||Yuko Ichimiya, Noriyuki Kaku, Yasunari Sakai, Fumiya Yamashita, Wakato Matsuoka, Mamoru Muraoka, Satoshi Akamine, Soichi Mizuguchi, Michiko Torio, Yoshitomo Motomura, Yuichiro Hirata, Yoshito Ishizaki, Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroyuki Torisu, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shouichi Ohga, Transient dysautonomia in an acute phase of encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion, Brain and Development, 10.1016/j.braindev.2017.03.023, 39, 7, 621-624, 2017.08, Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection. Whereas the seizure was terminated by systemic infusion of midazolam, consciousness remained disturbed for the next 48 h. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) evolved on 3 days after the seizure. Therapeutic hypothermia was immediately introduced, however, the brain lesion extended to the whole subcortical white matters on day 8. The intermittent bilateral dilation of pupils with increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed until day 12. Real-time monitoring of electroencephalograms ruled out the recurrent attacks of seizures. The abnormal signs of autonomic nervous system gradually ceased and never relapsed after recovery from the hypothermia. PSH or a transient condition of dysautonomia may emerge and persist during the acute phase of AESD..
||Koichiro Yoshimaru, Toshiharu Matsuura, Yasuyuki Uchida, Keisuke Kajihara, Yukihiro Toriigahara, Yuki Kawano, Takuya Kondo, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Wakato Matsuoka, Noriyuki Kaku, Jun Maki, Tomoaki Taguchi, Ultrasound-guided double central venous access for azygos vein via the ninth and tenth intercostal veins, Journal of Vascular Access, 10.1177/1129729820937133, 2020, Some patients with intestinal failure, who are dependent on total parenteral nutrition for long periods, suffer from a lack of suitable conventional venous access points, including axillary, external jugular, internal jugular, subclavian, saphenous, and the brachio-cephalic and femoral veins, due to their occlusion. Furthermore, extensive central venous stenosis and/or thrombosis of the superior and inferior vena cava may preclude further catheterization, so uncommon routes must be used, which can be challenging. In such patients, the azygos vein via the intercostal vein is a viable candidate. Thoracotomy-assisted, thoracoscopy-assisted, and cut-down procedures are currently suggested such access. We found that ultrasound-guided percutaneous puncture method was a safe and minimally invasive approach and successfully placed two central venous lines in preparation for small bowel transplantation via two different intercostal veins (ninth and tenth). Although the lung was actually located just below the target veins, an ultrasound provided augmented and clear vision, which contributed to the safe performance of the procedure without the need for invasive surgical intervention, such as thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, or rib resection using the cut-down technique. Furthermore, constant positive-pressure ventilation during vein puncture under general anesthesia also helps avoid venous collapse. Despite carrying a slight risk of light injury to the lung, artery, and nerve along with the vein compared to other procedures, we believe that ultrasound-guided puncture under general anesthesia is feasible as a minimally invasive method..