九州大学 研究者情報
BOGEL CYNTHEA(ぼーげる しんしあ) データ更新日:2021.06.15

教授 /  人文科学研究院 哲学部門 人文科学研究院

1. Katherine Swancutt, King's College London, United Kingdom (organizer, presenter, chair) Laurel Kendall, American Museum of Natural History, United States (presenter) Ni Wayan Pasek Ariati, School for International Training (SIT), Indonesia (presenter) Kari Telle, Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), Norway (presenter) Moumita Sen, MF Norwegian School of Theology, Religion, and Society, Norway (presenter) Cynthea Bogel, Kyushu University, Japan (discussant), Demons and Gods on Display: The Pageantry of Popular Religion as Crossroads Encounters, AAS-in-Asia 2020 Conference in Kobe, 2020.09, https://aasinasia.org/submission/submission1127/.
2. Bogel, Cynthea, “Japanese Prints (ukiyoe 浮世絵) and Đông Hồ Painted Prints in a Comparative Light.”, International Symposium on the Safeguarding and Promotion of Dong Ho Woodblock Paintings in Contemporary Life, 2019.11, Paper abstract (panel chair duties described in next section) Bogel’s presentation focused on the block - print techniques used for creating Dong Ho "painted prints" in a comparative framework with 18th and 19th century Japanese woodblock prints (ukiyoe). Each genre deploys what we might call meta-print techniques (Meta is a prefix used in English to indicate a concept that is an "abstraction behind another concept, used to complete or add to the latter.”). In the case of the printed images made in Dong Ho village, the print is completed with hand -applied pigments (thus the name "painted prints," whereas Japanese prints achieve painterly effects by manipulating the color application on the block or utilizing the grain of the block itself, and also by adding metallic or lacquer materials to the pigments. Some are hand painted, usually within block-printed lines. Although both genres are produced using cutting tools on woodblocks, and both use multiple blocks for colors and a line block, the tools and techniques for cutting vary greatly (printing is inverse, i.e., Dong Ho prints are usually block to flat paper, not paper applied on the block as in Japan), as do the materials for engraving and coloring. Dong Ho painted prints limit the colors according to tradition; Japanese prints began with a limited range of pigments in the 18th c. then added a huge variety of pigment coloration, techniques to make the colors more painterly, and finely carved patterns and lines.

The greatest differences between Japanese prints and Dong Ho prints may be in the act of printing itself: both genres deploy complex processes, but the Japanese print aims for a more technically precise and finished look - in a sense "masking" the multi -layered labors - whereas the Dong Ho painted prints often seem to celebrate both the precision of technical elements alongside folk style and freehand methods (for example, aligning the block and paper, using the eye for registration). Dong Ho prints also use pigmented papers for contrast. Bogel’s presentation considered the print techniques in detail, alongside a consideration of the reception and functions (religious, commemorative, economic) of each print genre, and the structure of the artistic community that produced them. It avoids making value judgements about the relative simplicity or complexity of the print techniques and materials, instead recognizing the agencies that preserve certain techniques, materials, and desired final effects vs those that alter them and the reasons why..
3. Cynthea Bogel, Transmission and Talisman in Ancient Buddhist Visual Culture, College Art Association Conference, 2019.02, This paper examines seventh- and eighth-century cosmologies depicted on ancient Buddhist icons as hybrid products of cultural transmission that unwittingly and consciously shift religio-political/devotional-secular meanings. It promotes transdisciplinarity, presenting visual evidence of Buddhism and ancient history in heretofore unacknowledged ways and deconstructing essentialized “religion” and “influence” models upon which art history still depends. Pedestal imagery at Horyuji and Yakushiji is linked to current events described in contemporaneous histories-in-the-making; in this way and others the paper surveys visual expressions of Buddhism during the period that sought to craft a Chinese-style imperial state. Specifically, the foreign, hybrid, and seemingly “non-Buddhist” ideas, creatures, figures, and motifs that populate each icon reveal transmission and appropriation in contexts often reduced to “naive Buddhist understanding” or simplistic “political cache through a pastiche of borrowed symbol.” At Yakushiji the most striking element of the pedestal imagery is twelve figures in bronze relief seated 4-2-4-2 within arched niches on the sides. The twelve are depicted in loincloths, some with fangs, all with curly hair and—most significantly—generalized physiognomic features used in Tang Chinese representations of dark-skinned foreigners (kunlun) from the Southern Seas; they were foreign workers, slaves, or individuals who delivered tribute to the imperial authority. They were also feared. Elsewhere, landscapes populated by immortals(?), allusions to Mt. Sumeru, beasts of the four directions, slaves/refugees, converted and/or hybrid (evil) creatures, tomb designs, and grapevines speak to foreign difference as agency. They espouse a radical view of the Asian transcultural that deposits postcolonial narratives and imported object narratives on similar theoretical bases. We attempt to situate the multi-faceted intentions of this plethora of talismanic marks..
4. Cynthea Bogel, Heritage Values, Policies, and the Crafting of Impermanence—Japan’s National Treasure System, World Social Science Forum, 2018.09.
5. CYNTHEA BOGEL, 「国際研究フォーラム:日本の宗教はどう教えられているか」 “International Forum: How are Japanese Religions Being Taught?”, 国学院大学 Kokugakuin University, 2017.11.
6. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Cosmology in Relief: The Eighth-Century Pedestal at Yakushiji, Nara", Fourth IMAP International Symposium in Japanese Humanities Symposium on Pre-Modern Japanese Culture at Kyushu University, 2016.12, “Religion and Imagination in Japanese Contexts” international four-day conference on Japanese religious studies. A workshop sponsored by Kyushu University’s World Premier International Researcher Invitation Program (“Progress 100”). December 7–10..
7. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Cosmology Beneath the Master of Medicine: The Eighth-Century Pedestal at Yakushiji, Nara", Japan Colloquium Series at Yale University, Council on East Asian Studies at Yale University, 2016.11, Yakushiji temple in Nara houses a 2.5-meter bronze sculpture of the Master of Medicine Buddha with two attendant bodhisattvas; the triad was completed ca. 718. A temple of the same name was vowed by Emperor Tenmu (r. 672–686) in 680 for an earlier capital, Fujiwara, when his chief consort, later Empress Jitō (r. 686–697), became ill. Visually and metaphorically, the 1.5-meter bronze pedestal beneath the Master of Medicine icon supports his promise to quell forces that sicken people and foster chaos. The elegant and powerful blend of Indic foreign figures, Chinese cosmology, grape vines, and symbolic motifs on the pedestal have intrigued scholars for over a century as they seek to explain their possible meanings. Focusing on a search for continental sources, motifs in Buddhist contexts alone, or “Silk Road” origins, and falling back on unrelated meanings for symbolics such as the four directional animals, art historians have overlooked evidence provided by the histories and literature of “ancient Japan” that create and narrate the realm of Tenmu "all under heaven.” What emerges from a reexamination of Yakushiji in two times and places and a review of copious scholarship on the pedestal is, in large part, the creation and maintenance of memory: the Empress and her Emperor carried forward in image and concept to Nara from the old Fujiwara capital, and the representation of Tenmu’s realm—re-presented or imagined—on the pedestal in artistic bronze relief.
8. CYNTHEA BOGEL, “Two Capitals, One Cosmology: Clues to a Dual History of the Temple of the Medicine Master Buddha (Yakushiji in the Fujiwara and Nara Capitals)”, Reassessing Kodai Workshop, ミシガン大学 University of Michigan, 2016.02.
9. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Undocumented Traces, Hidden Powers: The Eighth-Century Hokkedo Hall and Its Statues", Reassessing Kodai Workshop, ミシガン大学 University of Michigan, 2016.02.
10. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Border Aesthetics: Art along/across borders" (Discussant), International Symposium in Fukuoka: Contesting Territory-Sovereignty, Tourism and Aesthetics, 2015.11.
11. CYNTHEA BOGEL, “Moving Icons, Changing Contexts: Statues and Paintings in Ancient Japanese Temples and Comparative Questions for Bhutan”, The Inaugural lecture for the Wellington and Virginia Yee Art Lecture Series, 2015.11.
12. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Four Directions and Layered Cosmologies: An English Century Buddhist Monument in the New Capital", The Nineteenth Asian Studies Conference Japan (ASJC), 2015.06, My research explores fascinating relief imagery on the pedestal of an early-eighth-century bronze Master of Healing Buddha (Bhaiṣajyaguru) at Yakushiji monastery in Nara, Japan. The combination of figures and motifs on the pedestal is unique in East Asia. Chinese animal-gods of the four directions 四神 associated with the workings of the cosmos and, as such, good governance, occur alongside Buddhist divinities and motifs associated with mortuary culture and cosmopolitan cultural exchange. Cosmological knowledge of the four directional animals is evidenced in Japanese records less than a century earlier, and their representation was limited to subsequent tomb decoration. This, combined with other mortuary imagery on the pedestal, has led scholars to associate it with death symbolism.
Instead, I see the pedestal as engaged with world mapping at several conceptual levels. The Yakushiji icon can be seen as a monument that synthesizes and/or layers existing Buddhist beliefs concerning healing and rebirth with non-Buddhist (or imminent Buddhist) symbology to convey, through representation, good rule, galactic polity (Tambiah, 1977), and a degree of continental cosmopolitan cachet. The pedestal serves as the physical and metaphorical base for the Buddha who heals—by creating order among chaotic forces that cause disease, delusion, and death—but this must also relate to the ruler. The pedestal represents an inherited cosmology associated with the reign of an earlier emperor, suggesting political allegiances to China and engagement with the other-worldly yakshi described in the Healing Buddha sutras for an unprecedented Buddhist monument..
13. CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Representing the Unknown: The Eighth Century Pedestal of Yakushijiʻs Master of Medicine Buddha", International Workshop on Traditional Sciences in Asia 2015, 2015.06, Bogel will examine selected material and conceptual aspects of cosmology to elucidate the meaning of an eighth-century bronze statue of the Healing Buddha (Sanskrit: Bhaiṣajyaguru; Japanese: Yakushi) at Yakushiji monastery in Nara, Japan. The unusual figures and motifs on the pedestal of the Buddha, unique in East Asia, have prompted decades of scholarly debate. Chinese animal-gods of the four directions—associated with places and rites for which an orderly and auspicious cosmos is sought—are cast in relief among curiously posed foreign figures who appear to represent convertees to Buddhism, and yet fulfill an unresolved function on the pedestal. Figures and motifs associated with East Asian as well as Roman mortuary culture cannot be wholly explained as the result of Silk Road transmissions. In order to understand whether the Yakushiji buildings and central icon were relocated from the seventh-century Fujiwara capital to Nara, or whether either or both were newly made in Nara during the early eighth century, Bogel considers evolving notions of cosmology and its representation as they relate to governance, patronage, cultural exchange, and the functions of Buddhism in ancient Japan..
14. CYNTHEA BOGEL, 「結びのフレーム―薬師如来坐像台座をめぐって―」 Frames that Bind: A Consideration of the Yakushiji Yakushi Pedestal, 国際シンポジウム Frames and Framings in a Transdisciplinary Perspective, 2015.03, 薬師寺には薬師三尊像として2メートル半の青銅坐仏と二体の脇菩薩(716-718頃か)があります。台座は、病気になった人々や混乱の助長を癒し和らげる力である薬師如来とその関係するお経の功徳をあらわしていると考えられます。台座上の優れたまた力強い装飾意匠、異国的表象、コスモロジーの象徴の混合は、何世紀もの間研究者たちの興味をそそり、大陸起源の説明やこれらのモチーフのあり得べき意味を見つけようとしてきました。周知の通り、7世紀の主要寺院は新たな首都である平城京に移転したのですが、これは建物と仏像の物理的な移転だったのか、或いは名のみの移転だったのかの解釈を可能にします。長きにわたって、この三尊像が造られた時期について長い論争も行われてきました。 それは 藤原京にあった本薬師寺から新しい首都である平城京へ移坐されたもの、即ち7世紀の後半25年の間に造られたものであるとするものと、こんにちの薬師寺新しい首都の為に造られたもの、即ち8世紀の前半25年の間のものであるというものです。近年の考古学的知見が強く示唆するのは、藤原薬師寺すなわち本薬師寺と呼ばれる寺院が奈良時代においても存続していたということです。このことは私を含めて多くの研究者にとって、本薬師寺において本尊は必要とされていたこと、そしてその場所にとどまったということ、さらに奈良薬師寺のための新しい三尊像を暗示するものです。そのうえ、本尊とその脇菩薩の様式とより進んだ鋳造技術は多くの美術史家にとっては8世紀のそれを示すものです。こういった根拠にもかかわらず、この台座が背景とする表象と意匠の論理と象徴的意味は、研究者の間で一致するところが少ないのです。そして大陸的源泉についての研究に筆が費やされ続けています。こういった探求の少なからぬものが、意味するところを狭く閉じるフレーミングの枠組みにとらわれているように私には思われます。
15. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Upholding the Buddha and Raising Questions: The Pedestal of Yakushiji's Main Icon.”, The Making of Religions and Religious Representations in Pre-Modern Japan: Imported, Native, and Modified Forms., 2014.01.
16. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Art Outside the Temple: Contemporary Buddhist-Inspired Artistic Display and Production.”
, ジョージタウン大学 Georgetown University, Washington, D.C, 2014.03.
17. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Upholding the Buddha with a Century of Study: The Pedestal of Yakushiji's Main Icon” (百年の研究:薬師寺本尊薬師如来の台座), Association for Asian Studies annual conference, 2014.03.
18. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Art Outside the Temple: Contemporary Buddhist-Inspired Artistic Display and Production.”, スミスカレッジ Smith College, Northampton, Mass. , 2014.03.
19. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Upholding the Buddha and Raising Questions: The Eighth-Century Pedestal of Yakushiji's Master of Medicine Buddha. , ハーバード大学 Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. , 2014.03.
20. BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Grapes, Gods, and Men: Greco-Roman and Asian Motifs on an Eight-Century Japanese Buddha Pedestal.”(葡萄、神と人間:8世紀日本薬師如来像台座に示したギリシャーローマと東洋模様), Conference: The Reception of Greek and Roman Culture in East Asia: Texts & Artefacts, Institutions & Practices. Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for the History of Religions, 2013.07.