|CYNTHEA BOGEL||Last modified date：2020.06.26|
Professor / Faculty of Humanities、Kyushu University / Department of Philosophy / Faculty of Humanities
|CYNTHEA BOGEL||Last modified date：2020.06.26|
|1.||Bogel, Cynthea, “Japanese Prints (ukiyoe 浮世絵) and Đông Hồ Painted Prints in a Comparative Light.”, International Symposium on the Safeguarding and Promotion of Dong Ho Woodblock Paintings in Contemporary Life, 2019.11, Paper abstract (panel chair duties described in next section) Bogel’s presentation focused on the block - print techniques used for creating Dong Ho "painted prints" in a comparative framework with 18th and 19th century Japanese woodblock prints (ukiyoe). Each genre deploys what we might call meta-print techniques (Meta is a prefix used in English to indicate a concept that is an "abstraction behind another concept, used to complete or add to the latter.”). In the case of the printed images made in Dong Ho village, the print is completed with hand -applied pigments (thus the name "painted prints," whereas Japanese prints achieve painterly effects by manipulating the color application on the block or utilizing the grain of the block itself, and also by adding metallic or lacquer materials to the pigments. Some are hand painted, usually within block-printed lines. Although both genres are produced using cutting tools on woodblocks, and both use multiple blocks for colors and a line block, the tools and techniques for cutting vary greatly (printing is inverse, i.e., Dong Ho prints are usually block to flat paper, not paper applied on the block as in Japan), as do the materials for engraving and coloring. Dong Ho painted prints limit the colors according to tradition; Japanese prints began with a limited range of pigments in the 18th c. then added a huge variety of pigment coloration, techniques to make the colors more painterly, and finely carved patterns and lines.
The greatest differences between Japanese prints and Dong Ho prints may be in the act of printing itself: both genres deploy complex processes, but the Japanese print aims for a more technically precise and finished look - in a sense "masking" the multi -layered labors - whereas the Dong Ho painted prints often seem to celebrate both the precision of technical elements alongside folk style and freehand methods (for example, aligning the block and paper, using the eye for registration). Dong Ho prints also use pigmented papers for contrast. Bogel’s presentation considered the print techniques in detail, alongside a consideration of the reception and functions (religious, commemorative, economic) of each print genre, and the structure of the artistic community that produced them. It avoids making value judgements about the relative simplicity or complexity of the print techniques and materials, instead recognizing the agencies that preserve certain techniques, materials, and desired final effects vs those that alter them and the reasons why..
|2.||Cynthea Bogel, Transmission and Talisman in Ancient Buddhist Visual Culture, College Art Association Conference, 2019.02, This paper examines seventh- and eighth-century cosmologies depicted on ancient Buddhist icons as hybrid products of cultural transmission that unwittingly and consciously shift religio-political/devotional-secular meanings. It promotes transdisciplinarity, presenting visual evidence of Buddhism and ancient history in heretofore unacknowledged ways and deconstructing essentialized “religion” and “influence” models upon which art history still depends. Pedestal imagery at Horyuji and Yakushiji is linked to current events described in contemporaneous histories-in-the-making; in this way and others the paper surveys visual expressions of Buddhism during the period that sought to craft a Chinese-style imperial state. Specifically, the foreign, hybrid, and seemingly “non-Buddhist” ideas, creatures, figures, and motifs that populate each icon reveal transmission and appropriation in contexts often reduced to “naive Buddhist understanding” or simplistic “political cache through a pastiche of borrowed symbol.” At Yakushiji the most striking element of the pedestal imagery is twelve figures in bronze relief seated 4-2-4-2 within arched niches on the sides. The twelve are depicted in loincloths, some with fangs, all with curly hair and—most significantly—generalized physiognomic features used in Tang Chinese representations of dark-skinned foreigners (kunlun) from the Southern Seas; they were foreign workers, slaves, or individuals who delivered tribute to the imperial authority. They were also feared. Elsewhere, landscapes populated by immortals(?), allusions to Mt. Sumeru, beasts of the four directions, slaves/refugees, converted and/or hybrid (evil) creatures, tomb designs, and grapevines speak to foreign difference as agency. They espouse a radical view of the Asian transcultural that deposits postcolonial narratives and imported object narratives on similar theoretical bases. We attempt to situate the multi-faceted intentions of this plethora of talismanic marks..|
|3.||Cynthea Bogel, Heritage Values, Policies, and the Crafting of Impermanence—Japan’s National Treasure System, World Social Science Forum, 2018.09.|
|4.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Cosmology in Relief: The Eighth-Century Pedestal at Yakushiji, Nara", Fourth IMAP International Symposium in Japanese Humanities Symposium on Pre-Modern Japanese Culture at Kyushu University, 2016.12, “Religion and Imagination in Japanese Contexts” international four-day conference on Japanese religious studies. A workshop sponsored by Kyushu University’s World Premier International Researcher Invitation Program (“Progress 100”). December 7–10..|
|5.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Cosmology Beneath the Master of Medicine: The Eighth-Century Pedestal at Yakushiji, Nara", Japan Colloquium Series at Yale University, Council on East Asian Studies at Yale University, 2016.11, Yakushiji temple in Nara houses a 2.5-meter bronze sculpture of the Master of Medicine Buddha with two attendant bodhisattvas; the triad was completed ca. 718. A temple of the same name was vowed by Emperor Tenmu (r. 672–686) in 680 for an earlier capital, Fujiwara, when his chief consort, later Empress Jitō (r. 686–697), became ill. Visually and metaphorically, the 1.5-meter bronze pedestal beneath the Master of Medicine icon supports his promise to quell forces that sicken people and foster chaos. The elegant and powerful blend of Indic foreign figures, Chinese cosmology, grape vines, and symbolic motifs on the pedestal have intrigued scholars for over a century as they seek to explain their possible meanings. Focusing on a search for continental sources, motifs in Buddhist contexts alone, or “Silk Road” origins, and falling back on unrelated meanings for symbolics such as the four directional animals, art historians have overlooked evidence provided by the histories and literature of “ancient Japan” that create and narrate the realm of Tenmu "all under heaven.” What emerges from a reexamination of Yakushiji in two times and places and a review of copious scholarship on the pedestal is, in large part, the creation and maintenance of memory: the Empress and her Emperor carried forward in image and concept to Nara from the old Fujiwara capital, and the representation of Tenmu’s realm—re-presented or imagined—on the pedestal in artistic bronze relief.|
|6.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, “Two Capitals, One Cosmology: Clues to a Dual History of the Temple of the Medicine Master Buddha (Yakushiji in the Fujiwara and Nara Capitals)”, Reassessing Kodai Workshop, ミシガン大学 University of Michigan, 2016.02.|
|7.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Undocumented Traces, Hidden Powers: The Eighth-Century Hokkedo Hall and Its Statues", Reassessing Kodai Workshop, ミシガン大学 University of Michigan, 2016.02.|
|8.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, "Border Aesthetics: Art along/across borders" (Discussant), International Symposium in Fukuoka: Contesting Territory-Sovereignty, Tourism and Aesthetics, 2015.11.|
|9.||CYNTHEA BOGEL, “Moving Icons, Changing Contexts: Statues and Paintings in Ancient Japanese Temples and Comparative Questions for Bhutan”, The Inaugural lecture for the Wellington and Virginia Yee Art Lecture Series, 2015.11.|
|10.||BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Upholding the Buddha and Raising Questions: The Pedestal of Yakushiji's Main Icon.”, The Making of Religions and Religious Representations in Pre-Modern Japan: Imported, Native, and Modified Forms., 2014.01.|
|11.||BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Upholding the Buddha with a Century of Study: The Pedestal of Yakushiji's Main Icon” (百年の研究：薬師寺本尊薬師如来の台座), Association for Asian Studies annual conference, 2014.03.|
|12.||BOGEL CYNTHEA, “Grapes, Gods, and Men: Greco-Roman and Asian Motifs on an Eight-Century Japanese Buddha Pedestal.”（葡萄、神と人間：８世紀日本薬師如来像台座に示したギリシャーローマと東洋模様）, Conference: The Reception of Greek and Roman Culture in East Asia: Texts & Artefacts, Institutions & Practices. Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for the History of Religions, 2013.07.|