|Edward Anthony Vickers||Last modified date：2022.07.04|
Professor / International and Comparative Education / Department of Education / Faculty of Human-Environment Studies
|1.||Mark Frost, Daniel Schumacher and Edward Vickers (eds), Remembering Asia's World War Two, London and New York, Published by Routledge, 2019.04, [URL], Over the past four decades, East and Southeast Asia have seen a proliferation of heritage sites and remembrance practices which commemorate the region’s bloody conflicts of the period 1931–45. Remembering Asia’s World War Two examines the origins, dynamics, and repercussions of this regional war “memory boom”.
The book analyzes the politics of war commemoration in contemporary East and Southeast Asia. Featuring contributions from leading international scholars, the chapters span China, Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore, covering topics such as the commemoration of the Japanese military’s “comfort women” system, forms of "dark tourism" or commemorative pilgrimages (e.g. veterans’ tours to wartime battlefields), and the establishment and evolution of various war-related heritage sites and museums. Case studies reveal the distinctive trajectories of new and newly discovered forms of remembrance within and across national boundaries. They highlight the growing influence of non-state actors over representations of conflict and occupation, as well as the increasingly interconnected and transnational character of memory-making. Taken together, the studies collected here demonstrate that across much of Asia the public commemoration of the wars of 1931–45 has begun to shift from portraying them as a series of national conflicts with distinctive local meanings to commemorating the conflict as a common pan-Asian, or even global, experience.
Focusing on non-textual vehicles for public commemoration and considering both the local and international dimensions of war commemoration within, Remembering Asia’s World War Two will be a crucial reference for students and scholars of History, Memory Studies, and Heritage Studies, as well as all those interested in the history, politics, and culture of contemporary Asia..
|2.||Edward Vickers, Altered states of consciousness: Identity politics and prospects for Taiwan-Hong Kong-mainland reconciliation, London and New York: Routledge, In Annika Frieberg and C. K. Martin Chung (eds), 'Reconciling with the Past: Resources and Obstacles in a Global Perspective', 2017.01, [URL], The continuing divisiveness of relations with mainland China has been underlined in recent years by Hong Kong’s 2012 protest over a ‘Moral and National Education’ initiative (Morris and Vickers 2015), and the ‘Umbrella’ and ‘Sunflower’ movements of 2014 (in Hong Kong and Taiwan respectively). In both societies, schooling has been a key battleground for struggles between different visions of local identity, and of its relationship to political, ethnic or cultural Chineseness. But attitudes to the mainland and mainlanders are shaped at least as much by experience outside the classroom as by discourse within it. This essay traces the evolution of identity consciousness in Taiwan and Hong Kong, analyzing its relationship both to official education policy and to developments beyond the school gates. It shows that, in these societies shifts in the curricular representation of identity have often reflected preceding changes in popular consciousness, rather than producing them. A key insight – that should be obvious to political leaders, but clearly is not – is that top-down efforts to mould identity, when they go against the grain of lived experience, tend further to alienate estranged communities, rather than reconciling them..|
|3.||Edward Vickers, Remembering and forgetting war and occupation in the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, London and New York: Routledge, In Patrick Finney (ed.) 'Remembering the Second World War', pp. 46-67, 2017.06, [URL], In recent years, a number of scholars have analysed Chinese memories of the AJW with a particular focus on implications for relations with the West (e.g. Wang 2012; Gries 2004) or with Japan (e.g. Rose 1998; Reilly 2012; He 2013). Most such studies effectively equate ‘China’ with the PRC. Here, I focus instead on the memory divides within and especially between the mainland PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan. I argue that the centrality of memory of ‘national humiliation’ in general, and the AJW in particular, to notions of patriotic identity on the mainland exacerbates the mutual alienation between Chinese ‘patriots’ and Hongkongese and Taiwanese for whom other memories and identities have come to assume more immediate significance..|
|4.||Yoko Mochizuki, Krishna Kumar, Edward Vickers, Rethinking Schooling for the 21st Century: The State of Education for Peace, Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship in Asia, 2017.11, UNESCO MGIEP officially launched the new publication 'Rethinking Schooling for the 21st Century: The State of Education for Peace, Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship in Asia' on 2 November 2017 in Paris at the UNESCO General Conference. This report involved more than 60 researchers from 22 countries in Asia and is based on the content analysis of key education policy and curricular documents from these countries and an extensive review of literature on Asian schooling. It seeks to develop benchmarks against which future progress can be assessed. It also argues forcefully that conceptions of the fundamental purposes of schooling need to be configured, if the ideals of SDG 4.7 to which the global community has subscribed are actually to be realized..|
|5.||Edward Vickers, Zeng Xiaodong, Education and Society in Post-Mao China, London and New York: Routledge, 2017.05, [URL], The post-Mao period has witnessed rapid social and economic transformation in all walks of Chinese life – much of it fuelled by, or reflected in, changes to the country’s education system. This book analyses the development of that system since the abandonment of radical Maoism and the inauguration of ‘Reform and Opening’ in the late 1970s. The principal focus is on formal education in schools and conventional institutions of tertiary education, but there is also some discussion of preschools, vocational training, and learning in non-formal contexts. The book begins with a discussion of the historical and comparative context for evaluating China’s educational ‘achievements’, followed by an extensive discussion of the key transitions in education policymaking during the ‘Reform and Opening’ period. This informs the subsequent examination of changes affecting the different phases of education from preschool to tertiary level. There are also chapters dealing specifically with the financing and administration of schooling, curriculum development, the public examinations system, the teaching profession, the phenomenon of marketisation, and the ‘international dimension’ of Chinese education. The book concludes with an assessment of the social consequences of educational change in the post-Mao era and a critical discussion of the recent fashion in certain Western countries for hailing China as an educational model. The analysis is supported by a wealth of sources – primary and secondary, textual and statistical – and is informed by both authors’ wide-ranging experience of Chinese education..|
|6.||Edward Vickers, Krishna Kumar, Constructing Modern Asian Citizenship, London and New York, 2015.01, In many non-Western contexts, modernization has tended to be equated with Westernization, and hence with an abandonment of authentic indigenous identities and values. This is evident in the recent history of many Asian societies, where efforts to modernize – spurred on by the spectre of foreign domination – have often been accompanied by determined attempts to stamp national variants of modernity with the brand of local authenticity: ‘Asian values’, ‘Chinese characteristics’, a Japanese cultural ‘essence’ and so forth. Highlighting (or exaggerating) associations between the more unsettling consequences of modernization and alien influence has thus formed part of a strategy whereby elites in many Asian societies have sought to construct new forms of legitimacy for old patterns of dominance over the masses. The apparatus of modern systems of mass education, often inherited from colonial rulers, has been just one instrument in such campaigns of state legitimation.
This book presents analyses of a range of contemporary projects of citizenship formation across Asia in order to identify those issues and concerns most central to Asian debates over the construction of modern identities. Its main focus is on schooling, but also examines other vehicles for citizenship-formation, such as museums and the internet; the role of religion (in particular Islam) in debates over citizenship and identity in certain Asian societies; and the relationship between state-centred identity discourses and the experience of increasingly ‘globalized’ elites..
|7.||Edward Vickers, Paul Morris, Naoko Shimazu, Imagining Japan in Post-war East Asia: identity politics, schooling and popular culture, London: Routledge, 2013.12, Imagining Japan in Postwar East Asia analyses the portrayal of Japan in the societies of East and Southeast Asia, and asks how and why this has changed in recent decades, and what these changing images of Japan reveal about the ways in which these societies construct their own identities. It examines the role played by an imagined ‘Japan’ in the construction of national selves across the East Asian region, as mediated through a broad range of media ranging from school curricula and textbooks to film, television, literature and comics. Commencing with an extensive thematic and comparative overview chapter, the volume also includes contributions focusing specifically on Chinese societies (the mainland PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan), Korea, the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore. These studies show how changes in the representation of Japan have been related to political, social and cultural shifts within the societies of East Asia – and in particular to the ways in which these societies have imagined or constructed their own identities.
In the decades since her defeat in the Second World War, Japan has continued to loom large in the national imagination of many of her East Asian neighbours. While for many, Japan still conjures up images of rampant military brutality, at different times and in different communities, alternative images of the Japanese ‘Other’ have vied for predominance – in ways that remain poorly understood, not least within Japan itself. Bringing together contributors working in the fields of education, anthropology, history, sociology, political science and media studies, this interdisciplinary volume will be of interest to all students and scholars concerned with issues of identity, politics and culture in the societies of East Asia, and to those seeking a deeper understanding of Japan's fraught relations with its regional neighbours..
|8.||Edward Vickers, Marie Lall, Education as a Political Tool in Asia, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK, 2009.09, This book offers a fresh and comparative approach to analyzing the uses of education and the effects of its politicization on Asian societies in the era of globalisation. Education has been used as a political tool throughout the ages and across the whole world to define national identity and underpin the political rationale of regimes. In the contemporary world Asian societies manifest this phenomenon in a variety of ways, ranging from tensions over religious versus secular definitions of national identity in India and Pakistan, to various blends of ethno-culturally primordialist and 'multicultural' nationalism in China, Japan, Singapore and Vietnam. In Asia, modern education systems have their origins in processes of state formation aimed either at bolstering 'self-strengthening' resistance to the encroachments of Western and/or Asian imperialism, or at furthering projects of post-colonial nation-building. State elites have sought to popularise powerful visions of nationhood, to equip these visions with a historical 'back-story', and to endow them with the maximum sentimental charge. This book explores these developments in various national contexts, emphasising that education is seen by nations across Asia, as elsewhere, as far more than simply a tool for economic development, and that issues of national identity and the tolerance - or lack of it - of ethnic, cultural or religious diversity can be at least as important as issues of literacy and access. Interdisciplinary and unique in its analysis, this book will be of interest to scholars of political science, research in education and Asian Studies..|
|9.||Edward Vickers, Alisa Jones, History Education and National Identity in East Asia, New York and London, 2005.09, This original collection offers the first significant comparative study of the politics of history curricula across East Asia. Vickers and Jones examine the relationship of history education to changing official visions of the past in a context of political transformation, giving special consideration to the rise of communism, decolonization, and the Cold War divisions of China and Korea. Chapters by a range of international scholars deal with history education in Japan, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and the two Koreas. They focus on the content of official syllabi and textbooks, and on the influences shaping government policy regarding the teaching of history. Highlighting the tension between the traditional nation-building priorities of history education and the emerging cross-regional concern with the promotion of 'skills', this important book shows how the school subject of History has been a major site for the construction and contestation of definitions of national and regional identity..|
|10.||Edward Vickers, In Search of An Identity: The Politics of History as a School Subject in Hong Kong, 1960s-2005, Hong Kong, 2005.09, In most societies, the school subject of History reflects and reinforces a sense of collective identity. However, in Hong Kong this has emphatically not been the case. Official and popular ambivalence towards 'the nation' in the shape of the People's Republic of China, and the sensitivity of Hong Kong's own political and cultural status, have meant that the question of local identity has until recently been largely sidestepped in school curricula and textbooks. In this study, Edward Vickers sets out to reexamine some of the myths concerning colonialism and schooling under the British, while showing how in postcolonial Hong Kong these myths have been deployed to legitimize a programme of nationalistic reeducation. In the Afterword to this 2005 edition, he emphasizes that it is Hong Kong's fundamentally undemocratic political context that has thwarted and continues to thwart efforts to make history education a vehicle for fostering a liberal, democratic sense of regional and national citizenship..|
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