Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Hiroshi Sato Last modified date:2020.08.03

Assistant Professor / Division of Oral Health, Growth & Development / Department of Dental Science / Faculty of Dental Science


Papers
1. Xu Han, Hiroki Kato, Hiroshi Sato, Yuta Hirofuji, Satoshi Fukumoto, Keiji Masuda, Accelerated osteoblastic differentiation in patient-derived dental pulp stem cells carrying a gain-of-function mutation of TRPV4 associated with metatropic dysplasia, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.12.123, 523, 4, 841-846, 2020.03, Metatropic dysplasia (MD) is a congenital skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-like long-bone deformities. These skeletal phenotypes are predominantly caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), which encodes a nonselective Ca2+-permeable cation channel. Previous studies have shown that constitutive TRPV4 channel activation leads to irregular chondrogenic proliferation and differentiation, and thus to the disorganized endochondral ossification seen in MD. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of TRPV4 in osteoblast differentiation and MD pathogenesis. Specifically, the behavior of osteoblasts differentiated from patient-derived dental pulp stem cells carrying a heterozygous single base TRPV4 mutation, c.1855C > T (p.L619F) was compared to that of osteoblasts differentiated from isogenic control cells (in which the mutation was corrected using the CRISPR/Cas9 system). The mutant osteoblasts exhibited enhanced calcification (indicated by intense Alizarin Red S staining), increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, strongly upregulated runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin expression, and increased expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) compared to control cells. These results suggest that the analyzed TRPV4 GOF mutation disrupts osteoblastic differentiation and induces MD-associated disorganized endochondral ossification by increasing Ca2+/NFATc1 pathway activity. Thus, inhibiting the NFATc1 pathway may be a promising potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate skeletal deformities in MD..
2. Kentaro Nonaka, Xu Han, Hiroki Kato, Hiroshi Sato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Keiji Masuda, Novel gain-of-function mutation of TRPV4 associated with accelerated chondrogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells derived from a patient with metatropic dysplasia, Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 10.1016/j.bbrep.2019.100648, 19, 2019.09, Metatropic dysplasia is a congenital skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe platyspondyly, dumbbell-like deformity of long tubular bones, and progressive kyphoscoliosis with growth. It is caused by mutations in the gene TRPV4, encoding the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, which acts as a calcium channel. Many heterozygous single base mutations of this gene have been associated with the disorder, showing autosomal dominant inheritance. Although abnormal endochondral ossification has been observed by histological examination of bone in a patient with lethal metatropic dysplasia, the etiology of the disorder remains largely unresolved. As dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate into bone lineage cells, DPSCs derived from patients with congenital skeletal dysplasia might be useful as a disease-specific cellular model for etiological investigation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pathological association between TRPV4 mutation and chondrocyte differentiation by analyzing DPSCs from a patient with non-lethal metatropic dysplasia. We identified a novel heterozygous single base mutation, c.1855C>T in TRPV4. This was predicted to be a missense mutation, p.L619F, in putative transmembrane segment 5. The mutation was repaired by CRISPR/Cas9 system to obtain isogenic control DPSCs for further analysis. The expression of stem cell markers and fibroblast-like morphology were comparable between patient-derived mutant and control DPSCs, although expression of TRPV4 was lower in mutant DPSCs than control DPSCs. Despite the lower TRPV4 expression in mutant DPSCs, the intracellular Ca
2+
level was comparable at the basal level between mutant and control DPSCs, while its level was markedly higher following stimulation with 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD), a specific agonist for TRPV4, in mutant DPSCs than in control DPSCs. In the presence of 4αPDD, we observed accelerated early chondrocyte differentiation and upregulated mRNA expression of SRY-box 9 (SOX9) in mutant DPSCs. Our findings suggested that the novel missense mutation c.1855C>T of TRPV4 was a gain-of-function mutation leading to enhanced intracellular Ca
2+
level, which was associated with accelerated chondrocyte differentiation and SOX9 upregulation. Our results also suggest that patient-derived DPSCs can be a useful disease-specific cellular model for elucidating the pathological mechanism of metatropic dysplasia..
3. Yu Zhang, Xiao Sun, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Yuta Hirofuji, Keiji Masuda, Protective effect of folic acid on vulnerability to oxidative stress in dental pulp stem cells of deciduous teeth from children with orofacial clefts, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.06.031, 516, 1, 127-132, 2019.08, Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most common congenital craniofacial malformations, including cleft lip with or without cleft palate as the core symptoms. Developmental or functional defects in neural crest cells (NCCs) that contribute to craniofacial morphogenesis are involved in OFC development. Previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress in NCCs is involved in the development of OFCs, suggesting that the anti-oxidative activity of folic acid (FA) could have protective effects. However, studies of human-derived NCCs are limited, as these cells are predominantly active during the embryonic stage. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress and FA were evaluated in human OFCs. In particular, NCC-derived stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were obtained from 3 children with non-syndromic cleft lip with cleft palate (CLPs) and from 3 healthy children (CTRLs). Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly higher in CLPs than in CTRLs and were associated with lower mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and decreased cell mobility. In addition, significantly greater vulnerability to pyocyanin-induced ROS, mimicking exogenous ROS, was observed in CLPs than in CTRLs. These vulnerabilities to endogenous and exogenous ROS in CLPs were significantly improved by FA. These results indicated that the transcriptional dysregulation of SOD1 in NCCs is an oxidative stress-related pathological factor in OFCs, providing novel evidence for the benefits of perinatal anti-oxidant supplementation, including FA, for the management of these common deformities..
4. Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Hiroki Kato, Hiroshi Sato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Kazuaki Nonaka, Keiji Masuda, Positive effect of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor on impaired neurite development and mitochondrial function in dopaminergic neurons derived from dental pulp stem cells from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.084, 513, 4, 1048-1054, 2019.06, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders and is characterized by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. While multiple etiologies are implicated in ADHD, its underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Although previous studies have suggested dysregulation of dopaminergic signals, mitochondria, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in ADHD, few studies have reported these associations directly. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) can efficiently differentiate into dopaminergic neurons (DNs) and are thus a useful disease-specific cellular model for the study of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with DN dysfunction. This study aimed to elucidate the relationships between DNs, mitochondria, and BDNF in ADHD by analyzing DNs differentiated from SHED obtained from three boys with ADHD and comparing them to those from three typically developing boys. In the absence of exogenous BDNF in the cell culture media, DNs derived from boys with ADHD (ADHD-DNs) exhibited impaired neurite outgrowth and branching, decreased mitochondrial mass in neurites, and abnormal intracellular ATP levels. In addition, BDNF mRNA was significantly decreased in ADHD-DNs. Supplementation with BDNF, however, significantly improved neurite development and mitochondrial function in ADHD-DNs. These results suggest that ADHD-DNs may have impaired neurite development and mitochondrial function associated with insufficient production of BDNF, which may be improved by exogenous BDNF supplementation. Findings such as these, from patient-derived SHED, may contribute to the future development of treatment strategies for aberrant dopaminergic signaling, mitochondrial functioning, and BDNF levels implicated in ADHD pathogenesis..
5. Xu Han, Kentaro Nonaka, Hiroki Kato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Takashi Kifune, Yuta Hirofuji, Keiji Masuda, Osteoblastic differentiation improved by bezafibrate-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in deciduous tooth-derived pulp stem cells from a child with Leigh syndrome, Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.11.003, 17, 32-37, 2019.03, Leigh syndrome is a highly heterogeneous condition caused by pathological mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA regions encoding molecules involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, in which many organs including the brain can be affected. Among these organs, a high incidence of poor bone health has been recognized in primary mitochondrial diseases including Leigh syndrome. However, the direct association between mitochondrial dysfunction and poor bone health has not been fully elucidated. Mitochondrial biosynthesis is a potential therapeutic target for this syndrome, as it can ameliorate the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation without altering these gene mutations. A recent study has shown the impaired osteogenesis in the dental pulp stem cells derived from the deciduous teeth of a child with Leigh syndrome, harboring the heteroplasmic mutation G13513A in the mitochondrial DNA region encoding the ND5 subunit of the respiratory chain complex I. The present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial biogenesis could be a therapeutic target for improving osteogenesis, using the same stem cells in a patient-specific cellular model. For this purpose, bezafibrate was used because it has been reported to induce mitochondrial biogenesis as well as to improve bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Bezafibrate clearly improved the differentiation of patient-derived stem cells into osteoblasts and the mineralization of differentiated osteoblasts. The mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α, ATP production, and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were all significantly increased by bezafibrate in the patient-derived cells. In addition, the increased amount and morphological shift from the fragmentary to network shape associated with DRP1 downregulation were also observed in the bezafibrate-treated patient-derived cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis may be a potential therapeutic target for improving osteogenesis in patients with Leigh syndrome, and bezafibrate may be one of the candidate treatment agents..
6. Yu Zhang, Hiroki Kato, Hiroshi Sato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Keiji Masuda, Kazuaki Nonaka, Folic acid-mediated mitochondrial activation for protection against oxidative stress in human dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.11.169, 508, 3, 850-856, 2019.01, Enzymatic antioxidant systems, mainly involving mitochondria, are critical for minimizing the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species, and these systems are enhanced by interactions with nonenzymatic antioxidant nutrients. Because fetal growth requires extensive mitochondrial respiration, pregnant women and fetuses are at high risk of exposure to excessive reactive oxygen species. The enhancement of the antioxidant system, e.g., by nutritional management, is therefore critical for both the mother and fetus. Folic acid supplementation prevents homocysteine accumulation and epigenetic dysregulation associated with one-carbon metabolism. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant effects of folic acid for healthy pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between the antioxidant effect of folic acid and mitochondria in undifferentiated cells during fetal growth. Neural crest-derived dental pulp stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth were used as a model of undifferentiated cells in the fetus. Pyocyanin induced excessive reactive oxygen species, resulting in a decrease in cell growth and migration accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation and inactivation in dental pulp stem cells. This damage was significantly improved by folic acid, along with decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, PGC-1α upregulation, DRP1 downregulation, mitochondrial elongation, and increased ATP production. Folic acid may protect undifferentiated cells from oxidative damage by targeting mitochondrial activation. These results provide evidence for a new benefit of folic acid in pregnant women and fetuses..
7. Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroshi Sato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Fumiko Takayama, Yasunari Sakai, Shoichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka, Impaired neurite development associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons differentiated from exfoliated deciduous tooth-derived pulp stem cells of children with autism spectrum disorder, Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.09.004, 16, 24-31, 2018.12, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions, restrictive interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Among the various mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, dysfunctions of dopaminergic signaling and mitochondria have been hypothesized to explain the core symptoms of children with ASD. However, only a few studies focusing on the pathological association between dopaminergic neurons (DN) and mitochondria in ASD have been performed using patient-derived stem cells and in vitro differentiated neurons. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells present in the dental pulp of exfoliated deciduous teeth; these cells can differentiate into dopaminergic neurons (DN) in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the pathological association between development of DN and mitochondria in ASD by using SHED as a disease- or patient-specific cellular model. The SHED obtained from three children with ASD and three typically developing children were differentiated into DN, and the neurobiology of these cells was examined. The DN derived from children with ASD showed impaired neurite outgrowth and branching, associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, number of mitochondria within the neurites, amount of mitochondria per cell area and intracellular calcium level. In addition, impaired neurite outgrowth and branching of ASD-derived DN were not improved by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), suggesting impairment of the BDNF signaling pathway in ASD. These results imply that intracerebral dopamine production may have decreased in these children. The earliest age at which deciduous teeth spontaneously exfoliate in humans, and SHED can be noninvasively collected, is approximately 6 years. Our results suggest that in vitro analysis of SHED-derived DN obtained from children with ASD provides neurobiological information that may be useful in determining treatment strategies in the early stages of ASD..
8. Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Hiroki Kato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroshi Sato, Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Xu Han, Yu Zhang, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka, Altered development of dopaminergic neurons differentiated from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth of a patient with Down syndrome, BMC neurology, 10.1186/s12883-018-1140-2, 18, 1, 2018.08, Background: Down syndrome (DS) is a common developmental disorder resulting from the presence of an additional copy of chromosome 21. Abnormalities in dopamine signaling are suggested to be involved in cognitive dysfunction, one of the symptoms of DS, but the pathophysiological mechanism has not been fully elucidated at the cellular level. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) can be prepared from the dental pulp of primary teeth. Importantly, SHED can be collected noninvasively, have multipotency, and differentiate into dopaminergic neurons (DN). Therefore, we examined dopamine signaling in DS at the cellular level by isolating SHED from a patient with DS, differentiating the cells into DN, and examining development and function of DN. Methods: Here, SHED were prepared from a normal participant (Ctrl-SHED) and a patient with DS (DS-SHED). Initial experiments were performed to confirm the morphological, chromosomal, and stem cell characteristics of both SHED populations. Next, Ctrl-SHED and DS-SHED were differentiated into DN and morphological analysis of DN was examined by immunostaining. Functional analysis of DN was performed by measuring extracellular dopamine levels under basal and glutamate-stimulated conditions. In addition, expression of molecules involved in dopamine homeostasis was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed Student's t-tests. Results: Compared with Ctrl-SHED, DS-SHED showed decreased expression of nestin, a neural stem-cell marker. Further, DS-SHED differentiated into DN (DS-DN) exhibiting decreased neurite outgrowth and branching compared with Ctrl-DN. In addition, DS-DN dopamine secretion was lower than Ctrl-DN dopamine secretion. Moreover, aberrant expression of molecules involved in dopaminergic homeostasis was observed in DS-DN. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there was developmental abnormality and DN malfunction in the DS-SHED donor in this study. In the future, to clarify the detailed mechanism of dopamine-signal abnormality due to DN developmental and functional abnormalities in DS, it is necessary to increase the number of patients for analysis. Non-invasively harvested SHED may be very useful in the analysis of DS pathology..
9. Saki Hirofuji, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Fumiko Takayama, Michiko Torio, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka, Mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons differentiated from exfoliated deciduous tooth-derived pulp stem cells of a child with Rett syndrome, BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.077, 498, 4, 898-904, 2018.04.
10. Yumiko I. Matsuishi, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroshi Sato, Hiroko Wada, Tamotsu Kiyoshima, Kazuaki Nonaka, Accelerated dentinogenesis by inhibiting the mitochondrial fission factor, dynamin related protein 1., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.12.026, 495, 2, 1655-1660, 2018.01.
11. Hiroki Kato, Xu Han, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroshi Sato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Tomoaki Taguchi, and Kazuaki Nonaka, Direct effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on poor bone health in Leigh syndrome, BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.09.045, 493, 1, 207-212, 2017.11.
12. Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka, Mitochondria Regulate the Differentiation of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth, CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 42, 2, 105-116, 2017.08.
13. Hiroshi Sato, Hiroki Kato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Xu Han, Yuta Hirofuji, and Kazuaki Nonaka, Engineering of Systematic Elimination of a Targeted Chromosome in Human Cells, BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 10.1155/2017/6037159, 2017.03.
14. Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka, Mitochondria regulate the differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, Cell structure and function, 10.1247/csf.17012, 42, 2, 105-116, 2017.01, Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity. During neuronal differentiation of SHED, we observed increased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial DNA, and elongated mitochondria. Furthermore, to examine the demand for mitochondrial activity in neuronal differentiation, we then differentiated SHED into neuronal cells in the presence of rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler, and found that neuronal differentiation was inhibited by treatment with rotenone and CCCP. These results indicated that increased mitochondrial activity was crucial for the neuronal differentiation of SHED..