Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Kosuke Minamihata Last modified date:2021.10.21

Assistant Professor / Goto Kamiya laboratory / Department of Applied Chemistry / Faculty of Engineering


Papers
1. Kosuke Minamihata, Yusuke Tanaka, Pugoh Santoso,Masahiro Goto, Dan Kozome,Toki Taira, Noriho Kamiya, Orthogonal Enzymatic Conjugation Reactions create Chitin Binding Domain-Grafted Chitinase Polymers with Enhanced Antifungal Activity, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2021.07.
2. Satoshi Yamaguchi, Noriyuki Ohashi, Kosuke Minamihata, Teruyuki Nagamune, Photodegradable avidin-biotinylated polymer conjugate hydrogels for cell manipulation
, Biomaterials Science, https://doi.org/10.1039/D1BM00585E, 2021.06.
3. YuyaHirakawa, Hiroshi Ueda, Yusuke Takata, Kosuke Minamihata ,Rie Wakabayashi, Noriho Kamiya, Masahiro Goto, Co-amorphous formation of piroxicam-citric acid to generate supersaturation and improve skin permeation, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105667, 158, 105667, 2021.03.
4. Wahyu Ramadhan, Genki Kagawa, Kousuke Moriyama, Rie Wakabayashi, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Construction of higher-order cellular microstructures by a self-wrapping co-culture strategy using a redox-responsive hydrogel, Scientific reports, 10.1038/s41598-020-63362-4, 10, 1, 2020.12, In this report, a strategy for constructing three-dimensional (3D) cellular architectures comprising viable cells is presented. The strategy uses a redox-responsive hydrogel that degrades under mild reductive conditions, and a confluent monolayer of cells (i.e., cell sheet) cultured on the hydrogel surface peels off and self-folds to wrap other cells. As a proof-of-concept, the self-folding of fibroblast cell sheet was triggered by immersion in aqueous cysteine, and this folding process was controlled by the cysteine concentration. Such folding enabled the wrapping of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) spheroids, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and collagen beads, and this process improved cell viability, the secretion of metabolites and the proliferation rate of the HepG2 cells when compared with a two-dimensional culture under the same conditions. A key concept of this study is the ability to interact with other neighbouring cells, providing a new, simple and fast method to generate higher-order cellular aggregates wherein different types of cellular components are added. We designated the method of using a cell sheet to wrap another cellular aggregate the ‘cellular Furoshiki’. The simple self-wrapping Furoshiki technique provides an alternative approach to co-culture cells by microplate-based systems, especially for constructing heterogeneous 3D cellular microstructures..
5. Ryo Sato, Kosuke Minamihata, Ryutaro Ariyoshi, Hiromasa Taniguchi, Noriho Kamiya, Recombinant production of active microbial transglutaminase in E. coli by using self-cleavable zymogen with mutated propeptide, Protein Expression and Purification, 10.1016/j.pep.2020.105730, 176, 105730, 2020.12, Microbial transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (MTG) has been widely used in food industry and also in research and medical applications, since it can site-specifically modify proteins by the cross-linking reaction of glutamine residue and the primary amino group. The recombinant expression system of MTG in E. coli provides better accessibility for the researchers and thus can promote further utilization of MTG. Herein, we report production of active and soluble MTG in E. coli by using a chimeric protein of tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease and MTG zymogen. A chimera of TEV protease and MTG zymogen with native propeptide resulted in active MTG contaminated with cleaved propeptide due to the strong interaction between the propeptide and catalytic domain of MTG. Introduction of mutations of K9R and Y11A to the propeptide facilitated dissociation of the cleaved propeptide from the catalytic domain of MTG and active MTG without any contamination of the propeptide was obtained. The specific activity of the active MTG was 22.7 ± 2.6 U/mg. The successful expression and purification of active MTG by using the chimera protein of TEV protease and MTG zymogen with mutations in the propeptide can advance the use of MTG and the researches using MTG mediated cross-linking reactions..
6. Wahyu Ramadhan, Yuki Ohama, Kosuke Minamihata, Kousuke Moriyama, Rie Wakabayashi, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Redox-responsive functionalized hydrogel marble for the generation of cellular spheroids, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.05.010, 130, 4, 416-423, 2020.10, Liquid marbles (LMs) have recently shown a great promise as microbioreactors to construct self-supported aqueous compartments for chemical and biological reactions. However, the evaporation of the inner aqueous liquid core has limited their application, especially in studying cellular functions. Hydrogels are promising scaffolds that provide a spatial environment suitable for three-dimensional cell culture. Here, we describe the fabrication of redox-responsive hydrogel marbles (HMs) as a three-dimensional cell culture platform. The HMs are prepared by introducing an aqueous mixture of a tetra-thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative, thiolated gelatin (Gela-SH), horseradish peroxidase, a small phenolic compound, and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) to the inner aqueous phase of LMs. Eventually, HepG2 cells are encapsulated in the HMs then immersed in culture media, where they proliferate and form cellular spheroids. Experimental results show that the Gela-SH concentration strongly influences the physicochemical and microstructure properties of the HMs. After 6 days in culture, the spheroids were recovered from the HMs by degrading the scaffold, and examination showed that they had reached up to about 180 μm in diameter depending on the Gela-SH concentration, compared with 60 μm in conventional HMs without Gela-SH. After long-term culture (over 12 days), the liver-specific functions (secretion of albumin and urea) and DNA contents of the spheroids cultured in the HMs were elevated compared with those cultured in LMs. These results suggest that the developed HMs can be useful in designing a variety of microbioreactors for tissue engineering applications..
7. R. Sato, K. Minamihata, R. Wakabayashi, M. Goto, N. Kamiya, PolyTag
A peptide tag that affords scaffold-less covalent protein assembly catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase: Design of PolyTag for scaffold-less covalent protein assembly, Analytical Biochemistry, 10.1016/j.ab.2020.113700, 600, 2020.07, Assembling proteins in close vicinity to each other provides an opportunity to gain unique function because collaborative and even synergistic functionalities can be expected in an assembled form. There have been a variety of strategies to synthesize functional protein assemblies but site-specific covalent assembly of monomeric protein units without impairing their intrinsic function remains challenging. Herein we report a powerful strategy to design protein assemblies by using microbial transglutaminase (MTG). A serendipitous discovery of self-crosslinking of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused with StrepTag I at the C-terminus revealed that EGFP was assembled through the crosslinking of the Lys (K) residue in the C-terminus of EGFP and the Gln (Q) residue in StrepTag I (AWRHPQFGG). Site-directed mutagenesis of the residues next to the K and Q yielded EGFP assemblies with higher molecular weights. An optimized peptide tag comprised of both K and Q residues (HKRWRHYQRGG) enabled the assembly of different types of proteins of interest (POI) when it was fused to either the N- or C-terminus. The peptide tag that enabled the self-polymerization of the functional POI without a scaffold was designated as a ‘PolyTag’..
8. K. Minamihata, K. Tsukamoto, M. Adachi, R. Shimizu, M. Mishina, R. Kuroki, T. Nagamune, Genetically fused charged peptides induce rapid crystallization of proteins, Chemical Communications, 10.1039/c9cc09529b, 56, 27, 3891-3894, 2020.04, We utilized electrostatic interaction to induce rapid crystallization of streptavidin. Simply mixing streptavidins possessing either a positively or negatively charged peptide at their C-terminus generated diffraction-quality crystals in a few hours. We modified the streptavidin crystals with fluorescent molecules using biotin, demonstrating the concept of protein crystals as functional biomaterials..
9. Masahiko Kobayashi, Jian Xu, Kohei Kakino, Akitsu Masuda, Masato Hino, Naoki Fujimoto, Kosuke Minamihata, Noriho Kamiya, Hiroaki Mon, Hiroshi Iida, Masateru Takahashi, Takahiro Kusakabe, Jae Man Lee, Optimal silkworm larva host for high-level production of Mus musculus IL-4 using a baculovirus expression vector system, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 10.1016/j.aspen.2019.12.014, 23, 1, 268-273, 2020.04, Interleukine-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and recognized as a biological medicine. Therefore, there is a demand for the production of IL-4 with high performance. The expression of a recombinant IL-4 protein in the prokaryotic system usually results in the formation of an inclusion body. To date, the solution to obtain those active products without the refolding process remains to be established. In this study, we tried to acquire a biologically active recombinant Mus musculus IL-4 (rMmIL-4) using a silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS). We constructed two recombinant baculoviruses coding rMmIL-4 with the distinct location of affinity purification tags and succeeded in the expression and purification of rMmIL-4 proteins directly without the refolding process. Both purified proteins displayed comparable biological activity to the commercial proteins produced by the E. coli expression system. Besides, we performed screening of silkworm strains to seek optimal hosts for the mass-production of rMmIL-4. Intriguingly, we found that some silkworm strains showed significantly higher secretion levels of rMmIL-4 in silkworm sera. Our study provides meaningful insights into the industrial-scale production of rMmIL-4 with high productivity for pharmaceutical applications in the future..
10. Dani Permana, Kosuke Minamihata, Ryo Sato, Rie Wakabayashi, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Linear Polymerization of Protein by Sterically Controlled Enzymatic Cross-Linking with a Tyrosine-Containing Peptide Loop, ACS Omega, 10.1021/acsomega.9b04163, 5, 10, 5160-5169, 2020.03, The structure of a protein complex needs to be controlled appropriately to maximize its functions. Herein, we report the linear polymerization of bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) through the site-specific cross-linking reaction catalyzed by Trametes sp. laccase (TL). We introduced a peptide loop containing a tyrosine (Y-Loop) to BAP, and the Y-Looped BAP was treated with TL. The Y-Looped BAP formed linear polymers, whereas BAP fused with a C-terminal peptide containing a tyrosine (Y-tag) showed an irregular shape after TL treatment. The sterically confined structure of the Y-Loop could be responsible for the formation of linear BAP polymers. TL-catalyzed copolymerization of Y-Looped BAP and a Y-tagged chimeric antibody-binding protein, pG2pA-Y, resulted in the formation of linear bifunctional protein copolymers that could be employed as protein probes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Copolymers comprising Y-Looped BAP and pG2pA-Y at a molar ratio of 100:1 exhibited the highest signal in the ELISA with 26- and 20-fold higher than a genetically fused chimeric protein, BAP-pG2pA-Y, and its polymeric form, respectively. This result revealed that the morphology of the copolymers was the most critical feature to improve the functionality of the protein polymers as detection probes, not only for immunoassays but also for other diagnostic applications..
11. Yurie Kinoshita, Jian Xu, Akitsu Masuda, Kosuke Minamihata, Noriho Kamiya, Hiroaki Mon, Ryosuke Fujita, Takahiro Kusakabe, Jae Man Lee, Expression and purification of biologically active human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) using silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system, Protein Expression and Purification, 10.1016/j.pep.2019.03.010, 159, 69-74, 2019.07, Human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor. It is widely employed as a therapeutic agent targeting neutropenia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and in patients with AIDS or after bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we constructed the recombinant baculoviruses for the expression of recombinant hGM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) with two small affinity tags (His-tag and Strep-tag) at the N or C-terminus. Compared to N-tagged rhGM-CSF, C-tagged rhGM-CSF was highly recovered from silkworm hemolymph. The purified rhGM-CSF proteins migrated as a diffuse band and were confirmed to hold N-glycosylations. A comparable activity was achieved when commercial hGM-CSF was tested as a control. Considering the high price of hGM-CSF in the market, our results and strategies using silkworm-baculovirus system can become a great reference for mass production of the active rhGM-CSF at a lower cost..
12. Dani Permana, Kosuke Minamihata, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Jae M. Lee, Takahiro Kusakabe, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Polymerization of Horseradish Peroxidase by a Laccase-Catalyzed Tyrosine Coupling Reaction, Biotechnology Journal, 10.1002/biot.201800531, 14, 6, 2019.06, The polymerization of proteins can create newly active and large bio-macromolecular assemblies that exhibit unique functionalities depending on the properties of the building block proteins and the protein units in polymers. Herein, the first enzymatic polymerization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is reported. Recombinant HRPs fused with a tyrosine-tag (Y-tag) through a flexible linker at the N- and/or C-termini are expressed in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Trametes sp. laccase (TL) is used to activate the tyrosine of Y-tagged HRPs with molecular O2 to form a tyrosyl-free radical, which initiates the tyrosine coupling reaction between the HRP units. A covalent dityrosine linkage is also formed through a HRP-catalyzed self-crosslinking reaction in the presence of H2O2. The addition of H2O2 in the self-polymerization of Y-tagged HRPs results in lower activity of the HRP polymers, whereas TL provides site-selectivity, mild reaction conditions and maintains the activity of the polymeric products. The cocrosslinking of Y-tagged HRPs and HRP-protein G (Y-HRP-pG) units catalyzed by TL shows a higher signal in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) than the genetically pG-fused HRP, Y-HRP-pG, and its polymers. This new enzymatic polymerization of HRP promises to provide highly active and functionalized polymers for biomedical applications and diagnostics probes..
13. Wahyu Ramadhan, Genki Kagawa, Yusei Hamada, Kousuke Moriyama, Rie Wakabayashi, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Enzymatically Prepared Dual Functionalized Hydrogels with Gelatin and Heparin to Facilitate Cellular Attachment and Proliferation, ACS Applied Bio Materials, 10.1021/acsabm.9b00275, 2, 6, 2600-2609, 2019.06, Biologically active artificial scaffolds for cell seeding are developed by mimicking extracellular matrices using synthetic materials. Here, we propose a feasible approach employing biocatalysis to integrate natural components, that is, gelatin and heparin, into a synthetic scaffold, namely a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel. Initiation of horseradish peroxidase-mediated redox reaction enabled both hydrogel formation of tetra-thiolated PEG via disulfide linkage and incorporation of chemically thiolated gelatin (Gela-SH) and heparin (Hepa-SH) into the polymeric network. We found that the compatibility of the type of gelatin with heparin was crucial for the hydrogelation process. Alkaline-treated gelatin exhibited superior performance over acid-treated gelatin to generate dual functionality in the resultant hydrogel originating from the two natural biopolymers. The Gela-SH/Hepa-SH dual functionalized PEG-based hydrogel supported both cellular attachment and binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) under cell culture conditions, which increased the proliferation and phenotype transformation of NIH3T3 cells cultured on the hydrogel. Inclusion of bFGF and a commercial growth factor cocktail in hydrogel matrices effectively enhanced cell spreading and confluency of both NIH3T3 cells and HUVECs, respectively, suggesting a potential method to design artificial scaffolds containing active growth factors..
14. Mari Takahara, Rie Wakabayashi, Naoki Fujimoto, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Enzymatic Cell-Surface Decoration with Proteins using Amphiphilic Lipid-Fused Peptide Substrates, Chemistry - A European Journal, 10.1002/chem.201900370, 25, 30, 7315-7321, 2019.05, Lipid modification of proteins plays a significant role in the activation of cellular signals such as proliferation. Thus, the demand for lipidated proteins is rising. However, getting a high yield and purity of lipidated proteins has been challenging. We developed a strategy for modifying proteins with a wide variety of synthetic lipids using microbial transglutaminase (MTG), which catalyzes the cross-linking reaction between a specific glutamine (Q) in a protein and lysine (K) in the lipid-fused peptide. The synthesized lipid-G3S-MRHKGS lipid (lipid: fatty acids, tocopherol, lithocholic acid, cholesterol) was successfully conjugated to a protein fused with LLQG (Q-tagged protein) by an MTG reaction, yielding >90 % conversion of the Q-tagged protein in a lipidated form. The purified lipid–protein conjugates were used for labeling the cell membrane in vitro, resulting in best-anchoring ability of cholesterol modification. Furthermore, in situ cell-surface decoration with the protein was established in a simple manner: subjection of cells to a mixture of cholesterol-fused peptides, Q-tagged proteins and MTG..
15. Patmawati, Kosuke Minamihata, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Jae Man Lee, Takahiro Kusakabe, Noriho Kamiya, Functional horseradish peroxidase−streptavidin chimeric proteins prepared using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system for diagnostic purposes, Journal of Biotechnology, 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.03.007, 297, 28-31, 2019.05, Rapid, convenient, sensitive detection methods are of the utmost importance in analytical tools. Enzyme-based signal amplification using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is commonly implemented in clinical diagnostics kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by which the limit of detection is greatly improved. Herein we report the design and preparation of recombinant fusion proteins comprising HRP and streptavidin (Stav), in which HRP was fused to either the N- or C-terminus of Stav ((HRP) 4 –Stav or Stav–(HRP) 4 , respectively) using a baculovirus-silkworm expression system. Both (HRP) 4 –Stav and Stav–(HRP) 4 were secreted in the apo form but they were easily converted to the holo form and activated by simple incubation with hemin overnight at 4 °C. The activated (HRP) 4 –Stav and Stav–(HRP) 4 could be combined with a commercial biotinylated anti-OVA IgG antibody to detect ovalbumin (OVA) as the antigen in ELISA. The enzymatic activity of (HRP) 4 –Stav was twofold higher than that of Stav–(HRP) 4 , and the sensitivity of (HRP) 4 -Stav in ELISA was higher than that of a commercial HRP–Stav chemical conjugate. The successful use of (HRP) 4 –Stav chimeric protein as a molecular probe in ELISA shows that the baculovirus-silkworm expression system is promising to produce enzyme–Stav conjugates to substitute for those prepared by chemical methods..
16. Noriho Kamiya, Yuki Ohama, Kosuke Minamihata, Rie Wakabayashi, Masahiro Goto, Liquid Marbles as an Easy-to-Handle Compartment for Cell-Free Synthesis and In Situ Immobilization of Recombinant Proteins, Biotechnology Journal, 10.1002/biot.201800085, 13, 12, 2018.12, Liquid marble (LM), a self-standing micro-scale aqueous droplet, emerges as a micro-bioreactor in biological applications. Herein, the potential of LM as media for cell-free synthesis and simultaneous immobilization of recombinant proteins is explored. Initially, formation of hydrogel marble (HM) by using an enzymatic disulfide-based hydrogelation technique is confirmed by incorporating three components, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), a tetra-thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, and glycyl-L-tyrosine, in LM. The compatibility of the enzymatic hydrogelation with cell-free protein synthesis in LM is then validated. Although the hydrogelation reduces the level of protein synthesis in LM when compared with that in a test tube, the biosynthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is achieved. Interestingly, EGFP synthesized in LM is entrapped in the HM, and the introduction of a cysteine residue to EGFP by genetic engineering further increases the amount of protein immobilization in the hydrogel matrices. These results suggest that the cell-free synthesis and HRP-catalyzed hydrogelation can be conducted in parallel in LM, and the eventual entrapment of the key components in HM is possible. Facile recovery of macromolecular products immobilized in HM by degrading the hydrogel network under reducing conditions should lead to the design of an easy-to-handle system to screen protein functions..
17. Mari Takahara, Rie Wakabayashi, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Design of Lipid-Protein Conjugates Using Amphiphilic Peptide Substrates of Microbial Transglutaminase, ACS Applied Bio Materials, 10.1021/acsabm.8b00271, 1, 6, 1823-1829, 2018.12, Lipid modification of proteins plays a significant role in regulating the cellular environment. Mimicking natural lipidated proteins is a key technique for assessing the function of proteins modified with lipids and also to render self-assembly of lipids to a target protein. Herein, we report a facile method of conjugating proteins with lipid-fused peptides under homogeneous physiological conditions by using the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. MTG catalyzes the cross-linking reaction between a specific glutamine (Q) in a protein and a lysine (K) in newly designed lipid-fused peptides. The water-soluble peptide substrates for lipid modification, C14-X-MRHKGS, were newly synthesized, where C14, X, and MRHKGS represent myristic acid, linker peptides composed of G, P, or S, and MTG-reactive K surrounded with basic amino acids, respectively. The MTG-mediated cross-linking reaction between a protein fused with LLQG at the C-terminus and C14-X-MRHKGS (5 molar eq) dissolved in a phosphate saline solution resulted in lipid-protein conjugates with yields of 70 to 100%. The anchoring ability of the obtained lipid-protein conjugates to cell membranes was dependent on the number of G residues in the GnS linker, suggesting that self-assembly and hydrophobicity of the GnS motif serves to enhance membrane anchoring of lipid-protein conjugates..
18. Dani Permana, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Laccase-catalyzed bioconjugation of tyrosine-tagged functional proteins, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.05.013, 126, 5, 559-566, 2018.11, The site-specific cross-linking of functional proteins creates macromolecular assemblies that exhibit unique biochemical and/or physicochemical properties. Herein, we explored the potential of laccase as a biocatalyst for the site-specific cross-linking of tyrosine-tagged proteins. Trametes sp. laccase (TL) was selected as the cross-linking catalyst, and Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and antibody-binding proteins (pG2pAs) were employed as model proteins. The protein models were genetically fused to a peptide tag containing a tyrosine residue (Y-tag) at the N- and/or C-termini. Proteins without Y-tags were used as controls. The Y-tagged proteins could be recognized by TL as macromolecular substrates, leading to the oxidative formation of protein polymers, whereas no polymerization was observed with intact BAP or pG2pA. The TL-catalyzed cross-linking of Y-tagged proteins proceeded at a relatively high pH in comparison with that of small phenolic substrates. Co-polymers of BAP and pG2pA were able to be prepared by mixing the aqueous solution of each component in the presence of TL. A combination of bis-Y-tagged pG2pA (Y-pG2pA-Y) and Y-tagged BAP (BAP-Y) yielded functional co-polymers compatible with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The detection limit of the ELISA of ovalbumin with anti-OVA IgG depended on the molar ratio of BAP-Y and Y-pG2pA-Y in the TL-catalyzed cross-linking reaction. A high molar ratio of BAP-Y to Y-pG2pA-Y (75:1) resulted in the highest absorbance in the ELISA. The results suggested that the formation of a bifunctional protein polymer with a high molar ratio of signaling unit to antibody-binding unit gave better performance in antigen detection than using lower ratios..
19. Patmawati xxxx, Kosuke Minamihata, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Jae Man Lee, Takahiro Kusakabe, Noriho Kamiya, Expression and Activation of Horseradish Peroxidase–Protein A/G Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae for Diagnostic Purposes, Biotechnology Journal, 10.1002/biot.201700624, 13, 6, 2018.06, Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems. A HRP-protein A/G fusion protein (HRP-pAG) is designed and its production in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is evaluated for the first time. HRP-pAG is expressed in a soluble apo form, and is activated successfully by incubating with hemin. The activated HRP-pAG is used directly for ELISA experiments and retains its activity over 20 days at 4 °C. Moreover, HRP-pAG is modified with biotin by the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. The biotinylated HRP-pAG is conjugated with streptavidin to form a HRP-pAG multimer and the multimeric HRP-pAG produced higher signals in the ELISA system than monomeric HRP-pAG. The successful production of recombinant HRP in silkworm will contribute to creating novel HRP-based bioconjugates as well as further functionalization of HRP by applying enzymatic post-translational modifications..
20. Safrina Dyah Hardiningtyas, Rie Wakabayashi, Momoko Kitaoka, Yoshiro Tahara, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Mechanistic investigation of transcutaneous protein delivery using solid-in-oil nanodispersion
A case study with phycocyanin, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.01.020, 127, 44-50, 2018.06, Phycocyanin (PC), a water-soluble protein-chromophore complex composed of hexameric (αβ)6 subunits, has important biological functions in blue-green algae as well as pharmacological activities in biomedicine. We have previously developed a solid-in-oil (S/O) nanodispersion method to deliver biomacromolecules through the skin, although the transcutaneous mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. To study the mechanism of transcutaneous protein delivery, we therefore enabled S/O nanodispersion by coating PC with hydrophobic surfactants and evaluated how the proteinaceous macromolecules formulated in an oil phase might permeate the skin. The extent of S/O nanodispersion of PC was dependent on the type of surfactant, suggesting that the selection of a suitable surfactant is crucial for encapsulating a large protein having a subunit structure. By measuring the intrinsic fluorescence of PC, we found that S/O nanodispersion facilitated the accumulation of PC in the stratum corneum (SC) of Yucatan micropig skin. Furthermore, after crossing the SC layer, the fluorescent recovery of PC was evident, indicating the release of the biologically active form of PC from the SC into the deeper skin layer..
21. Akitsu Masuda, Jian Xu, Kosuke Minamihata, Genki Kagawa, Yusei Hamada, Yoshiki Morifuji, Takumi Yano, Masato Hino, Daisuke Morokuma, Noriko Karasaki, Hiroaki Mon, Noriho Kamiya, Takahiro Kusakabe, Jae Man Lee, Production of a biologically active human basic fibroblast growth factor using silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 10.1016/j.aspen.2018.05.002, 21, 2, 716-720, 2018.06, As a therapeutic treatment, recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) is usually employed in tissue regeneration, and as an essential component in culture medium for maintaining the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell and embryonic stem (ES) cell in an undifferentiated state. Therefore, a large amount of biologically active rhbFGF is required. In this study, silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) is employed to achieve a high productivity of recombinant rhbFGF with two small affinity tags (His-tag and STREP-tag) at the N or C-terminus. It is observed that rhbFGF with 30 K signal peptide of silkworm were successfully expressed but are not sufficiently secreted into the culture medium of cultured insect cells. Then we purified the N- or C-tagged intracellular rhbFGF protein and obtained a yield of about 0.7 mg/larva and 1.2 mg/larva, respectively. Although the final yield of the C-tagged rhbFGF is higher than that of the N-tagged, rhbFGF with N-tag demonstrated promising and comparable biological activity, which is evaluated through a mammalian cell proliferation assay. Taken together, these results indicate that silkworm-BEVS could contribute to the mass-production of the biologically active rhbFGF for medical uses..
22. Akitsu Masuda, Kosuke Minamihata, Masato Hino, Daisuke Morokuma, Noriko Karasaki, Hiroaki Mon, Noriho Kamiya, Takahiro Kusakabe, Jae Man Lee, Modular surface display for porcine circovirus type 2 virus-like particles mediated by microbial transglutaminase, Journal of Insect Biotechnology and Sericology, 10.11416/jibs.87.2_053, 87, 2, 53-60, 2018.01, Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multi-protein complex, which mimic viral particles without viral genomes. Recently various applications of VLPs for medical and pharmaceutical fields are developed. Furthermore, surface modification of VLPs is expected to extend their functional versatility. As an enzymatic strategy for the modification, microbial transglutaminase (MTG) that catalyzes the covalent bond between a glutamine residue and a ly-sine residue or a primary amine is suitable for efficient protein ligation. In the previous study, we demonstrated the efficient production of immunogenic VLPs of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) using silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS). Herein, we established the display system of exotic molecules to VLPs by enzymatic covalent cross-linking using MTG. For the target modification, Q-tag (YPLQMRG) that is MTG reactive sequence were introduced into the N-terminus, C-terminus, or loop BC of capsid protein of PCV2 and successfully expressed as VLPs in silkworm pupae. Of these, PCV2 VLPs with Q-tag at the loop BC and C-terminus were efficiently conjugated with FITC-cadaverine and K-tagged (MRHKGS) EGFP by MTG. These results showed that flexible surface modification of VLPs mediated by MTG could be used for development of several therapeutic tools such as multivalent vaccines..
23. Lili Jia, Kosuke Minamihata, Hirofumi Ichinose, Kouhei Tsumoto, Noriho Kamiya, Polymeric SpyCatcher Scaffold Enables Bioconjugation in a Ratio-Controllable Manner, Biotechnology Journal, 10.1002/biot.201700195, 12, 12, 2017.12, Conjugating enzymes into a large protein assembly often results in an enhancement of overall catalytic activity, especially when different types of enzymes that work cooperatively are assembled together. However, exploring the proper method to achieve protein assemblies with high stability and also to avoid loss of the function of each component for efficient enzyme clustering is remained challenging. Assembling proteins onto synthetic scaffolds through varied post-translational modification methods is particularly favored since the proteins can be site-specifically conjugated together with less activity loss. Here, a SpyCatcher polymer is prepared through catalytic reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and serves as a polymeric proteinaceous scaffold for construction of protein assemblies. Taking advantage of the favorable SpyCatcher–SpyTag interaction, SpyTagged proteins can be easily assembled onto the polymeric SpyCatcher scaffold with controllable binding ratio and site specificity. Firstly, the feasibility of construction of ratio-controllable binary artificial hemicellulosomes by assembling endoxylanase and arabinofuranosidase is explored. This construct achieves higher sugar conversion than that of the free enzymes when the proportion of arabinofuranosidase is high, because the close spatial proximity of the enzymes allows them to work in a synergistic manner. Another application for biosensing is developed by conjugating SpyTagged Nanoluc and protein G onto SpyCatcher polymer. Due to the protein clustering effect, an amplified luminescent intensity is achieved by the resulting conjugates than chimera protein of Nanoluc and protein G in ovalbumin detection in ELISA..
24. Mari Takahara, Rie Wakabayashi, Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Primary Amine-Clustered DNA Aptamer for DNA-Protein Conjugation Catalyzed by Microbial Transglutaminase, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.7b00594, 28, 12, 2954-2961, 2017.12, DNA-protein conjugates are promising biomolecules for use in areas ranging from therapeutics to analysis because of the dual functionalities of DNA and protein. Conjugation requires site-specific and efficient covalent bond formation without impairing the activity of both biomolecules. Herein, we have focused on the use of a microbial transglutaminase (MTG) that catalyzes the cross-linking reaction between a glutamine residue and a primary amine. In a model bioconjugation, a highly MTG-reactive Gln (Q)-donor peptide (FYPLQMRG, FQ) was fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (FQ-EGFP) and a primary amine-clustered DNA aptamer was enzymatically synthesized as a novel acyl-acceptor substrate of MTG, whose combination leads to efficient and convenient preparation of DNA-protein conjugates with high purity. Dual functionality of the obtained DNA-EGFP conjugate was evaluated by discrimination of cancer cells via c-Met receptor recognition ability of the DNA aptamer. The DNA aptamer-EGFP conjugate only showed fluorescence toward cells with c-Met overexpression, indicating the retention of the biochemical properties of the DNA and EGFP in the conjugated form..
25. A. Ishijima, K. Minamihata, S. Yamaguchi, S. Yamahira, R. Ichikawa, E. Kobayashi, M. Iijima, Y. Shibasaki, T. Azuma, T. Nagamune, I. Sakuma, Selective intracellular vaporisation of antibody-conjugated phase-change nano-droplets in vitro, Scientific reports, 10.1038/srep44077, 7, 2017.03, While chemotherapy is a major mode of cancer therapeutics, its efficacy is limited by systemic toxicities and drug resistance. Recent advances in nanomedicine provide the opportunity to reduce systemic toxicities. However, drug resistance remains a major challenge in cancer treatment research. Here we developed a nanomedicine composed of a phase-change nano-droplet (PCND) and an anti-cancer antibody (9E5), proposing the concept of ultrasound cancer therapy with intracellular vaporisation. PCND is a liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle with a liquid-gas phase that is transformable upon exposure to ultrasound. 9E5 is a monoclonal antibody targeting epiregulin (EREG). We found that 9E5-conjugated PCNDs are selectively internalised into targeted cancer cells and kill the cells dynamically by ultrasound-induced intracellular vaporisation. In vitro experiments show that 9E5-conjugated PCND targets 97.8% of high-EREG-expressing cancer cells and kills 57% of those targeted upon exposure to ultrasound. Furthermore, direct observation of the intracellular vaporisation process revealed the significant morphological alterations of cells and the release of intracellular contents..
26. Ayumu Ishijima, Jun Tanaka, Takashi Azuma, Kosuke Minamihata, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Etsuko Kobayashi, Teruyuki Nagamune, Ichiro Sakuma, The lifetime evaluation of vapourised phase-change nano-droplets, Ultrasonics, 10.1016/j.ultras.2016.04.002, 69, 97-105, 2016.07, Phase-change nano-droplets (PCNDs) are sub-micron particles that are coated with phospholipid and contain liquid-state perfluorocarbons such as perfluoropentane (boiling point = 29°C) and perfluorohexane (boiling point = 57°C), which can vapourise upon application of ultrasound. The bubbles generated by such reactions can serve as ultrasound contrast agents or HIFU sensitisers. However, the lifetime of bubbles generated from PCNDs on μs-order is not well known. Knowledge of the condition of PCND-derived bubbles on μs-order is essential for producing bubbles customised for specific purposes. In this study, we use an optical measurement system to measure the vapourisation and stability of the bubbles (bubble-lifetime) as well as the stability-controlling method of the nucleated bubbles on μs-order while changing the internal composition of PCNDs and the ambient temperature. PCND-derived bubbles remain in a bubble state when the boiling point of the internal composition is lower than the ambient temperature, but lose their optical contrast after approximately 10 μs by re-condensation or dissolution when the boiling point of the internal composition is higher than the ambient temperature. We reveal that the superheating condition significantly affects the fate of vapourised PCNDs and that the bubble-lifetime can be controlled by changing both the ambient temperature conditions and the internal composition of PCNDs..
27. Masahiro Mishina, Kosuke Minamihata, Kousuke Moriyama, Teruyuki Nagamune, Peptide Tag-Induced Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated Preparation of a Streptavidin-Immobilized Redox-Sensitive Hydrogel, Biomacromolecules, 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00149, 17, 6, 1978-1984, 2016.06, Several methods have recently been reported for the preparation of redox-sensitive hydrogels using enzymatic reactions, which are useful for encapsulating sensitive materials such as proteins and cells. However, most of the reported hydrogels is difficult to add further function efficiently, limiting the application of the redox-sensitive hydrogels. In this study, peptide sequences of HHHHHHC and GGGGY (Y-tag) were genetically fused to the N- and C-termini of streptavidin (C-SA-Y), respectively, and C-SA-Y was mixed with horseradish peroxidase and thiol-functionalized 4-arm polyethylene glycol to yield a redox-sensitive C-SA-Y immobilized hydrogel (C-SA-Y gel). The C-SA-Y immobilized in the hydrogel retained its affinity for biotin, allowing for the incorporation of proteins and small molecules to hydrogel via biotin. C-SA-Y gel was further prepared within a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion system to yield a nanosized hydrogel, to which any intracellular and cytotoxic agent can be modified, making it a potential drug delivery carrier..
28. Akira Ishiwatari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Satoshi Takamori, Shinya Yamahira, Kosuke Minamihata, Teruyuki Nagamune, Photolytic Protein Aggregates
Versatile Materials for Controlled Release of Active Proteins, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 10.1002/adhm.201500957, 5, 9, 1002-1007, 2016.05, Photolytic protein aggregates are developed as a facile and versatile platform for light-induced release of active proteins. The proteins modified with biotin through a photo-cleavable linker rapidly form aggregates with streptavidin and biotinylated functional molecules simply by mixing. Light irradiation releases active proteins from the aggregates in high yields, and light-induced uptake of drug-modified transferrin into living cells is successfully demonstrated..
29. Takuya Matsumoto, Yuki Isogawa, Kosuke Minamihata, Tsutomu Tanaka, Akihiko Kondo, Twigged streptavidin polymer as a scaffold for protein assembly, Journal of Biotechnology, 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.03.030, 225, 61-66, 2016.05, Protein assemblies are an emerging tool that is finding many biological and bioengineering applications. We here propose a method for the site-specific assembly of proteins on a twigged streptavidin (SA) polymer using streptavidin as a functional scaffold. SA was genetically appended with a G tag (sortase A recognition sequence) and a Y tag (HRP recognition sequence) on its N- and C-termini, respectively, to provide G-SA-Y. G-SA-Y was polymerized using HPR-mediated tyrosine coupling, then fluorescent proteins were immobilized on the polymer by biotin-SA affinity and sortase A-mediated ligation. Fluorescence measurements showed that the proteins were immobilized in close proximity to each other. Hydrolyzing enzymes were also functionally assembled on the G-SA-Y polymer. The site-specific assembly of proteins on twigged SA polymer may find new applications in various biological and bioengineering fields..
30. Kosuke Minamihata, Sou Yamaguchi, Kei Nakajima, Teruyuki Nagamune, Tyrosine Coupling Creates a Hyperbranched Multivalent Protein Polymer Using Horseradish Peroxidase via Bipolar Conjugation Points, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00138, 27, 5, 1348-1359, 2016.05, Protein polymers of covalently cross-linked protein monomers are highly attractive biomaterials because each monomer unit possesses distinct protein functions. Protein polymers often show enhancement effects on the function by integrating a large number of molecules into one macromolecule. The cross-linking site of component proteins should be precisely controlled to avoid diminishing the protein function. However, preparing protein polymers that are cross-linked site-specifically with a high cross-linking degree is a challenge. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of a site-specifically cross-linked protein polymer that has a hyperbranched polymer-like structure with a high cross-linking degree. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction was used to achieve the protein polymerization through a peptide tag containing a tyrosine residue (Y-tag). Y-tag sequences were introduced to both N- and C-termini of a model protein, protein G. The dual Y-tagged protein G (Y-pG-Y) was treated with HRP to form a Y-pG-Y polymer possessing average and maximum cross-linking degree of approximately 70-mer and 150-mer, respectively. The Y-pG-Y polymer shows the highest cross-linking degree among the protein polymers reported, which are completely soluble in water and cross-linked via covalent bonding. The Y-pG-Y was cross-linked site-specifically at the Tyr residue in the Y-tag, retaining its function, and the Y-pG-Y polymer showed extremely strong avidity against immunoglobulin G. The reactivities of N- and C-terminal Y-tags were evaluated, and we revealed that the difference in the radical formation rate by HRP was the key for yielding highly cross-linked protein polymers..
31. Kazunori Matsuura, Tomohiro Nakamura, Kenta Watanabe, Takanori Noguchi, Kosuke Minamihata, Noriho Kamiya, Nobuo Kimizuka, Self-assembly of Ni-NTA-modified β-annulus peptides into artificial viral capsids and encapsulation of His-tagged proteins, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10.1039/c6ob01227b, 14, 33, 7869-7874, 2016.01, β-Annulus peptides bearing Cys at the N-terminal from tomato bushy stunt virus were synthesised using a standard Fmoc-protected solid-phase method, and the peptide was modified with Ni-NTA at the N-terminal. The Ni-NTA-modified β-annulus peptide self-assembled into virus-like nanocapsules of approximately 40 nm in diameter. The critical aggregation concentration of these nanocapsules in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.3) at 25 °C was 0.053 μM, which is 470 times lower than that of unmodified β-annulus peptides. Moreover, size exclusion chromatography of the peptide assembly indicated encapsulation of His-tagged green fluorescent protein in the Ni-NTA-modified artificial viral capsid..
32. Kosuke Minamihata, Yasukazu Maeda, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Wataru Ishihara, Akira Ishiwatari, Satoshi Takamori, Shinya Yamahira, Teruyuki Nagamune, Photosensitizer and polycationic peptide-labeled streptavidin as a nano-carrier for light-controlled protein transduction, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.04.001, 120, 6, 630-636, 2015.12, Transductions of exogenous proteins into cells enable the precise study of the effect of the transduced proteins on cellular functions. Accordingly, the protein transduction technique, which can control the release of proteins into the cytosol with certainty and high-throughput, is highly desired in various research fields. In this study, streptavidin (SA) labeled with a photosensitizer and cell-permeable peptides (CPP) was proposed as a nano-carrier for light-controlled protein transduction. SA was modified with biotinylated oligo-arginine peptides (Rpep), which were functionalized with Alexa Fluor 546 (AF546), to achieve cell penetrating and endosomal escape functionalities. The SA-Rpep complex was efficiently internalized into living HeLa cells corresponding to the length and the modification number of Rpep. SA conjugated with more than three equimolar AF546-modified Rpep consisting of fifteen arginine residues was achieved to diffuse throughout the cytosol without cytotoxicity by irradiation of the excitation light for AF546. The optimized nano-carrier was confirmed to transduce a biotinylated model cargo protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein fused with thioredoxin (tEGFP) into the cytosol at the light-irradiated area. The results provided proof-of-principle that SA possessing multiple AF546-modified Rpep has the potential to be a versatile and facile carrier for light-controlled protein transduction into the cytosol of mammalian cells..
33. Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Site-specific conjugation of an antibody-binding protein catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase creates a multivalent protein conjugate with high affinity to IgG, Biotechnology Journal, 10.1002/biot.201400512, 10, 1, 222-226, 2015.01, Cross-linking proteins offers an approach to enhance the distinct function of proteins due to the multivalent effect. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of a multivalent antibody-binding protein possessing high affinity to IgG by conjugating a number of antibody-binding proteins using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated protein conjugation method. By introducing a peptide tag containing a tyrosine (Y-tag) to the C-terminus of the model protein, a chimera protein of protein G and protein A (pG2pA), the Tyr residue in the Y-tag was efficiently recognized by HRP and cross-linked with each other to yield a pG2pA conjugate, composed of mainly two to three units of pG2pA. The cross-linking occurred site specifically at the Tyr residue in the Y-tag and introduction of the Y-tag showed no effect on the function of pG2pA. The affinity of the Y-tagged pG2pA conjugate against IgG clearly increased because of the multivalent effect, demonstrating the benefit of this protein cross-linking reaction, which yields functional protein oligomers. Such multivalent protein conjugates created by this reaction should have potential to be used in ELISA and Western blotting applications in which highly sensitive detection of target molecules is desired..
34. Kousuke Moriyama, Kosuke Minamihata, Rie Wakabayashi, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Enzymatic preparation of a redox-responsive hydrogel for encapsulating and releasing living cells, Chemical Communications, 10.1039/c3cc49766f, 50, 44, 5895-5898, 2014.05, Horseradish peroxidase-mediated oxidative cross-linking of a thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) is promoted in the absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide, by adding a small amount of a phenolic compound under physiological conditions. The prepared hydrogel can encapsulate and release living mammalian cells..
35. Urara Tomita, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Yasukazu Maeda, Kazuki Chujo, Kosuke Minamihata, Teruyuki Nagamune, Protein cell-surface display through in situ enzymatic modification of proteins with a poly(Ethylene glycol)-lipid, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 10.1002/bit.24933, 110, 10, 2785-2789, 2013.10, Cell-surface display of functional proteins is a powerful and useful tool for regulating and reinforcing cellular functions. Direct incorporation of site-specifically lipidated proteins from the extracellular medium is more rapid, easily controllable and reliable in displaying active proteins than expression through gene transfer. However, undesirable amphiphilic reagents such as organic co-solvents and detergents were required for suppressing aggregation of ordinary lipidated proteins in solution. We report here sortase A-catalyzed modification of proteins with a poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-lipid in situ on the surface of living cells. Proteins fused with a recognition tag were site-specifically ligated with the PEG-lipid which was preliminary incorporated into cell membranes. Accordingly, target proteins were successfully displayed on living cells without aggregation under an amphiphilic reagent-free condition. Furthermore, to demonstrate the availability of the present method, Fc domains of immunoglobulin G were displayed on cancer cells, and the phagocytosis of cancer cells with dendritic cells were enhanced through the Fc-Fc receptor interaction. Thus, the present facile chemoenzymatic method for protein display can be utilized for modulating cell-cell interactions in cell and tissue engineering fields..
36. Kousuke Moriyama, Kosuke Minamihata, Rie Wakabayashi, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Enzymatic preparation of streptavidin-immobilized hydrogel using a phenolated linear poly(ethylene glycol), Biochemical Engineering Journal, 10.1016/j.bej.2013.04.007, 76, 37-42, 2013.07, Hybrid gels constructed from proteins and polymers have attracted a wide range of attention in the field of biomedicine and bioengineering. We report herein the enzymatic preparation of polymer-protein hybrid hydrogels composed of terminally bis-functionalized linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and streptavidin (SA). PEG was conjugated with tyramine to introduce terminal phenolic hydroxyl (Ph-OH) groups. A peptide tag containing a tyrosine residue (G4Y-tag) was genetically introduced at the C-terminus of SA. The Ph-OH-modified PEG and G4Y-tagged SA (SA-G4Y) were treated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to yield (PEG-Ph-OH)-(SA-G4Y) hybrid gels. Biotinylated enhanced green fluorescent protein (biotin-EGFP) was selectively captured in the obtained hybrid gels, indicating that SA-G4Y retained its biological function. The amount of biotin-EGFP immobilized in the hybrid gels depended on the concentration of SA-G4Y. In addition, biotinylated bacterial alkaline phosphatase (biotin-BAP) was immobilized in the hybrid gel. The immobilized biotin-BAP exhibited more than 95% of the initial activity after 5 rounds of recycling. The results suggest the facile functionalization of the hybrid gel with a variety of biotinylated functional molecules..
37. Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Activation of Pyrococcus furiosus alkaline phosphatase by divalent metal ions, Biotechnology letters, 10.1007/s10529-012-0998-0, 34, 11, 2055-2060, 2012.10, Treatment of a hyperthermophilic enzyme, alkaline phosphatase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuAP), with EDTA completely deactivated PfuAP, indicating that the presence of one or more divalent metal ions is essential for its catalytic activity. Subsequent addition of various divalent metal ions to the apoprotein recovered the enzymatic activity and, in particular, the addition of Co(II) resulted in an over 50-fold increase in activity compared with PfuAP before EDTA treatment. Intriguingly, PfuAP with Co(II) exhibited weaker stability toward heat treatment, suggesting that Co2+ destabilizes the tertiary structure of PfuAP at high temperature..
38. Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Control of a tyrosyl radical mediated protein cross-linking reaction by electrostatic interaction, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 10.1021/bc300137s, 23, 8, 1600-1609, 2012.08, Herein, we demonstrate the control of protein heteroconjugation via a tyrosyl coupling reaction by using electrostatic interaction. Aspartic acid and arginine were introduced to a tyrosine containing peptide tag (Y-tag) to provide electrostatic charge. Designed negatively or positively charged Y-tags were tethered to the C-terminus of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and streptavidin (SA), and these model proteins were subjected to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) treatment. The negatively charged Y-tags showed low reactivity due to repulsive interactions between the Y-tags with the negatively charged BAP and SA. In contrast, the positively charged Y-tags showed high reactivity, indicating that the electrostatic interaction between Y-tags and proteins significantly affects the tyrosyl radical mediated protein cross-linking. From the heteroconjugation reaction of BAP and SA, the SA with the positively charged Y-tags exhibited favorable cross-linking toward negatively charged BAP, and the BAP-SA conjugates prepared from BAP with GY-tag (GGGGY) and SA with RYR-tag (RRYRR) had the best performance on a biotin-coated microplate. Encompassing the reactive tyrosine residue with arginine residues reduced the reactivity against HRP, enabling the modulation of cross-linking reaction rates with BAP-GY. Thus, by introducing a proper electrostatic interaction to Y-tags, it is possible to kinetically control the heteroconjugation behavior of proteins, thereby maximizing the functions of protein heteroconjugates..
39. Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Protein heteroconjugation by the peroxidase-catalyzed tyrosine coupling reaction, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 10.1021/bc200420v, 22, 11, 2332-2338, 2011.11, Combining different proteins can integrate the functions of each protein to produce novel protein conjugates with wider ranges of applications. We have previously introduced a peptide containing tyrosine residues (Y-tag) at the C-terminus of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (BAP). The tyrosine residues in the Y-tag were efficiently recognized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and were site-specifically cross-linked with each other to yield BAP homoconjugates. In this study, the HRP-catalyzed tyrosine coupling reaction was used for protein heteroconjugation. Streptavidin (SA) was selected as the conjugation partner for BAP. The Y-tag (GGGGY) was genetically introduced to the C-terminus of SA. Prior to heteroconjugation, the reactivity of the Y-tagged SA was examined. The Y-tagged SA cross-linked to form an SA homoconjugate upon HRP treatment, whereas wild-type SA remained essentially intact. In the heteroconjugation reaction of BAP and SA, the Y-tagged BAP and SA were efficiently cross-linked with each other upon HRP treatment. The functions of the BAP-SA conjugates were evaluated by measuring the BAP enzymatic activity on a biotin-coated plate. The BAP-SA conjugate tethered to the plate showed BAP enzymatic activity, indicating that both BAP and SA retained their functions following heteroconjugation. The BAP-SA conjugate prepared from both Y-tagged BAP and SA showed the highest enzymatic activity on the biotin-coated plates. This result illustrates the advantage of the protein conjugation reaction in which multiple numbers of proteins can be conjugated at the same time..
40. Yutaro Mori, Kosuke Minamihata, Hiroki Abe, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Protein assemblies by site-specific avidin-biotin interactions, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10.1039/c1ob05428g, 9, 16, 5641-5644, 2011.08, Exploiting self-assembly systems with biological building blocks is of significant interest in the fabrication of advanced biomaterials. We assessed the potential use of site-specific ligand labeling of protein building blocks in designing functional protein self-assemblies by combining site-specifically biotinylated bacterial alkaline phosphatase (as a bidentate or tetradentate ligand unit) and streptavidin (as a tetrameric receptor)..
41. Kosuke Minamihata, Masahiro Goto, Noriho Kamiya, Site-specific protein cross-linking by peroxidase-catalyzed activation of a tyrosine-containing peptide tag, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 10.1021/bc1003982, 22, 1, 74-81, 2011.01, Protein modification methods represent fundamental techniques that are applicable in many fields. In this study, a site-specific protein cross-linking based on the oxidative tyrosine coupling reaction was demonstrated. In the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2, tyrosine residues undergo one-electron oxidation reactions and form radicals in their phenolic moieties, and these species subsequently react with each other to form dimers or further react to generate polymers. Here, a peptide-tag containing a tyrosine residue(s) (Y-tag, of which the amino acid sequences were either GGGGY or GGYYY) was genetically introduced at the C-terminus of a model protein, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Following the incubation of recombinant BAPs with HRP and H2O2, Y-tagged BAPs were efficiently cross-linked with each other, whereas wild-type BAP did not undergo cross-linking, indicating that the tyrosine residues in the Y-tags were recognized by HRP as the substrates. To determine the site-specificity of the cross-linking reaction, the Y-tag was selectively removed by thrombin digestion. The resultant BAP without the Y-tag showed no reactivity in the presence of HRP and H2O2. Conversely, Y-tagged BAPs cross-linked by HRP treatment were almost completely digested into monomeric BAP units following incubation with the protease. Moreover, cross-linked Y-tagged BAPs retained ∼95% of their native enzymatic activity. These results show that HRP catalyzed the site-specific cross-linking of BAPs through tyrosine residues positioned in the C-terminal Y-tag. The site-selective enzymatic oxidative tyrosine coupling reaction should offer a practical option for site-specific and covalent protein modifications..
42. Kosuke Minamihata, Shiro Kiyoyama, Koichiro Shiomori, Masahiro Yoshuda, Yasuo Hatate, Preparation of effective extraction media for palladium (II) by use of microcapsules, kagaku kogaku ronbunshu, 10.1252/kakoronbunshu.35.145, 35, 1, 145-151, 2009.09, Microcapsules containing tri-n-octylamine (hereafter TOA) as an extractant were prepared by using SPG membrane emulsification and in-situ polymerization. The morphology of microcapsules, the encapsulation efficiency of TOA, the extraction of palladium from hydrochloric acid solution and the back-extraction of palladium from microcapsules were investigated. The average diameter of the microcapsules was half of the pore diameter of the SPG membrane. The encapsulation efficiency of tri-n-octylamine was nearly 100%, and thus there was practically no loss of TOA during the preparation of microcapsules. Microcapsules pretreated with hydrochloric acid were equilibrated with palladium chloride hydrochloric acid solution, and the extraction properties were determined by measuring the concentration of residual palladium. The extraction of palladium occurred promptly, and all microcapsules prepared in this study reached equilibrium within 10 minutes. To examine the back-extraction of palladium from microcapsules, microcapsules were shaken in thiourea solution or hydrochloric acid until back-extraction equilibrium was reached. The results of extraction and back-extraction experiments indicated that TOA was completely encapsulated and there was no leakage of TOA, thus the microcapsules could be used repeatedly for extraction..
43. Kosuke Minamihata, Masamichi Tokunaga, Noriho Kamiya, Shiro Kiyoyama, Haruhiko Sakuraba, Toshihisa Ohshima, Masahiro Goto, Development of a novel immobilization method for enzymes from hyperthermophiles, Biotechnology letters, 10.1007/s10529-009-9974-8, 31, 7, 1037-1041, 2009.07, Peptide tags containing tyrosines (Y-tag) were introduced at the C-terminus of a hyperthermophilic enzyme, alkaline phosphatase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuAP). Immobilization of the recombinant PfuAPs onto water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) type microcapsules was performed by an in situ polymerization method. All the recombinant PfuAPs prepared in this study were quantitatively immobilized onto microcapsules. The PfuAP-immobilized microcapsules showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity until the 5th round of assays. This result implies that the recombinant PfuAPs were covalently immobilized onto microcapsules. Immobilized PfuAP tagged with a Y-tag having the sequence GGYYY exhibited approximately a twofold higher catalytic activity compared with the wild-type PfuAP..