival in the gemcitabine-treated group. A low GEM score (<2) was an independent predictive marker for poor outcome to gemcitabine-based AC as shown by multivariate analysis (P = .0081). Altered expression levels of these genes were distinguishable in microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytologic specimens.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analyses of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, and RRM2 mRNA levels using FFPE tissue samples and microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytologic specimens may be useful in predicting the gemcitabine sensitivity of patients with PDAC.

PMID: 20927319 [PubMed - in process]PMCID: PMC2950330Free PMC Article



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Figure 1
Quantitative analyses of mRNA associated with cellular uptake and metabolism of gemcitabine in gemcitabine-resistant cells. Quantitative analyses of hENT1 (A), dCK (B), RRM1 (C), RRM2 (D), and CDA (E) mRNA in gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (SUIT-2-GR and Capan-1-GR) and parental cells. SUIT-2-GR cells expressed sign...
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
Neoplasia. 2010 October;12(10):807-817.Figure 2
Correlation between gemcitabine-based AC and survival time. The patients who received gemcitabine-based AC (GEMgroup) showed a significantly prolongedOStime compared with the non-AC group (P = .0017). *P < .05.
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
Neoplasia. 2010 October;12(10):807-817.Figure 3
Correlation between the expression of each mRNA and DFS. Low dCK (P= .0067) and high RRM2 (P=.003) levels, normalized to β-actin, were associated with a shorter DFS in the GEM group (A, C, E, G). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between these gene expression levels and DFS in the non-AC group (B, D...
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
Neoplasia. 2010 October;12(10):807-817.Figure 4
Correlation between the expression of each mRNA and OS. Low hENT1 (P = .011), low dCK (P = .0095), high RRM1 (P = .041), and high RRM2 (P = .030) levels, normalized to β-actin, were associated with a shorterOSin theGEMgroup (A, C, E, G). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between these gene expression levels an...
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
Neoplasia. 2010 October;12(10):807-817.Figure 5
Correlation between GEM score and survival time. DFS time (A) and OS time (B) after resection of PDAC categorized by combined GEM score (hENT1 score x dCK score x RRM1 score x RRM2 score) in GEM group patients. High GEM scores were well correlated with prolonged DFS time (A) and OS time (B). *P < .05.
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
Neoplasia. 2010 October;12(10):807-817.Figure 6
Quantitative analyses of mRNA associated with gemcitabine sensitivity in EUS-FNA cytologic specimens. Representative micrographs of cytologic specimens obtained from patients with PDAC who underwent EUS-FNA cytologic examination (A, B). Most samples consisted of a large amount of blood and inflammat...
Gene Expression Levels as Predictive Markers of Outcome in Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy12
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113. Onimaru M, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Nagai E, Cui L, Toma H, Takayama K, Matsumoto K, Hashizume M, Tanaka M, hTERT-promoter-dependent oncolytic adenovirus enhances the transduction and therapeutic efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus vectors in pancreatic cancer cells, Cancer Sci, 101, 3, 735-742, 2010.04, Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy shows promise for cancer therapy, but transgene expression of replication-defective adenovirus may be low and transient in clinical settings. Recent reports have shown that the use of a conditionally replication-competent adenovirus (CRAd) enhanced the gene transduction of a replication-defective adenovirus vector. The control of tumor-stromal interactions has also been determined to be important in cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-CRAd, Ad5/3hTERTE1, which possesses the tumor-specific hTERT promoter with the chimeric fiber 5/3, on the transgene expression and therapeutic efficacy of a replication-defective adenovirus vector expressing NK4 under the control of the CMV promoter, Ad-NK4. In addition, we established a new strategy to target both cancer cells and cancer-stromal interactions. Human pancreatic cancer cells were infected with Ad-NK4 and either Ad5/3hTERTE1 (CRAd-combination group) or Ad5/3hTERTLuc (control-combination group). In the CRAd-combination group, Ad-NK4-delivered transgene expression was increased, leading to an enhanced inhibitory effect on the invasion of cancer cells. In in vivo experiments, NK4 expression within tumors and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis were enhanced in the CRAd-combination group. These results suggest that hTERT-CRAd enhances the transgene expression and therapeutic efficacies of Ad-NK4, possibly through the in-trans replication of Ad-NK4 induced by adenovirus E1 derived from co-infected hTERT-CRAd. This approach may be a promising combination therapy against advanced pancreatic cancer.

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114. Sadakari Y, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, Ohtsuka T, Aishima S, Takahata S, Nakamura M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Invasive carcinoma derived from the nonintestinal type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas has a poorer prognosis than that derived from the intestinal type, Surgery , 147, 6, 812-817, 2010.04, BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is divided into 4 subtypes: an intestinal type, a gastric type, a pancreatobiliary type, and an oncocytic type. The purposes of this study were to clarify the outcomes and the characteristics of invasive carcinoma derived from IPMN (invasive IPMC) by focusing on these subtypes with a comparison to conventional invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas. METHODS: A total of 30 patients with invasive IPMC were reviewed, and the tumors were divided into 2 pathologic subtypes, intestinal and nonintestinal type. The prognosis and characteristics of the 2 subtypes were evaluated. Furthermore, the prognosis of 119 patients with conventional IDC was compared with that of patients with invasive carcinoma derived from the intestinal or nonintestinal type IPMN. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate of patients with the nonintestinal type (0.0%) was as poor as that of patients with conventional IDC (19.9%; P = .67). The patients with the intestinal type (66.7%) had a more favorable prognosis than patients with conventional IDC (P < .001). The nonintestinal type was characterized by positive lymphatic invasion and tubular invasive pattern. CONCLUSION: Invasive carcinoma derived from the nonintestinal type IPMN characterized by lymphatic invasion and tubular invasive pattern is associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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115. Sadakari Y, Otsuka T, Ohuchida K, Tsutsumi K, Takahata S, Nakamura M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, MicroRNA expression analyses in preoperative pancreatic juice samples of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
, JOP. , 11, 6, 587-592, 2010.04, Abstract
CONTEXT: Cytological assessment of pancreatic juice is commonly used to diagnose pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; however, the sensitivity of cytological assessment has been reported to be low. MicroRNAs are small RNAs regulating various cellular processes and have recently been identified as possible markers of malignant diseases including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to prove the existence of microRNAs in pancreatic juice and to determine whether specific microRNAs in pancreatic juice could be used for detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

METHODS: Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of resected specimens (no. 13) and pancreatic juice samples collected using preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (no. 21) were quantified and their expression levels were then compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

RESULTS: Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 in tissue and pancreatic juice samples were significantly higher in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma than those in chronic pancreatitis (P=0.009 and P=0.021, respectively). The same results were obtained in the expression levels of microRNA-155 in tissue and pancreatic juice between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis (P=0.014 and P=0.021, respectively). Expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 did not correlate with the preoperative cytological results of pancreatic juice.

CONCLUSION: MicroRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in pancreatic juice have the potential of becoming biomarkers for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

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116. Yu J, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Fujita H, Nakata K, Tanaka M, MicroRNA miR-17-5p is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, associated with a poor prognosis, and involved in cancer cell proliferation and invasion., Cancer Biol Ther., 10, 8, 748-757, 2010.04, The microRNA-17-92 cluster is an oncogene in human B cell lymphomas and lung cancers. Previous microRNA microarray data revealed that miR-17-5p, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, is upregulated in pancreatic cancer. However, the involvement of miR-17-5p expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis has not well been studied. In the present study, we measured the miR-17-5p expression levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines, primary cultures of normal human pancreatic ductal cells, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples derived from 80 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer and microdissected cells (including normal ductal epithelial, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1B and invasive ductal carcinoma cells) by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of upregulation of miR-17-5p expression on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. We found that pancreatic cancer cells expressed higher levels of miR-17-5p than primary cultured normal ductal cells. miR-17-5p was also overexpressed in pancreatic cancer in FFPE and microdissected samples. Furthermore, analysis of macrodissected FFPE samples revealed that high miR-17-5p expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = 0.03). In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that SUIT-2 and KP-2 pancreatic cancer cells transfected with the miR-17-5p precursor showed significantly higher cell growth ratios than the corresponding control cells (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively), as well as significantly higher numbers of invading cells (p < 0.0001 for both). The present findings suggest that miR-17-5p plays important roles in pancreatic carcinogenesis and cancer progression, and is associated with a poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer..
117. Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yu J, Kayashima T, Sakai H, Fujita H, Nakata K, Tanaka M , MicroRNA-203 expression as a new prognostic marker of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
, Annals of surgical oncology
, 17, 12, 3120-3128, 2010.04, BACKGROUND: Detection of aberrant microRNA (miR) expression may contribute to diagnosis and prognosis of various cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between miR-203 expression and prognosis of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma after curative resection.

METHODS: A total of 113 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 samples of chronic pancreatitis, and 8 samples of normal pancreas were obtained. We investigated the association of miR-203 expression measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with clinicopathological parameters and survival times.

RESULTS: miR-203 was overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples compared with chronic pancreatitis (P < 0.001) and normal pancreas (P = 0.001) samples. An association between miR-203 expression and clinicopathological factors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was not observed. On univariate analysis, the high-miR-203 group and the subgroup (20%) of cases with the highest miR-203 overexpression had significantly shorter survival time (P = 0.048 and P = 0.024, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-203 expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in cases with no residual tumor (relative risk 2.298, P = 0.027).

CONCLUSIONS: miR-203 expression is a new prognostic marker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.

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118. Yu J, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Sato N, Kayashima T, Fujita H, Nakata K, Tanaka M, MicroRNA, hsa-miR-200c, is an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer and its upregulation inhibits pancreatic cancer invasion but increases cell proliferation
, Mol Cancer, 28 , 9, 169, 2010.04, BACKGROUND: Recently, the microRNA-200 family was reported to affect cancer biology by regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Especially, the expression of miR-200c has been shown to be associated with upregulating the expression of E-cadherin, a gene known to be involved in pancreatic cancer behavior. However, the significance of miR-200c in pancreatic cancer is unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between E-cadherin and miR-200c expression in a panel of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines and in macro-dissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples obtained from 99 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. We also investigated the effects of miR-200c on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. RESULTS: We found that patients with high levels of miR-200c expression had significantly better survival rates than those with low levels of miR-200c expression. We also found a remarkably strong correlation between the levels of miR-200c and E-cadherin expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that miR-200c may play a role in the pancreatic cancer biology and may be a novel marker for the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

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119. Nakata K, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Morimatsu K, Hayashi A, Miyasaka Y, Aishima S, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, S100P is a novel marker to identify intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, Human Pathology, 41, 6, 824-831, 2010.04, Backgrounds: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) are subclassified based on morphological features and different immunohistochemical profiles have been identified in association with the subtypes. We previously reported that S100P was an early developmental marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and that there was higher S100P expression in IPMNs than in normal pancreatic ductal epithelium. However, there have been no reports on novel diagnostic markers to distinguish IPMN from non-neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Surgical specimens of IPMN obtained from 105 patients were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Results: S100P expression was not detected in normal pancreatic ductal epithelium, but was detected in all IPMN cells (100%) with diffuse nuclear or nuclear/cytoplasmic staining. MUC5AC was also expressed in most of the IPMNs (102 of 105, 97%). S100P was clearly detected in minimally invasive area
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of IPMNs. Furthermore, S100P was diffusely expressed in the invasive component of IPMNs (32 of 32, 100%), including perineural and lymphatic invasion. On the other hand, MUC5AC was expressed in only 23 cases of 32 invasive components (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These data suggest that the S100P antibody may be a useful marker for detecting all types of IPMNs including invasive lesions..
120. Tanoue K, Uemura M, Kenmotsu H, Ieiri S, Konishi K, Ohuchida K, Onimaru M, Nagao Y, Kumashiro R, Tomikawa M, Hashizume M, Skills assessment using a virtual reality simulator, LapSim, after training to develop fundamental skills for endoscopic surgery., Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. , 19, 1, 24-29, 2010.04, Education and training to maintain medical safety are very important within clinical settings. We have established a training center for endoscopic surgery and we regularly hold a unique training course, which focuses on the development of fundamental skills. One hundred and ninety-four surgeons who participated in our training course were divided into four groups according to their experience in performing laparoscopic procedures. Group 1: 0-19 laparoscopic procedures (n=44). Group 2: 20-49 laparoscopic procedures (n=53). Group 3: 50-99 laparoscopic procedures (n=46). Group 4: more than 100 laparoscopic procedures (n=55). All subjects underwent evaluation for .
121. Miyoshi K, Sato N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, SPARC mRNA Expression as a Prognostic Marker for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients
, Anticancer Res, 30, 3, 867-871, 2010.04, BACKGROUND: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a protein which governs diverse cellular functions and matrix remodeling systems. It was reported that SPARC expression of peritumoral fibroblasts was correlated with poor prognosis in resectable pancreatic cancer patients in immunohistochemical analysis. However, the significance of SPARC mRNA expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPARC mRNA expression was evaluated in 104 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with macro-dissection technique. RESULTS: High SPARC mRNA expression was associated with a poorer prognosis than low SPARC. In univariate Cox's proportion hazard model, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, histopathological tumor grade, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, surgical margin, no chemotherapy and high SPARC expression were significant prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, histopathological tumor grade, surgical margin, no chemotherapy and high SPARC expression were independent significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: SPARC mRNA expression is a prognostic marker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.

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122. Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Nakata K, Yu J, Kayashima T, Cui L, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M, α-Smooth Muscle Actin Expressing Stroma Promotes an Aggressive Tumor Biology in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Pancreas, 39, 8, 1254-1262, 2010.04, OBJECTIVES:: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often characterized by a prominent desmoplastic stroma that is induced partially by alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). This study aimed to investigate the significance of alpha-SMA expression in PDAC and the correlation between alpha-SMA mRNA levels and the patient prognosis. METHODS:: We obtained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 109 patients with PDAC, who underwent pancreatectomy at our institution from 1992 to 2007. We measured alpha-SMA mRNA levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and investigated the association of alpha-SMA mRNA expression with clinicopathologic parameters and survival time. We also assessed the influence of activated PSCs on malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer cells using in vitro experiments. RESULTS:: alpha-SMA immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in the stroma of PDAC. The group with high alpha-SMA expression showed a significantly shorter survival, as shown by univariate analysis (P = 0.005) and multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). alpha-SMA-expressing activated PSCs enhanced the invasiveness, proliferation, and colony formation of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS:: Quantitative analysis of alpha-SMA mRNA expression using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples was useful to predict the prognosis of patients with PDAC. Activated PSCs may regulate the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer cells..
123. Egami T, Ohuchida K, Miyoshi K, Mizumoto K, Onimaru M, Toma H, Sato N, Matsumoto K, Tanaka M, Chemotherapeutic agents potentiate adenoviral gene therapy for pancreatic cancer., Cancer Sci, 100, 4, 722-729, 2009.04, Abstract

Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy combined with chemotherapeutic agents is expected to represent a new approach for treating pancreatic cancer. However, there have been no reports of definitive effects of chemotherapeutic agents on adenovirus-mediated gene therapies. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the transduction efficiency of an adenovirus-based gene therapy. Adenovirus (Ad-NK4) expressing NK4, which acts as a hepatocyte growth factor antagonist, was used as a representative gene therapy. Pancreatic cancer cells infected with Ad-NK4 were treated with chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil [5FU], cisplatin or etoposide), and the NK4 levels in their culture media were measured. To examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in vivo, Ad-NK4 was administered to subcutaneous tumors in mice after treatment with the agents, and the tumor NK4 levels were measured. The NK4 levels in culture media from cells treated with 5FU, cisplatin and etoposide were 5.2-fold (P = 0.026), 6-fold (P < 0.001) and 4.3-fold (P < 0.001) higher than those of untreated cells, respectively. The chemotherapeutic agents also increased Ad-NK4 uptake. The NK4 levels in tumors treated with 5FU, cisplatin and etoposide were 5.4-fold (P = 0.006), 11.8-fold (P < 0.001) and 4.9-fold (P = 0.017) higher than those in untreated tumors, respectively. The present findings suggest that chemotherapeutic agents significantly improve the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, they will contribute to decreases in the adenovirus doses required for gene transfer, thereby controlling the side-effects of adenovirus infection in normal tissues.
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124. Ohuchida K, Kenmotsu H, Yamamoto A, Sawada K, Hayami T, Morooka K, Hoshino H, Uemura M, Konishi K, Yoshida D, Maeda T, Ieiri S, Tanoue K, Tanaka M, Hashizume M, CyberDome, a novel 3-dimensional dome-shaped display system, improves procedures for laparoscopic surgery, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 4, 2, 125-132, 2009.04, BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgeons require extended experience of cases to overcome the lack of depth perception on a two-dimensional (2D) display. Although a three-dimensional (3D) display was reported to be useful over two decades ago, 3D systems have not been widely used. Recently, we developed a novel 3D dome-shaped display (3DD) system, CyberDome. STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, a total of 23 students volunteered. We evaluated the effects of the 3DD system on depth perception and laparoscopic procedures in comparison with the 2D, a conventional 3D (3DP) or the 2D high definition (HD) systems using seven tasks. RESULTS: The 3DD system significantly improved depth perception and laparoscopic performance compared with the 2D system in six new tasks. We further found that the 3DD system shortened the execution time and reduced the number of errors during suturing and knot tying. The 3DD system also provided more depth perception than the 3DP and 2D HD systems. CONCLUSIONS: The novel 3DD system is a promising tool for providing depth perception with high resolution to laparoscopic surgeons..
125. Noshiro H, Ohuchida K, Kawamoto M, Ishikawa M, Uchiyama A, Shimizu S, Tanaka M, Intraabdominal Roux-en-Y reconstruction with a novel stapling technique after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, Gastric Cancer, 12, 3, 164-169, 2009.04, AbstractLaparoscopic gastrectomy is widely used as minimally invasive surgery for gastric carcinoma. Billroth I or Roux-en-Y reconstruction is commonly performed after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). Roux-en-Y reconstruction after LDG is one of the best methods for reconstruction of the alimentary tract when Billroth I reconstruction is difficult. There are few reports of intracorporeal Roux-en-Y reconstruction after LDG because of the technical difficulties of such a procedure. In particular, in the case of a very small gastric remnant, gastrojejunostomy using endoscopic linear staplers becomes more complicated. We developed a new technique for intracorporeal Roux-en-Y reconstruction: a modified stapling technique to allow the gastrojejunostomy to be made on the stomach transecting line that is applicable even when the residual stomach is very small. Roux-en-Y reconstruction with our modified technique was performed in six patients. There was
no intraoperative complication or conversion to minilaparotomy or conventional celiotomy in any patient. Oral intake was easy and adequate after surgery. The present Roux-en-Y reconstruction procedure is feasible. Herein we describe an intraabdominal Roux-en-Y reconstruction with a modified stapling technique after LDG..
126. Nakata K, Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Hayashi A, Miyasaka Y, Kayashima T, Yu J, Aishima S, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, LMO2 is a novel predictive marker for a better prognosis in pancreatic cancer, Neoplasia, 11, 7, 712-719, 2009.04, PURPOSE: LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) has been identified as a novel oncogene associated with carcinogenesisand better prognosis in several malignant tumors. We investigate the involvement of LMO2 in pancreatic cancer.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated LMO2 expression in cultured cells, bulk tissues, and microdissected cellsfrom pancreatic cancers by quantitative reverse transcription朴olymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Of 164 pancreatic cancers, 98 (60%) were positive for LMO2 expression. LMO2 was more frequently detectedin high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions (PanIN-2 and -3) than in low-grade PanIN lesions(PanIN-1A and -1B; P < .001) and was not detected in normal pancreatic ductal epithelium. The LMO2messenger RNA levels were significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma cells than in normal pancreatic cellsas evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription朴olymerase chain reaction
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nalyses of microdissected cells (P =.036). We also found higher incidence of LMO2 expression in histologic grade G1/G2 cancers than in grade G3cancers (P < .001). The median survival time of LMO2-positive patients was significantly longer than that ofLMO2-negative patients (P < .001), and multivariate analyses revealed that high LMO2 expression was an independentpredictor of longer survival (risk ratio, 0.432, P < .001). Even among patients with a positive operative margin,LMO2-positive patients had a significant survival benefit compared with LMO2-negative patients. We furtherperformed a large cohort study (n = 113) to examine the LMO2 messenger RNA levels in formalin-fixed paraffinembeddedsamples and found similar results. CONCLUSIONS: LMO2 is a promising marker for predicting a betterprognosis in pancreatic cancer.Neoplasia (2009) 11, 712・19IntroductionPancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deathin Western countries and has the lowest pat
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ent survival rate of anysolid cancer [1・]. Recently, although the cancer death rates of mostmalignancies have decreased owing to improvements in early detectionand treatment, the overall 5-year survival of patients with pancreaticcancer has only slightly increased from 3% to 5% [1] becauseof difficulties in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer at early stages. Surgicalresection is the only curative treatment of pancreatic cancer, andthe survival rate for patients with a negative operative margin status(R0) is significantly higher than that for patients with positive operativemargin status (R1 and R2) [4]. However, some patients with apositive operative.
127. Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yu J, Sato N, Nabae T, Takahata S, Toma H, Nagai E, Tanaka M, MicroRNA-21 modulates biological functions of pancreatic cancer cells including their proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance., Mol Cancer Ther, 8, 5, 1067-1074, 2009.04, Abstract

Due to the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, novel diagnostic modalities for early diagnosis and new therapeutic strategy are urgently needed. Recently, microRNA-21 (miR-21) was reported to be strongly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer as well as in other solid cancers. We investigated the functional roles of miR-21, which have not been fully elucidated in pancreatic cancer. miR-21 expression was assessed in pancreatic cancer cell lines (14 cancer cell lines, primary cultures of normal pancreatic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and a human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line) and pancreatic tissue samples (25 cancer tissues and 25 normal tissues) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR amplification. Moreover, we investigated the proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells transfected with miR-21 precursor or inhibitor. miR-21 was markedly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells compared with nonmalignant cells, and miR-21 in cancer tissues was much higher than in nonmalignant tissues. The cancer cells transfected with the miR-21 precursor showed significantly increased proliferation, Matrigel invasion, and chemoresistance for gemcitabine compared with the control cells. In contrast, inhibition of miR-21 decreased proliferation, Matrigel invasion, and chemoresistance for gemcitabine. Moreover, miR-21 positively correlated with the mRNA expression of invasion-related genes, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, and vascular endothelial growth factor. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is increased in pancreatic cancer cells and that miR-21 contributes to the cell proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer.
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128. Nakata K, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Aishima S, Hayashi A, Miyasaka Y, Yu J, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, REG4 is associated with carcinogenesis in the 'intestinal' pathway of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, Mod Pathol. , 22, 3, 460-468, 2009.04, Subclassification of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs), based on morphological features and immunohistochemical profiles, has been proposed. Intestinal-type IPMNs frequently show moderate to severe dysplasia. Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (REG4) is associated with the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colon cancer and it is also associated with intestinal phenotype. Therefore, to identify REG4 expression in IPMNs may be helpful to detect high-grade IPMNs. We also investigated REG4 expression and CDX2 expression in IPMNs. To investigate the expressions of REG4 and CDX2 in IPMNs and in invasive ductal adenocarcinoma derived from IPMN, we used immunohistochemical staining and microdissection-based quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Among 125 IPMNs, 43 (34%) were positive for REG4 and most of the intestinal-type IPMNs showed its expression (35/38). The positive ratio of REG4 expression in colloid carcinoma (5/7) was significantly higher than that in tubular carcinoma (1/17; P=0.003). Most of CDX2-positive cases (31/33) expressed REG4 protein, whereas only 12 of 92 CDX2-negative cases did (P<0.001). The levels of REG4 mRNA in intestinal-type IPMN were significantly higher compared to those in gastric-type IPMN or to normal pancreatic ductal epithelium (P=0.005, P=0.004, respectively). REG4 expression was observed more frequently in borderline lesions (14/28) and carcinoma (21/45) compared to adenoma (8/52). Using the Ki-67 labeling index, REG4 expression was significantly correlated with proliferative activity in borderline lesions. We conclude that REG4 is involved in the 'intestinal' pathway of carcinogenesis in IPMN.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 9 January 2009; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2008.205.

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129. Ikenaga N, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yu J, Fujita H, Nakata K, Ueda J, Sato N, Nagai E, Tanaka M, S100A4 mRNA is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in pancreatic carcinoma, J Gastrointest Surg., 13, 10, 1852-1858, 2009.04, OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of S100A4 mRNA expression in pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells from ten lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) cells from 20 lesions, and normal ductal cells from 20 normal pancreatic tissues by laser microdissection of frozen tissues. S100A4 expression was examined in the microdissected cells and in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of 87 pancreatic cancers by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: IDC cells expressed higher levels of S100A4 than IPMN cells (P = 0.002) and normal ductal cells (P < 0.001), although the difference between IPMN cells and normal ductal cells was not statistically significant (P = 0.070). Analysis of FFPE samples revealed that high S100A4 expression was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (P = 0.023). In immunohistochemical analysis, the extent of S100A4 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the expression of S100A4 protein (P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: S100A4 could be a marker for malignancy in pancreatic tumors and for poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer..
130. Ohuchida K, Kenmotsu H, Yamamoto A, Sawada K, Hayami T, Morooka K, Hoshino H, Uemura M, Konishi K, Yoshida D, Maeda T, Ieiri S, Tanoue K, Tanaka M, Hashizume M, The effect of CyberDome, a novel 3-dimensional dome-shaped display system, on laparoscopic procedures, Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. , 4, 2, 125-132, 2009.04, BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgeons require extended experience of cases to overcome the lack of depth perception on a two-dimensional (2D) display. Although a three-dimensional (3D) display was reported to be useful over two decades ago, 3D systems have not been widely used. Recently, we developed a novel 3D dome-shaped display (3DD) system, CyberDome.

STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, a total of 23 students volunteered. We evaluated the effects of the 3DD system on depth perception and laparoscopic procedures in comparison with the 2D, a conventional 3D (3DP) or the 2D high definition (HD) systems using seven tasks.

RESULTS: The 3DD system significantly improved depth perception and laparoscopic performance compared with the 2D system in six new tasks. We further found that the 3DD system shortened the execution time and reduced the number of errors during suturing and knot tying. The 3DD system also provided more depth perception than the 3DP and 2D HD systems.

CONCLUSIONS: The novel 3DD system is a promising tool for providing depth perception with high resolution to laparoscopic surgeons.

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131. Ohuchida K, Kenmotsu H, Yamamoto A, Sawada K, Hayami T, Morooka K, Takasugi S, Konishi K, Ieiri S, Tanoue K, Iwamoto Y, Tanaka M, Hashizume M, The frontal cortex is activated during learning of endoscopic procedures, Surg Endosc, 23, 10, 2296-2301, 2009.04, BACKGROUND: To date, several training and evaluation systems for endoscopic surgery have been developed, such as virtual-reality simulators and box trainers. However, despite current advances in these objective assessments, no functional brain studies during learning of endoscopic surgical skills have been carried out. In the present study, we investigated cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during endoscopic surgical tasks. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 21 right-handed subjects, comprising 4 surgical experts, 4 trainees, and 13 novices, participated in the study. Suturing and knot-tying tasks were performed in a box trainer. Cortical activation was assessed in all subjects by task-related changes in hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation using NIRS. RESULTS: In surgical experts and novices with no experience of endoscopic surgical training, we found no changes in oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb or total-Hb levels in any of the frontal channels. In surgical trainees and one novice with experience of endoscopic surgical training, we found significant increases in oxy-Hb and total-Hb levels in most of the frontal channels. There were significant differences in oxy-Hb and total-Hb levels in CH-19 between surgical experts and trainees (p = 0.02 for both), and between surgical trainees and novices with no experience of endoscopic surgical training (p = 0.008 for both). Furthermore, additional training increased oxy-Hb levels in the frontal cortex of novices with no experience of endoscopic surgical training but had no such effect on surgical experts. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that NIRS is a feasible tool for assessing brain activation during endoscopic surgical tasks, and may have a large impact on the future development of teaching, training, and assessment methods for endoscopic surgical skills..
132. Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Egami T, Miyoshi K, Moriyama T, Cui L, Yu J, Zhao M, Manabe T, Tanaka M, Tumor-stromal interactions with direct cell contacts enhance proliferation of human pancreatic carcinoma cells, Cancer Sci, 100, 12, 2309-2317, 2009.04, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is often characterized by an abundant desmoplastic stroma that is partially induced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Indirect co-culture has often been used to investigate the effects of cancer-stromal interactions on the proliferation of cancer cells, but the effects of cell-cell adhesion and juxtacrine signaling between cancer and stromal cells cannot be evaluated using this method. This study aimed to establish a simplified direct co-culture system that could be used to quantify populations of cancer cells in co-culture with PSCs, and to evaluate the effects of direct cell contact on the proliferation of cancer cells. We established three green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing pancreatic cancer cell lines and were able to quantify them with high reliability and reproducibility, even when co-cultured directly with PSCs, using a color plate reader. We assessed the differential effects of direct and indirect co-culture with PSCs on the proliferation of cancer cells, and found that the proliferation of GFP-expressing pancreatic cancer cell lines was dramatically enhanced by direct co-culture with PSCs, compared with the indirect co-culture system. We also found that direct co-culture of cancer cells and PSCs activated the Notch signaling pathway in both cell types. Direct cell contact between cancer cells and PSCs plays an important role in the control of cancer cell proliferation, and is essential to the understanding of tumor-stromal interactions.
133. Egami T, Ohuchida K, Yasui T, Mizumoto K, Onimaru M, Toma H, Sato N, Matsumoto K, Tanaka M, Up-regulation of integrin beta3 in radioresistant pancreatic cancer impairs adenovirus-mediated gene therapy, Cancer Sci, 100, 10, 1902-1907, 2009.04, Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We previously reported that radiation enhanced adenovirus-mediated gene expression in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that adenoviral gene therapy might be more effective in radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells. In the present study, we compared the transduction efficiency of adenovirus-delivered genes in radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We used an adenovirus expressing the hepatocyte growth factor antagonist, NK4 (Ad-NK4), as a representative gene therapy. We established two radioresistant human pancreatic cancer cell lines using fractionated irradiation. Radiosensitive and radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells were infected with Ad-NK4, and NK4 levels in the cells were measured. In order to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the differences in the transduction efficiency between these cells, we measured expression of the genes mediating adenovirus infection and endocytosis. The results revealed that NK4 levels in radioresistant cells were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those in radiosensitive cells, although there were no significant differences in adenovirus uptake between radiosensitive cells and radioresistant cells. Integrin beta3 was up-regulated and the Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor was down-regulated in radioresistant cells, and inhibition of integrin beta3 promoted adenovirus gene transfer. These results suggest that inhibition of integrin beta3 in radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells could enhance adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.

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134. Ohhashi S, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Fujita H, Egami T, Yu J, Toma H, Sadatomi S, Nagai E, Tanaka M, Down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase enhances acquired resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.

, Anticancer Research, 28, 4B, 2205-2212, 2008.04, BACKGROUND: The functional roles of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) in acquired resistance to gemcitabine remain unknown in pancreatic cancer. Here, the functional involvement of dCK in gemcitabine-resistance of pancreatic cancer was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of the dCK gene as well as other gemcitabine-related genes (hENT1, RRM1 and RRM2) were analyzed in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (GR cells) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effects of inhibition of these genes on sensitivity to gemcitabine were evaluated. RESULTS: In GR cells, expression of dCK was significantly reduced compared with that of parental cells (p < 0.05). The dCK-targeting siRNA significantly reduced gemcitabine sensitivity (p < 0.01) without affecting cell proliferation. The RRM1- and RRM2-targeting siRNAs increased gemcitabine sensitivity (p < 0.05) and reduced cell proliferation even without gemcitabine treatment. The hENT-targeting siRNA did not affect gemcitabine sensitivity or cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of dCK specifically enhanced acquired resistance .
135. Nagai S, Nakamura M, Yanai K, Wada J, Akiyoshi T, Nakashima H, Ohuchida K, Sato N, Tanaka M, Katano M, Gli1 contributes to the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer through matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation., Cancer Sci., 99 , 7, 1377-1384, 2008.04, The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been reported to be associated with the growth of pancreatic cancer, but its role in the invasive phenotype is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness using a Matrigel invasion assay. Blockade of the Hh pathway by cyclopamine inhibited pancreatic cancer cell invasion in association with a decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. By contrast, activation of the Hh pathway by the addition of exogenous Sonic hedgehog increased cell invasion and MMP-9 expression. Stable transfection of pancreatic cancer cells with Gli1 increased their invasiveness, which was associated with activation of MMP-9. We also showed that inhibition of MMP-9 by small interfering RNA blocked the increased invasiveness of Gli1-transfected cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Gli1 by small interfering RNA suppressed the invasiveness and MMP-9 expression of pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that members of the Hh pathway, especially Gli1, play an important role in the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through the regulation of MMP-9 expression.

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136. Yu J, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, Mizumoto K, Cui L, Fujita H, Yamaguchi H, Egami T, Kitada H, Tanaka M, LIM only 4 is overexpressed in late stage pancreas cancer., Mol Cancer, 22, 7, 93, 2008.04, BACKGROUND: LIM-only 4 (LMO4), a member of the LIM-only (LMO) subfamily of LIM domain-containing transcription factors, was initially reported to have an oncogenic role in breast cancer. We hypothesized that LMO4 may be related to pancreatic carcinogenesis as it is in breast carcinogenesis. If so, this could result in a better understanding of tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We measured LMO4 mRNA levels in cultured cells, pancreatic bulk tissues and microdissected target cells (normal ductal cells; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1B [PanIN-1B] cells; PanIN-2 cells; invasive ductal carcinoma [IDC] cells; intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma [IPMA] cells; IPM borderline [IPMB] cells; and invasive and non-invasive IPM carcinoma [IPMC]) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: 9 of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed higher levels of LMO4 mRNA than did the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE). In bulk tissue samples, expression of LMO4 was higher in pancreatic carcinoma than in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) or non-neoplastic pancreas (p < 0.0001 for both). We carried out microdissection-based analyses. IDC cells expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 than did normal ductal epithelia or PanIN-1B cells (p < 0.001 for both) or PanIN-2 cells (p = 0.014). IPMC cells expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 than did normal ductal epithelia (p < 0.001), IPMA (p < 0.001) and IPMB cells (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Pancreatic carcinomas (both IDC and IPMC) expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 mRNA than did normal ductal epithelia, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, IPMA and IPMB. These results suggested that LMO4 is overexpressed at late stages in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

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137. Ohhashi S, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Egami T, Yu J, Cui L, Toma H, Takahata S, Nabae T, Tanaka M, Midkine mRNA is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, Dig Dis Sci, 54, 4, 811-815, 2008.04, Purpose Midkine (MK) has been reported to be a possible molecular marker for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the feasibility of quantitative analysis of MK mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) as a promising tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Results We found that pancreatic cancer tissues expressed significantly higher levels of MK mRNA than intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues (P < 0.05); in contrast, we did not find any differences in MK mRNA expression between IPMN and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. Additionally, we observed that poorly differentiated carcinoma samples expressed higher levels of MK mRNA than well-differentiated carcinoma samples, although a significant difference was not observed. Conclusions The present data suggests that quantitative analysis of MK mRNA provides an objective and sensitive evaluation and may be a promising modality for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and the prediction of its prognosis.

PMID: 18712601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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138. Fujita H, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Egami T, Miyasaka Y, Yamaguchi H, Yu J, Cui L, Onimaru M, Takahata S, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Quantitative analysis of hTERT mRNA levels in cells microdissected from cytological specimens., Cancer Sci. , 99, 11, 2244-2251, 2008.04, Clinicians frequently require cytopathological assessment of tumor samples for preoperative diagnosis, but in some specimens, diagnosis remains inconclusive after cytological examination. To date, several molecular markers, including human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), have been assessed for the ability to detect malignancy. However, analyses using whole cytological specimens are generally affected by contamination of untargeted cells. The present study investigated the feasibility of more sensitive examination by quantitative mRNA analysis of target cells microdissected from cytological specimens. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to obtain target cells from cytological specimens. hTERT mRNA levels were then measured in target cells by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The effect of RNA fragmentation on qRT-PCR was also assessed. Total RNA from cytological specimens was sometimes fragmented to a large degree. To avoid the effect of RNA fragmentation, gene specific priming and PCR primers generating short PCR products were used and no difference in delta Ct values between fragmented and non-fragmented RNA were found. hTERT mRNA levels were measured in cells microdissected from 33 cytological specimens. The levels of hTERT mRNA were significantly higher in malignant cases compared to those in non-malignant cases (P = 0.0003). The sensitivity was 96.2%, even when the specificities were 100%. High levels of hTERT mRNA were also found in three cases that were not diagnosed as malignant by cytological examination. Quantitative assessment of hTERT mRNA levels in cells microdissected from cytological specimens is a potential diagnostic tool to potentiate cytological examination in diagnosing malignancy.

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139. Egami T, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Onimaru M, Toma H, Nishio S, nagai E, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Tanaka M, Radiation enhances adenoviral gene therapy in pancreatic cancer via activation of cytomegalovirus promoter and increased adenovirus uptake., Clinical Cancer Research, 14, 6, 1859-1867, 2008.04, PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy combined with radiation is expected to be a new approach to treat pancreatic cancer. However, there are no reports of definitive effects of radiation on adenovirus-mediated gene therapies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of radiation on the transduction efficiency of an adenovirus-based gene therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used adenovirus expressing NK4 (Ad-NK4), an antagonist for hepatocyte growth factor, as a representative gene therapy. Pancreatic cancer cells preinfected with Ad-NK4 were irradiated, and NK4 levels in culture media of these cells were measured. We investigated cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter activity and uptake of adenovirus in these cells. To examine the effect of radiation in vivo, Ad-NK4 was given to irradiated subcutaneous tumors in nude mice, and NK4 levels in tumors were measured. RESULTS: NK4 levels in culture media of irradiated cells were 4.5-fold (P < 0.01) higher than those of nonirradiated cells. Radiation enhanced activation of the CMV promoter and adenovirus uptake (P < 0.01), leading to increased levels of NK4. We found that activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and up-regulation of dynamin 2 may be involved in the radiation-induced activation of the CMV promoter and adenovirus uptake, respectively. NK4 levels in irradiated tumors were 5.8-fold (P = 0.017) higher than those in nonirradiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that radiation significantly improves the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in pancreatic cancer and probably contributes to decreasing the dose of adenovirus required for gene transfer and controlling side effects of adenovirus infection in nonirradiated normal tissue.

PMID: 18347189 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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140. Yamagi Y, Yoshida S, Ishikawa K, Sengokku A, Sato K, Yoshida A, Kuwahara R, Ohuchida K, Oki E, Enaida H, Fujisawa K, Kono T, Ishibashi T, TEM7 (PLXDC1) in Neovascular Endothelial Cells of Fibrovascular Membranes from Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. , Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., 49, 7, 3151-3157, 2008.04, PURPOSE: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) results from the formation of fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) in the posterior fundus that can lead to a severe decrease of vision. Tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is a protein that is highly expressed in the endothelial cells of tumors, but whether it plays a role in FVMs is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TEM7 is associated with the formation of FVMs. METHODS: FVMs were obtained during vitrectomy from patients with PDR. RT-PCR was performed to determine the level of expression of the mRNA of TEM7. The splice variants of TEM7 were identified by direct sequencing. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization was performed to determine the sites of TEM7 in the FVMs. RESULTS: The level of the mRNA of TEM7 was high in 10 of 10 FVMs but was barely detectable in the five idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Direct sequencing of subcloned TEM7 PCR products revealed several splice variants (intracellular, secreted, and membrane-bound forms of TEM7) in the FVMs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a colocalization of TEM7 and CD34, an endothelial cell marker, in most of the neovascular endothelial cells in the FVMs. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that membrane-bound TEM7 was expressed on the luminal surfaces of the vascular endothelial cells of FVMs. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that TEM7 may play a significant role in the proliferation and maintenance of neovascular endothelial cells in the FVMs. If correct, TEM7 may be a molecular target for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for PDR.

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141. Yamaguchi H, Inoue T, Eguchi T, Miyasaka Y, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yamada T, Yamaguchi K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, Fascin overexpression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (adenomas, borderline neoplasms, and carcinomas) of the pancreas, correlated with increased histological grade., Mod Pathol. , 20, 5, 552-561, 2007.04, Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a well-established entity in pancreatic neoplasms and a precursor of infiltrating adenocarcinoma. Fascin, an actin-bundling protein involved in cellular motility, is upregulated in many human neoplasms. Its overexpression in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a pre-cancerous lesion sharing many characteristics with IPMN, has been reported. However, fascin expression in IPMN remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate fascin expression in IPMNs and to elucidate its relationship to clinicopathological features, including histological grade and phenotypic subclassification. We evaluated fascin expression by immunohistochemistry in 116 surgical specimens, followed by quantitative analysis of fascin mRNA expression using a laser microdissection system and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in eight frozen samples. Fascin expression was significantly higher in borderline neoplasms (25/29, 86%) and carcinomas (37/42, 88%) than in adenomas (23/45, 51%) (P<0.05, respectively), but no difference was observed between borderline neoplasms and carcinomas. With regard to the subclassification, intestinal-type neoplasms (35/39, 90%) were more frequently positive for fascin than gastric-type neoplasms (36/59, 61%) (P<0.05). Two oncocytic-type neoplasms were both fascin-negative. Fascin mRNA expression seemed to be higher in moderately to severely dysplastic epithelium than in mildly dysplastic epithelium (not statistically significant), supporting the immunohistochemical experiments. Our findings suggest that fascin overexpression is involved in the progression of IPMN. Fascin could become a new therapeutic target for inhibition of their progression.Modern Pathology (2007) 20, 552-561. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800763; published online 30 March 2007.
142. Yamada D, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ohhashi S, Yu J, Egami T, Fujita H, Nagai E, Tanaka M , Increased expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA in pancreatic cancer., Anticancer Res, 27, 2, 793-729, 2007.04, BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) comprise a multifunctional family of membrane-anchored proteins. ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 are involved in cell migration and invasion. Expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 was reported to be altered in several types of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of ADAM 9 mRNA in bulk pancreatic tissues. Results showed no significant difference in the expression of ADAM 9 mRNA between pancreatic cancer and non-neoplastic pancreas. Primary cultured pancreatic fibroblasts also expressed ADAM 9 mRNA. Therefore, a laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique was employed to isolate cancer cells from tumor tissues. The expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA was measured in microdissected samples (cancer cells, n = 11; normal epithelial cells, n = 13 for ADAM 9; cancer cells, n = 9; normal epithelial cells, n = 9 for ADAM 15). RESULTS: Pancreatic cancer cells expressed significantly higher levels of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA than did normal pancreatic epithelial cells (p = 0.016 for ADAM 9; p = 0.004 for ADAM 15). CONCLUSION: ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 are involved in pancreatic cancer. Microdissection-based analysis appears to be indispensable for the accurate analysis of the expression of certain ADAM family members in pancreatic cancer.


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143. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Miyasaka Y, Yu J, Cui L, Yamaguchi H, Toma H, Takahata S, Sato N, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Over-expression of S100A2 in pancreatic cancer correlates with progression and poor prognosis., J Pathol. , 213, 3, 275-282, 2007.04, Controversy exists regarding the clinical significance of S100A2 in the progression of tumours. In pancreatic cancer, little is known about the role of S100A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of S100A2 expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We microdissected invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells from 22 lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) cells from five lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) cells from 38 lesions, pancreatitis-affected epithelial (PAE) cells from 16 lesions, and normal ductal cells from 18 normal pancreatic tissues. S100A2 expression in 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines, microdissected cells and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Microdissection analyses revealed that IDC cells expressed higher levels of S100A2 than did IPMN, PAE or normal cells (all comparisons, p < 0.007). Cell lines from metastatic sites expressed higher levels of S100A2 than those from primary sites. PanIN cells expressed higher levels of S100A2 than normal cells (p = 0.018). IDC cells associated with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma expressed higher levels of S100A2 than did IDC cells without poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (p = 0.006). Analyses of FFPE samples revealed that levels of S100A2 were higher in samples from patients who survived < 1000 days after surgery than in those from patients who survived > 1000 days (p = 0.043). Immunohistochemical analysis was consistent with qRT-PCR. S100A2 may be a marker of tumour progression or prognosis in pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer. Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
144. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yu J, Yamaguchi H, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, S100A6 is increased in a stepwise manner during pancreatic carcinogenesis: clinical value of expression analysis in 98 pancreatic juice samples., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. , 16, 4, 649-654, 2007.04, There are few reports describing the diagnostic significance of S100A6 expression in clinical samples obtained from patients with pancreatic disease. In the present study, we measured S100A6 expression in pancreatic tissues and juice to evaluate its involvement in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We did quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR to measure mRNA expression in microdissected cells and pancreatic juice samples. Microdissected invasive ductal carcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) cells expressed significantly higher levels of S100A6 than did microdissected pancreatitis-affected epithelial and normal cells (all comparison; P < 0.008). Median levels of S100A6 in invasive ductal carcinoma were higher than those in IPMN, and those in pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells tended to be higher than those in normal cells, although these differences were not statistically significant. In analyses of pancreatic juice, IPMN and pancreatic cancer samples expressed significantly higher levels of S100A6 than did chronic pancreatitis samples (both; P < 0.017), but levels in pancreatic cancer and IPMN samples did not differ form each other. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that measurement of S100A6 was useful for discriminating cancer (area under the ROC curve, 0.864) or IPMN (area under the ROC curve, 0.749) from chronic pancreatitis. The present data suggest that expression of S100A6 is increased in a stepwise manner during pancreatic carcinogenesis and may be a biomarker for evaluating malignant potential. Measurement of S100A6 in pancreatic juice may be useful to detect early pancreatic cancer or identify individuals with high-risk lesions that may progress to pancreatic cancer.

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145. Miyasaka Y, Nagai E, Yamaguchi H, Fujii K, Inoue T, Ohuchida K, Yamada T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Tsuneyoshi M, The Role of the DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas, Clin Cancer Res, 13, 15, 4371-4377, 2007.04, PURPOSE: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are known to show a transition from adenoma to carcinoma accompanied by several molecular abnormalities. ATM-Chk2-p53 DNA damage checkpoint activation, which is involved in prevention of the progression of several tumors, was analyzed to evaluate the role of the DNA damage checkpoint in the progression of IPMNs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: One hundred and twenty-eight IPMNs were classified into four groups (intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma, borderline IPMN, noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma, and invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma) and stained immunohistochemically using antibody for Thr(68)-phosphorylated Chk2. Expression of ATM, Chk2, and p21(WAF1) and accumulation of p53 were also analyzed. RESULTS: Chk2 phosphorylation was shown in all adenomas and showed a significant decreasing trend with the progression of atypia (P < 0.0001 by the Cochran-Armitage test for trend). Expression of p21(WAF1) also exhibited a decreasing tendency (P < 0.0001), reflecting DNA damage checkpoint inactivation. p53 accumulation was mostly detected in malignant IPMNs. It was suggested that the DNA damage checkpoint provides a selective pressure for p53 mutation. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that DNA damage checkpoint activation occurs in the early stage of IPMNs and prevents their progression. It is suggested that disturbance of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway due to Chk2 inactivation or p53 mutation contributes to the carcinogenesis of IPMNs.


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146. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ohhashi S, Yamaguchi H, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Twist, a novel oncogene, is upregulated in pancreatic cancer: Clinical implication of Twist expression in pancreatic juice.
, Int J Cancer. , 120, 8, 1634-1640, 2007.04, Despite evidence that Twist, a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a novel oncogene, there are no reports describing Twist expression in pancreatic cancer. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) are precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. To clarify involvement of Twist expression in pancreatic cancer, we used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and examined Twist expression in pancreatic cancer, IPMN, and non-neoplastic pancreas using bulk tissues (11 cancers, 18 IPMNs, and 15 non-neoplastic pancreata), microdissected cells (cancer from 22 sections, IPMN from 19 sections, PanIN from 6 sections, and pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells from 14 sections), and pancreatic juice (16 from cancer, 28 from IPMN, and 17 from pancreatitis). Twist expression differed significantly between cancer and IPMN bulk tissues (p < 0.0001) but not between cancer and non-neoplastic tissues. Twist expressions differed significantly between microdissected cancer cells, IPMN cells, and pancreatitis-affected cells (all comparisons, p < 0.017). PanIN cells expressed significantly lower levels of Twist than did IDC cells (p = 0.016). Twist expression differed significantly between cancer and IPMN juice samples (p = 0.0002) but not between cancer and pancreatitis juice samples. Receiver operation characteristic curve analyses revealed that measurement of Twist was more useful for discriminating cancer from IPMN than from chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.009). Our results suggest that Twist is involved in tumor progression of pancreatic cancer and that measurement of Twist in pancreatic juice may be useful to differentiate pancreatic cancer from nonmalignant neoplasms such as IPMN. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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147. Yu J, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ishikawa N, Ogura Y, Yamada D, Egami T, Fujita H, Ohashi S, Nagai E, Tanaka M. , Overexpression of c-met in the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis; altered expression is not sufficient for progression from chronic pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.
, World J Gastroenterol, 12, 24, 3878-3882, 2006.04, To investigate c-met expression during early pancreatic carcinogenesis. METHODS: We used 46 bulk tissues and 36 micro-dissected samples, including normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer, for quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In bulk tissue analyses, pancreatic cancer tissues expressed significantly higher levels of c-met than did chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissues. c-met levels did not differ between chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissues. In microdissection-based analyses, c-met was expressed at higher levels in microdissected pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells than in normal ductal epithelial cells (both, P < 0.01). Interestingly, pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells expressed levels of c-met similar to those of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of c-met occurs during the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and a single alteration of c-met expression is not sufficient for progression of chronic pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells to pancreatic cancer cells.

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148. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yamada D, Yamagudhi H, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Quantitative Analysis of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase in Pancreatic Cancer, Clin Cancer Res, 12, 7, 2066-2069, 2006.04, Although telomerase activity is a promising diagnostic marker, clinical introduction of this marker for cancer diagnosis is still problematic due to the lack of means of evaluating sample quality. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), one of the subunits of telomerase, is also a promising diagnostic marker. In the present study, we did large-scale analysis of 88 pancreatic juice samples to determine the feasibility of quantitative analysis of hTERT mRNA for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We found significant differences in hTERT expression among carcinoma-derived, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)-derived, and chronic pancreatitis-derived juice samples. Results showed that quantitative analyses of hTERT mRNAs are more useful in discriminating carcinoma from IPMN than from chronic pancreatitis. When the specificity was set at 100%, the sensitivity for differentiation between carcinoma and IPMN was 43.5%, whereas the sensitivity of cytologic examination was 22.0%. There were significant differences in hTERT expression among carcinoma cells, IPMN cells, and normal ductal cells isolated from pancreatic tissues by microdissection. Lymphocytes and hyperplastic epithelial cells isolated from tissues with the histologic appearance of pancreatitis showed various expression levels of hTERT. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of hTERT mRNA in pancreatic juice is advantageous over cytologic analysis for differentiation between carcinoma and IPMN but probably not for differentiation between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

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149. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Yamada D, Fujii K, Ishikawa N, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Quantitative analysis of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, Int J Cancer., 118, 2, 405-411, 2006.04, Pancreatic juice is a promising type of diagnostic sample for pancreatic cancer, and members of the mucin (MUC) family are diagnostic candidates. To evaluate the utility of MUC family members as diagnostic markers, we measured MUC mRNA expression in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic juice obtained from patients with different pancreatic diseases as well as in pancreatic cancer cell lines by real-time PCR. Furthermore, to support the possibility of early diagnosis by quantification of MUC1 and MUC5AC, immunohistochemistry and microdissection-based quantitative analysis of mRNA were carried out. There was no significant correlation between MUC1 and MUC5AC expression in cell lines. When beta-actin was used as a reference gene, median MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were remarkably greater in tumoral tissues than in non-tumoral tissues, but median MUC4 and MUC6 mRNA expression levels were not. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that quantitative analysis of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice is better diagnostic modality than that of MUC4 and MUC6 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry showed that MUC1 and MUC5AC were highly expressed in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) and moderately expressed in high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN); no staining was observed in normal ducts. Analysis of cells isolated by microdissection showed stepwise upregulation of MUC1 and MUC5AC in the development of high-grade PanIN to IDC. Our results suggest that MUC1 and MUC5AC are upregulated stepwise in pancreatic carcinogenesis and that quantitative assessment of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice has high potential for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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150. Ishikawa N, Miya T, Mizumoto K, Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Amano M, Takenaka S, Tanaka M, Rapid and Sensitive Assay of K-ras Mutations in Pancreatic Cancer by Electrochemical Detection with Ferrocenyl-naphthalene-diimide, Cancer Genomics & Proteomics, 3, 47-54, 2006.04.
151. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ohhashi S, Yamaguchi H, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, S100A11, a putative tumor suppressor gene, is overexpressed in pancreatic carcinogenesis, Clin Cancer Res, 12, 18, 5417-5422, 2006.04, Abstract

PURPOSE:

Recent microarray analyses revealed that expression of S100A11 is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of S100A11 with pancreatic carcinogenesis.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

We measured S100A11 mRNA expression in various clinical samples related to pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.

RESULTS:

Levels of S100A11 were significantly higher in pancreatic cancer (n=22) and IPMN (n=18) bulk tissues than in nonneoplastic bulk tissues (n=22; P<0.0001 for both). Levels of S100A11 did not differ between pancreatic cancer and IPMN bulk tissues. In microdissection analyses, however, IPMN cells (n=21) expressed significantly higher levels of S100A11 than did cancer cells (n=23; P=0.003). The median level of S100A11 expression was higher in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells (n=6) than in cancer cells. In pancreatic juice analyses, cancer-related (n=24; P=0.004) and IPMN-related (n=18; P=0.001) juice expressed significantly higher levels of S100A11 than did chronic pancreatitis-related juice (n=23).

CONCLUSIONS:

The present data suggest that expression of S100A11, a putative tumor suppressor gene, is increased in the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis and decreased during subsequent progression to cancer. Analysis of the S100A11 level in pancreatic juice may be an effective tool for screening of patients with high-risk lesions that could progress to pancreatic cancer or detecting early-stage pancreatic cancer.
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152. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Egami T, Yamaguchi H, Fujii K, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, S100P is an early developmental marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis., Clin Cancer Res. , 12, 18, 5411-5416, 2006.04, PURPOSE: Our goal was to clarify the involvement and clinical significance of S100P in pancreatic carcinogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined S100P expression in 45 bulk pancreatic tissues; in microdissected cells, including invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells (20 sections), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) cells (12 sections), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) cells (19 sections), and normal epithelial cells (11 sections); and in pancreatic juice samples from 99 patients with pancreatic diseases (32 cancer, 35 IPMN, and 32 chronic pancreatitis samples). We used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR with gene-specific priming to measure S100P in these various types of samples. RESULTS: In bulk tissue analyses, pancreatic cancer and IPMN expressed significantly higher levels of S100P than did nonneoplastic pancreas (P<0.017 and P=0.0013, respectively). Microdissection analyses revealed that IPMN expressed significantly higher levels of S100P than did IDC (P<0.0001) and PanIN (P=0.0031), although S100P expression did not differ between IDC and PanIN (P=0.077). In pancreatic juice analyses, cancer and IPMN juice expressed significantly higher levels of S100P than did pancreatitis juice (both P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that measurement of S100P in pancreatic juice was useful for discriminating neoplastic disease from chronic pancreatitis (area under the curve=0.837; 95% confidence interval, 0.749-0.903). CONCLUSION: S100P may be an early developmental marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and measurement of S100P in pancreatic juice may be useful for early detection of pancreatic cancer or screening of early pancreatic carcinogenesis.

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153. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Fujita H, Yamaguchi H, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, Sonic hedgehog is an early developmental marker of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: clinical implications of mRNA levels in pancreatic juice, Journal of Pathology, 210, 1, 42-48, 2006.04, Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are common cystic tumours of the pancreas. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is involved in gastric epithelial differentiation and pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, a comprehensive analysis of SHH expression in IPMN has not yet been performed. In the present study, one-step quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with gene-specific priming was used to examine mRNA levels in various types of clinical samples. SHH expression in IPMN was measured and the possible association of gastric epithelial differentiation with development of IPMN was evaluated. In bulk tissue analyses (IPMNs, 11 pancreatic cancer, and 20 normal pancreatic tissues), IPMN expressed significantly higher levels of SHH than did normal pancreas (IPMN versus normal pancreas, p = 0.0025; pancreatic cancer versus normal pancreas, p = 0.0132), but SHH expression did not differ between IPMN and pancreatic cancer (p = 0.3409). In microdissection analyses (infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells from 20 sections, IPMN cells from 20 sections, pancreatitis-affected epithelial cells from 11 sections, and normal epithelial cells from 12 sections), IPMN cells expressed significantly higher levels of SHH than did cancer cells, normal cells, or pancreatitis-affected ductal cells (all comparisons, p < 0.008). Pancreatic juice analyses (20 samples from pancreatic cancers, 31 samples from IPMNs, and 27 samples from chronic pancreatitis) revealed that SHH expression differed significantly between IPMN juice and pancreatitis juice (p < 0.0001), and between cancer juice and pancreatitis juice (p = 0.0125). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that SHH measurement in pancreatic juice was useful for discriminating IPMN from chronic pancreatitis (area under the curve = 0.915; 95% confidence interval: 0.796-0.976). The data suggest that overexpression of SHH is an early event in the development of IPMN and that SHH measurement in pancreatic juice may provide some advantages for the treatment or follow-up of a subset of patients with IPMN or chronic pancreatitis.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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154. Ogura Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Ohuchida K, Murakami M, Yamada D, Ishikawa N, Nagai E, Strategy for prevention of local recurrence of pancreatic cancer after pancreatectomy: antitumor effect of gemcitabine mixed with fibrin glue in an orthotopic nude mouse model, Surgery, 140, 1, 66-71, 2006.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Pancreatic cancer frequently recurs after operative treatment, resulting in a poor prognosis. Inhibition of proliferation of residual cancer cells is important for improved survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Fibrin glue (FG) is a biocompatible, adherent hemostat that can deliver high concentrations of anticancer drugs to residual cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the local antitumor effect of a mixture of gemcitabine (GEM) and FG on pancreatic cancer cells implanted orthotopically in nude mice.
METHODS:
SUIT-2 human pancreatic cells were injected into the tail of the pancreas of nude mice. Seven days later, groups of mice were treated with 80 mg/kg GEM mixed with 0.5 mL fibrin glue (GEM + FG), 0.5 mL FG alone (FG), single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 80 mg/kg GEM (GEM1), i.p. injection of 80 mg/kg GEM weekly for 3 weeks (GEM1,2,3), GEM + FG followed by weekly GEM injections for 2 weeks (GEM + FG + GEM2,3), or i.p. injection of PBS weekly for 3 weeks (controls).
RESULTS:
Twenty-eight days after cell injections, tumor volumes of groups treated with GEM + FG + GEM2,3, GEM1,2,3, GEM + FG, GEM1, and FG were decreased by 84%, 70%, 62%, 37%, and 10%, respectively, compared to that of control mice. GEM + FG + GEM2,3 had the strongest anticancer effect compared to all other groups (P < .05). Additionally, GEM + FG showed a more potent antitumor effect compared to GEM1 (P < .05). Survival of mice treated with GEM + FG + GEM2,3 was longer than that of mice in all other groups (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS:
A mixture of GEM and FG was effective in inhibiting the growth of orthotopically implanted pancreatic neoplasms in nude mice. This procedure may be useful clinically to prevent the local recurrence of pancreatic cancer after pancreatectomy..
155. Leelawat K, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Mahidol C, Tanaka M, All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the cell proliferation but enhances the cell invasion through up-regulation of c-met in pancreatic cancer cells.
, Cancer Lett, 224, 2, 303-310, 2005.04, All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits proliferation of cancer. However, the effects of ATRA on scattering and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells remain unknown. Also, the effects of ATRA on c-Met expression in pancreatic cancer have never been addressed so far. The effects of ATRA on a pancreatic cancer cell line, Capan-1, were determined by proliferation assay, scattering assay and invasion assay. In addition, the expression of c-Met in pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with ATRA was investigated by real-time PCR and western blotting. The growth-inhibitory effect of ATRA was found when the cells were cultured with 5 microM ATRA for 3 days. In cell scattering assay, ATRA-treated pancreatic cancer cells were found to spread out from their colonies. In invasion assay, cells treated with ATRA invaded the matrigel more than vehicle-treated cells. The expression of c-Met was up-regulated both in the mRNA and protein levels after the treatment of ATRA. The highest expression was found at 48 h after the treatment. ATRA induced scattering and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, although it inhibited proliferation of those cells. In addition, ATRA also increased the protein level of c-Met. These findings may indicate that the use of retinoic acid as an anti-cancer therapeutic drug needs some additional treatments to control cell invasion or scattering.
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156. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ogura Y, Ishikawa N, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tanaka M, Quantitative assessment of telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNA levels in pancreatic juice samples for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
, Clin Cancer Res. , 11, 6, 2285-2292, 2005.04, Measurement of telomerase activity is a promising diagnostic tool for pancreatic cancer. Detection of mRNA for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a catalytic subunit of telomerase, is also a diagnostic candidate. In the present study, we developed a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay with real-time PCR and a protocol for quantification of hTERT mRNA with real-time PCR. To evaluate the feasibility of these methods for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, we measured telomerase activity and hTERT expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines, pancreatic tissues, and pancreatic juice samples from patients with different pancreatic diseases. There were significant correlations between telomerase activity and hTERT expression in cell lines, tissues, and juice samples. The levels of telomerase activity and hTERT expression were significantly higher in tumoral tissues than in nontumoral tissues. In pancreatic juice specimens, some carcinoma samples showed remarkably high expression of hTERT. However, there were no significant differences in hTERT expression between patients with carcinoma and those with benign diseases, although significant differences in telomerase activity were observed. Our present results suggest that the combined assessment of hTERT and telomerase activities in pancreatic juice provides a potent diagnostic method for pancreatic cancer.
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157. Murakami M, Nagai E, Mizumoto K, Saimura M, Ohuchida K, Inadome N, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Maemondo M, Nukiwa T, Tanaka M , Suppression of metastasis of human pancreatic cancer to the liver by transportal injection of recombinant adenoviral NK4 in nude mice., Int J Cancer
, 117, 1, 160-165, 2005.04, NK4, a 4-kringle fragment of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), is an HGF antagonist that also acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor. NK4 strongly inhibits the infiltration, metastasis, and tumor growth of pancreatic cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antitumor effect of adenovirus-mediated NK4 gene transfer to the liver on hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer in vivo. We constructed recombinant adenoviral NK4 (Ad-NK4), which encodes a secreted form of human NK4. Intrasplenic injection of Ad-NK4 induced high and relatively maintained expression of NK4 protein in the liver and suppressed the number and growth of metastatic foci in the liver in a nude mouse model. Microscopically, central necrosis was found even in small metastatic foci in Ad-NK4 treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of metastatic tumors showed a remarkable decrease in microvessel density and an increase in the number of apoptotic tumor cells after treatment with Ad-NK4. These results indicate that intraportal injection of Ad-NK4 may be a useful therapeutic modality for the clinical control of hepatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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158. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ishikawa N, Fujii K, Konomi H, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M, The role of S100A6 in pancreatic cancer development and its clinical implication as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target., Clin Cancer Res, 11, 21, 7785-7793, 2005.04, Recent microarray analyses showed that the S100 family contains members that are candidate diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. In the present study, to evaluate the involvement of S100A6 in pancreatic cancer and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis, we examined S100A6 mRNA expression in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic juice from patients with different pancreatic diseases. To investigate the role of S100A6 in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer and the potential of S100A6 as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pancreatic cancer, we did immunohistochemistry and microdissection-based mRNA analysis of pancreatic normal ducts, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, and invasive ductal carcinomas. We also used in vitro experiments and microarray analysis with RNA interference to evaluate the functional role of S100A6 and its potential as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. S100A6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in carcinoma specimens than in nonneoplastic tissues. In pancreatic juice, there was a significant difference in S100A6 expression between patients with carcinoma and those with nonneoplastic disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that S100A6 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry and microdissection-based analysis showed differential expression of S100A6 among normal ducts, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, and invasive ductal carcinomas. In vitro data showed that inhibition of S100A6 decreased proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells, and these findings were supported by microarray data. Our present results suggest that quantitation of S100A6 mRNA is a promising tool for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, and that S100A6 may be a promising therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
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159. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Ishikawa N, Sato N, Nagai E, Yamaguchi K, Takaishi H, Ide T, Tanaka M, A highly sensitive and quantitative telomerase activity assay with pancreatic juice is useful for diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma without problems due to polymerase chain reaction inhibitors: analysis of 100 samples of pancreatic juice from consecutive patients., Cancer. , 101, 10, 2309-2317, 2004.04, Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early detection of pancreatic carcinoma is difficult even with current diagnostic tools. Novel biomarkers and detection techniques are urgently needed. Telomerase activity is a promising diagnostic marker. However, the conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay is not suitable for clinical application because of its complexity, time-consuming nature, and the effects of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in samples leading to difficulties in quantification.

METHODS:

The authors used a hybridization protection assay in combination with TRAP (TRAP/HPA) to investigate the effects of PCR inhibitors in pancreatic juice on quantification of telomerase activity. They analyzed 117 consecutive samples of pancreatic juice to determine the feasibility of TRAP/HPA for diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma.

RESULTS:

The authors found that TRAP/HPA was 1000-fold more sensitive than the conventional TRAP assay, and that the effects of PCR inhibitors could be avoided by diluting samples. In a large analysis of pancreatic juice samples with TRAP/HPA, 17 samples were excluded from the final analysis because of insufficient follow-up periods or inadequate treatment of the samples. Relative telomerase activity (RTA) in samples from patients with pancreatic carcinoma was significantly higher in comparison to samples from patients with pancreatitis and 13 (61.9%) of 21 samples from patients with pancreatic carcinoma showed high RTA (> 4 U). Meanwhile, high RTAs were observed in 4 of 35 (11.4%) samples from patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor and in 1 of 40 samples (2.5%) fom patients without malignant disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

TRAP/HPA accurately evaluated weak telomerase activity in pancreatic juice samples without the problem due to PCR inhibitors. This large analysis of nonselected pancreatic juice samples suggested that TRAP/HPA is a promising approach for the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma.
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160. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Murakami M, Qian LW, Sato N, Nagai E, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Tanaka M, Radiation to stromal fibroblasts increases invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through tumor-stromal interactions, Cancer Res, 64, 9, 3215-3222, 2004.04, Radiotherapy represents a major treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer, but recent evidence suggests that radiation can promote invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Interactions between cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells may play an important role in aggressive tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the invasive phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells in response to coculture with irradiated fibroblasts. Using in vitro invasion assay, we demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells and, surprisingly, the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secretion from fibroblasts remained unchanged after irradiation, whereas exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts resulted in increased phosphorylation o
f!
c-Met (HGF receptor) and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, possibly or partially via increased expression of c-Met. We also demonstrated that scattering of pancreatic cancer cells was accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. The enhanced invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells induced by coculture with irradiated fibroblasts was completely blocked by NK4, a specific antagonist of HGF. These data suggest that invasive potential of certain pancreatic cancer cells is enhanced by soluble mediator(s) released from irradiated fibroblasts possibly through up-regulation of c-Met expression/phosphorylation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in pancreatic cancer cells. Our present findings further support the potential use of NK4 during radiotherapy for patients with pancreatic cancer..
161. Qian LW, Mizumoto K, Maehara N, Ohuchida K, Inadome N, Saimura M, Nagai E, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Tanaka M, Co-cultivation of pancreatic cancer cells with orthotopic tumor-derived fibroblasts: fibroblasts stimulate tumor cell invasion via HGF secretion whereas cancer cells exert a minor regulative effect on fibroblasts HGF production., Cancer Letters, 190, 1, 105-112, 2003.04, The intensive stromal reaction is one of characteristics of pancreatic exocrine carcinoma. The mutual interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and orthotopic tumor-derived fibroblasts have not been clarified yet. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying the tumor-stromal interaction with an in vitro coculture experimental system. Considerable strong c-Met expression was detected in seven out ten lines of human pancreatic carcinoma cells, as determined by Western blotting. For hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-production, however, none or only trace amounts of HGF could be detected in those ten cell lines. Of the two lots of tumor-derived fibroblasts obtained from two pancreatic cancer patients, the fibroblasts capable to produce HGF could initiate an apparent invasion-stimulating response in strong c-Met-expressed Suit-2 and Panc-1 cells but not in faint expressed Mia PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells. A specialized HGF antagonist, NK4 would effectively inhibit the fibroblast-mediated invasive growth, thus proving the key role of the paracrine-fashioned HGF/c-Met pathway in the tumor-stromal interaction. On the other hand, the regulative action of cancer cells on HGF expression of fibroblasts was also investigated using direct or indirect coculture systems. For the fibroblasts that originally did not produce HGF, cancer cells failed to show any HGF-inductive effect. For the HGF-producing fibroblasts, despite of somewhat upregulation or downregulation in fibroblast HGF expression, the feedback regulation by studied pancreatic cancer cells in both coculture modes were relatively limited. This in vitro study sketched out the interaction between cancerous and stromal compartments with an emphasis on HGF/c-Met signal pathway, thus possibly helping to unveil the more complicated mutual modulation in vivo between pancreatic cancer and host mesenchymal tissues.

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162. Noshiro H, Shimizu S, Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Tanaka M, Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: is it beneficial for patients of heavier weight?
, Ann Surg., 238, 5, 680-685, 2003.04, OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective review, we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of LADG for patients of heavier weight with early gastric cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: LADG has been used to treat early gastric cancer. We and others have reported less operative blood loss, less pain, early recovery of bowel activity, early restart of oral intake, and a shorter hospital stay with LADG compared with a conventional open method. There is, however, little information on the advantages of LADG for obese patients with early gastric cancer. METHODS: Between January 1996 and March 2002, 76 patients with preoperatively diagnosed early gastric carcinoma underwent LADG in our department. We classified these patients into 2 groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Nineteen patients had a high-BMI (>/= 24.2 kg/m2), and 57 patients had a normal-BMI (<24.2 kg/m2). We collected data by retrospectively reviewing the medical charts. RESULTS: Extension of the minilaparotomic incision or conversion to laparotomy was needed in 6 (32%) of the 19 patients in the high-BMI group, whereas only 3 (5%) of 57 patients in the normal-BMI group required either. In the high-BMI group, Roux-en-Y anastomosis rather than Billroth I anastomosis was adopted more often than in the normal-BMI group, due to the difficulty of the reconstruction (58% versus 4%, P = 0.001). Significantly longer operative time (370 +/- 61 minutes versus 317 +/- 58 minutes, P = 0.015) and prolonged recovery of bowel activity (3.5 +/- 1.0 days versus 2.6 +/- 1.0 days, P = 0.007) were observed in the patients in the high-BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, LADG in patients of heavier weight was accompanied by more technical difficulties, and the disadvantages of longer operative time and delayed recovery of bowel activity was observed in patients of heavier weight. Heavier weight appears to be an ominous factor in the successful completion of LADG and should be considered in the decision to use LADG. There are still benefits of a decreased incidence of serious wound and hernia complications in successful cases.
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