九州大学 研究者情報
論文一覧
進藤 幸治(しんどう こうじ) データ更新日:2022.05.30

助教 /  九州大学病院 消化管外科(1) 臨床・腫瘍外科


原著論文
1. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Shindo K, Eguchi D, Kozono S, Ikenaga N, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Aishima S, Tanaka M, CD271⁺ subpopulation of pancreatic stellate cells correlates with prognosis of pancreatic cancer and is regulated by interaction with cancer cells., PLoS One, 0.1371/journal.pone.0052682, 7, 12, e52682, 2012.04, Abstract
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a crucial role in the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer. Although heterogeneity of PSCs has been identified, the functional differences remain unclear. We characterized CD271⁺ PSCs in human pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry for CD271 was performed for 31 normal pancreatic tissues and 105 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We performed flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, and assessed CD271 expression in PSCs isolated from pancreatic tissues and the changes in CD271 expression in PSCs cocultured with cancer cells. We also investigated the pattern of CD271 expression in a SCID mouse xenograft model. In the immunohistochemical analyses, the CD271-high staining rates in pancreatic stroma in normal pancreatic tissues and PDACs were 2/31 (6.5%) and 29/105 (27.6%), respectively (p = 0.0069). In PDACs, CD271⁺ stromal cells were frequently observed on the edge rather than the center of the tumors. Stromal CD271 high expression was associated with a good prognosis (p = 0.0040). Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated CD271-positive rates in PSCs were 0-2.1%. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that CD271 mRNA expression was increased in PSCs after coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. However, the level of CD271 mRNA expression subsequently decreased after the transient increase. Furthermore, CD271 mRNA expression was decreased in PSCs migrating toward pancreatic cancer cells through Matrigel. In the xenograft model, CD271⁺ PSCs were present at tumor margins/periphery and were absent in the tumor core. In conclusion, CD271 was expressed in PSCs around pancreatic tumors, but not in the center of the tumors, and expression decreased after long coculture with pancreatic cancer cells or after movement toward pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that CD271⁺ PSCs appear at the early stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis and that CD271 expression is significantly correlated with a better prognosis in patients with PDAC..
2. Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Fujiwara K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Hattori M, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances tumor progression of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, Mol Cancer, 12, 1, 168, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:

Interactions between cancer cells and surrounding cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in cancer progression. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas is characterized by abundant fibrous connective tissue called desmoplasia. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a lymphatic vessel marker (D2-40), and expression of PDPN by stromal CAFs has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in various types of cancer.

METHODS:

Expression of PDPN in pancreatic IDCs was assessed by immunohistochemical examination in 105 patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Primary CAFs were established from pancreatic cancer tissue obtained by surgery. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate PDPN expression in CAFs. We sorted CAFs according to PDPN expression, and analyzed the functional differences between PDPN+ CAFs and PDPN- CAFs using indirect co-culture with pancreatic cancer cell lines. We also investigated the culture conditions to regulate PDPN expression in CAFs.

RESULTS:

PDPN expression in stromal fibroblasts was associated with lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0461), vascular invasion (P = 0.0101), tumor size ≥ 3 cm (P = 0.0038), histological grade (P = 0.0344), Union for International Cancer Control classification T stage (P = 0.029), and shorter survival time (P < 0.0001). Primary CAFs showed heterogeneous PDPN expression in vitro. Moreover, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and SUIT-2) were associated with PDPN expression in CAFs (P < 0.01) and expression of CD10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP3. In cultured CAFs, PDPN positivity changed over time under several conditions including co-culture with cancer cells, different culture media, and addition of growth factor.

CONCLUSIONS:

PDPN-expressing CAFs enhance the progression of pancreatic IDC, and a high ratio of PDPN-expressing CAFs is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Understanding the regulation of the tumor microenvironment is an important step towards developing new therapeutic strategies.
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3. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Shindo K, Ikenaga N, Cui L, Takahata S, Aishima S, Tanaka M, Migratory Activity of CD105+ Pancreatic Cancer Cells Is Strongly Enhanced by Pancreatic Stellate Cells
, Pancreas, 42, 8, 1283-1290, 2013.04, OBJECTIVES: CD105 expression correlates with prognosis for several cancers. However, its significance in pancreatic cancer is unclear.METHODS: We analyzed CD105 expression in resected pancreatic cancer tissue and pancreatic cancer cell lines, compared the properties of CD105 and CD105 cells using quantitative RT-PCR and migration assays, and evaluated the relationship between CD105 cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs).RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that the frequency of CD105 expression was higher in pancreatic cancer than that in normal tissue (8% vs 0%, respectively). In flow cytometry, CD105 was expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, whereas weak CD105 expression was detected in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that E-cadherin mRNA expression was suppressed and vimentin mRNA was overexpressed in CD105 cells (P < 0.05). Migration of CD105 cancer cells was strongly enhanced (more than that of CD105 c
ells) in coculture with PSCs (P < 0.05). CD105 expression did not correlate to clinicopathologic characteristics or the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.CONCLUSIONS: Suppression of an epithelial marker and overexpression of a mesenchymal marker suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is induced in CD105 pancreatic cancer cells. CD105 pancreatic cancer cell migration is strongly enhanced by PSCs, suggesting that these cells play a role in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment..
4. Eguchi D, Ohuchida K, Kozono S, Ikenaga N, Shindo K, Cui L, Fujiwara K, Akagawa S, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Tokunaga S, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, MAL2 expression predicts distant metastasis and short survival in pancreatic cancer, Surgery, 154, 3, 573-582, 2013.04, BACKGROUND:

Pancreatic cancer is associated with a devastating prognosis, partially because of its aggressive metastatic ability. Identification of prognostic markers of metastasis would be useful in the clinical management of postoperative patients with pancreatic cancer. Mal, T-cell differentiation protein 2 (MAL2) has been identified as a molecule predictive of metastases; the clinical relevance of MAL2 in pancreatic cancer is unknown.

METHODS:

Orthotopic human pancreatic cancer xenografts from the pancreatic cancer cell line SUIT-2 were established in nude mice. Only liver metastasis was harvested and cultured. These metastatic cycles were repeated 5 times to establish a highly metastatic cell line, termed metastatic SUIT-2 (MS). We investigated proliferation and motility of MS cells compared with those of the parent SUIT-2. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate differences in gene expression. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of 89 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreatic cancer tissue samples to investigate the clinical significance of MAL2 expression.

RESULTS:

MS cells showed a greater metastatic rate after orthotopic implantation than parental SUIT-2. MS cells had increased motility but decreased proliferation compared with parental SUIT-2. Microarray analyses showed that 26 genes were significantly upregulated (>10-fold) in MS cells compared with parental SUIT-2, particularly MAL2 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that high expression of MAL2 was associated with a lesser survival of postoperative patients (P = .03) and a high rate of distant metastasis (P = .008).

CONCLUSION:

We characterized a newly established pancreatic cancer cell line with highly metastatic potential. MAL2 is a promising predictive marker for distant metastasis and short survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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5. Mahawithitwong P, Ouchida K, Ikenaga N, Fujita H, Zhao M, Kozono S, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Kindlin-2 expression in peritumoral stroma is associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., Pancreas, 42, 4, 663-669, 2013.04, OBJECTIVES:

Kindlin-2 is a novel focal adhesion protein reported to be expressed in breast, lung, and gastric cancers. This study aimed to investigate the significance of kindlin-2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs).

METHODS:

We performed immunohistochemical analysis on kindlin-2 on PDAC samples from 95 patients. We investigated the association between kindlin-2 expression and clinicopathological parameters of PDAC and the survival time of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy.

RESULTS:

Kindlin-2 was highly expressed in the peritumoral stroma of PDACs. Stromal kindlin-2 expression was related to nodal metastasis (P = 0.03). Univariate analysis showed that patients with positive kindlin-2 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those with negative kindlin-2 expression (P = 0.01). In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that kindlin-2 expression was an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with PDAC after R0 resection (RR = 2.15; P = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Kindlin-2 expression in stromal components is significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with PDAC, suggesting that kindlin-2 is a prognostic marker for patients with PDAC.
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6. Mahawithitwong P, Ohuchida K, Ikenaga N, Fujita H, Zhao M, Kozono S, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Aishima S, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Kindlin-1 expression is involved in migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer , Int J Oncol, 42, 4, 1360-1366, 2013.04, Abstract
Kindlin-1 is a novel focal adhesion protein that belongs to the kindlin family. Expression of kindlin-1 has recently been reported in lung and colon cancers, but there have been no studies on its expression in pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of kindlin-1 in pancreatic cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR of Kindlin-1 mRNA was performed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines as well as normal pancreatic epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical analysis of kindlin-1 was performed for pancreatic cancer tissues. The effects of kindlin-1 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated using an RNA interference technique. Kindlin-1 mRNA was highly expressed in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, but only slightly expressed in normal pancreatic epithelial cells and fibroblasts. The Kindlin-1 protein was heterogeneously expressed in the cytoplasm and membrane of pancreatic cancer cells, while normal ductal epithelial cells and stromal cells showed no expression. In vitro experiments involving knockdown of kindlin-1 in AsPC-1 and KP-2 cells revealed that the migratory and invasive abilities of the cells were significantly decreased (P<0.001), while the proliferation abilities were not affected. The present findings suggest that kindlin-1 expression is involved in the progression of pancreatic cancer via enhancement of cell migration and invasion..
7. Morimatsu K, Aishima S, Yamamoto H, Hayashi A, Nakata K, Oda Y, Shindo K, Fujino M, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Hum Pathol, 44, 9, 1714-1721, 2013.04, Recently, various studies have shown that insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) is a useful diagnostic marker for malignant lesions and a prognostic marker for poor survival in several kinds of tumors. However, the value of IMP3 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of pancreas has been unclear until now. In this study, we examined IMP3 immunohistochemical expression in 190 resection samples and 15 biopsy samples of IPMN and analyzed the value of IMP3 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. IMP3 expression was recognized in 71.8% (28/39) of IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia and in 81.3% (26/32) of IPMNs with an associated invasive carcinoma (IPMN-IC), but it was not found in any IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia or in IPMNs with intermediate dysplasia. IMP3 expression was significantly higher in cancerous lesions (IPMN with high-grade dysplasia and IPMN-IC) than in noncancerous lesions (IPMN with low-grade dysplasia and IPMN with intermediate-grade dysplasia), with a sensitivity of 76.1% and a specificity of 100% (P < .001). We also identified a significant difference in IMP3 expression between cancerous lesions and noncancerous lesions in biopsy specimens (P = .027). In IPMN-IC, disease-specific survival was significantly shorter in the high-expression group (>50% tumor staining) than in the low-expression group (≤50% tumor staining; P = .0069). In conclusion, our findings show that IMP3 is a useful diagnostic marker for distinguishing between noncancerous and cancerous lesions and is a valuable prognostic biomarker in IPMN..
8. Oda Y, Aishima S, Morimatsu K, Hayashi A, Shindo K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Hattori M, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Differential ezrin and phosphorylated ezrin expression profiles between pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas., Hum Pathol, 44, 8, 1487-1498, 2013.04, Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) are important premalignant lesions of pancreatic cancer. Ezrin is a member of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin protein family and acts as a cross-linker between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. We investigated the roles of ezrin during carcinogenesis in IPMN and invasive ductal carcinoma and examined whether ezrin was a prognostic factor. We examined ezrin and phosphorylated ezrin (p-ezrin) expression in 131 IPMNs, 47 PanINs, and 59 invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining. Ezrin and p-ezrin (tyr354) expressions were significantly higher in IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma, compared with those in IPMN with high-grade dysplasia (P = .03 and P = .0007, respectively). In all grades of PanINs, ezrin and p-ezrin (tyr353) were highly expressed. In patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, the presence of PanIN-2 or PanIN-3 was significantly correlated with positive ezrin and p-ezrin (tyr353) expression of the invasive ductal carcinoma component (P = .01 and P = .0004). The negative p-ezrin (tyr353) expression group of invasive ductal carcinoma showed a significantly worse prognosis than did the positive p-ezrin (tyr353) expression group by survival analysis (P = .04) and was a statistically significant adverse prognostic factor by both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .015). Ezrin phosphorylation sites differ between the developments of IPMN and PanIN. Although p-ezrin (tyr354) expression in IPMNs is associated with tumor invasion, p-ezrin (tyr353) expression in invasive ductal carcinoma plays an important role not in tumor invasion and metastasis but in the early development of PanINs.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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9. Tamura K, Ohtsuka T, Ideno N, Aso T, Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Takahata S, Ushijima Y, Ito T, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Treatment Strategy for Main Duct Intraductal PapillaryMucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Based on the Assessmentof Recurrence in the Remnant Pancreas After ResectionA Retrospective Review, Ann Surg, 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a690ff, 259, 2, 360-368, 2014.04, OBJECTIVES:

To clarify the recurrence pattern after resection of main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (MD-IPMNs) using molecular analyses and determine the most adequate treatment strategy.

BACKGROUND:

The most appropriate resection line for MD-IPMNs remains an unresolved issue.

METHODS:

Medical records of 56 patients with pancreatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Histological subtypes and Kras/GNAS mutations were assessed in patients with recurrence in the remnant pancreas.

RESULTS:

Forty-nine patients underwent partial pancreatectomy and 7 underwent total pancreatectomy. Thirty-six patients (64%) had malignant MD-IPMNs. Recurrence was observed in 7 of 49 patients (14%), including 6 with malignant IPMNs and 1 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, all of whom underwent remnant pancreatectomy. The cumulative disease-specific survival rate of patients with pancreatic recurrence was greater than that of patients with extrapancreatic recurrence (P < 0.001). Although the pancreatic margin status at the initial operation did not affect the pancreatic recurrence rate, all 4 recurrent IPMNs examined had histological subtypes and Kras/GNAS mutations identical to those of the initial lesions. Four patients experienced recurrence in the remnant pancreas or systemic recurrence after resection of high-grade dysplasia of MD-IPMN. Three of the 56 patients had concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and MD-IPMNs.

CONCLUSIONS:

One-step total pancreatectomy can be avoided, and remnant total pancreatectomy would lead to favorable outcomes even in patients with pancreatic recurrence, some cases of which seem to involve residual lesions. Postoperative surveillance of high-grade dysplasia should be performed as if malignant, and close attention should be paid to the occurrence of concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in patients with MD-IPMNs.
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10. Nakamura M, Shindo K, Ideno N, Ueda J, Takahata S, Nakashima H, Ohtsuka T, Shimizu S, Oda Y, Tanaka M, Prediction of Pancreatic Fistula by Preoperatively Assessable Factors; Retrospective Review of Unified Operations by Single Surgeon, Hepatogastroenterology, 2014, 61, 834-837, 2014.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This retrospective study was conducted to find preoperatively assessable risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) in patients undergoing laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) using a slow compression method with a stapler, which we call pen-firing compression (PFC).
METHODOLOGY: Fifty-two patients underwent LDP, of whom 42 underwent PFC for pancreatic division using a stapler. The relationship between preoperatively assessable factors and the incidence of clinical POPF was statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: Overall rate of POPF was 7.1% in 42 patients. Univariate analysis showed that greater BMI (p = 0.004) and thicker pancreatic stump (0.0022) were significant risk factors for POPF. BMI and stump thickness remained significant (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) by multivariate analysis. Cutoff points estimated by ROC curve were 27 kg/m2 for BMI and 27 mm for stump thickness.
CONCLUSIONS: High BMI value and thick pancreatic stump are significant risk factors for POPF after LDP. Alternative treatment of the pancreatic stump may prevent POPF in high-risk patients.
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11. Shindo K, Aishima S, Ohuchida K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Podoplanin expression in the cyst wall correlates with the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Virchows Arch, 465, 3, 265-273, 2014.04, A thickened, enhanced cyst wall on imaging examinations is one of the "worrisome features" described in the consensus guidelines for management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). Podoplanin (PDPN) expression by cancer-associated fibroblasts is known to be an indicator of poor prognosis in some types of cancer. We performed immunohistochemical staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in IPMN lesions and determined the pathological wall thickness by measuring the thinnest and thickest α-SMA-positive parts of the wall of the largest cyst in each case, and the mean of these two values was recorded as the wall thickness. The thickness of the pathological wall increased with progression from IPMN with low-grade dysplasia to IPMN with an invasive carcinoma. The pathological wall was thicker in IPMN with main duct involvement, nongastric-type IPMN, and IPMN with mural nodules. We also stained for PDPN and assessed the thickness of cyst wall staining as for α-SMA. The thickness of the PDPN-positive cyst wall varied in a pattern similar to the thickness of the α-SMA-positive pathological cyst wall. PDPN-positive stromal fibroblasts in the invasive component of IPMN-IC were evaluated as a ratio to α-SMA-positive fibroblasts. A high ratio (>50 %) of PDPN-positive stromal fibroblasts was a predictor of poor outcome. PDPN expression in the cyst wall correlates with the progression of IPMN. PDPN may be a significant prognostic marker of IPMN-IC..
12. Oda Y, Aishima S, Morimatsu K, Shindo K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Hattori M, Miyazaki T, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the background of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas as a prognostic factor, Histopathology, 65, 3, 389-397, 2014.04, AIMS:

Of the recognized precursor lesions of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is the most common form. However, little is known about the relationship between the grade of PanIN and prognosis for patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In 124 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, we examined the grade and number of PanIN lesions in all slides of resected pancreas. The prevalence rates of PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2 and PanIN-3 were 86%, 84%, 57% and 30%, respectively. We allocated PanIN-2 and PanIN-3 cases into a PanIN-high group, and cases showing PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B or absence of PanIN into a PanIN-low group. In clinicopathological analysis, PanIN-high status was significantly correlated with the number of PanIN lesions (P < 0.0001). Disease-free and overall survival were statistically better in the PanIN-high group than in the PanIN-low group (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0003). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that tumour size and PanIN-low status were statistically significant factors for a poorer prognosis (P = 0.042 and P = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS:

In a pathological examination, it is important to evaluate the grade and number of PanINs in assessing the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
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13. Aso T, Ohtsuka T, Matsunaga T, Kimura H, Watanabe Y, Tamura K, Ideno N, Osoegawa T, Takahata S, Shindo K, Ushijima Y, Aishima S, Oda Y, Ito T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, High-risk stigmata of the 2012 international consensus guidelines correlate with the malignant grade of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, Pancreas, 43, 8, 1239-1243, 2014.04, Objectives: The 2012 international consensus guidelines for themanagementof intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreasstratified patients into 2 clinical categories, “high-risk stigmata” and “worrisomefeatures,” and recommended different therapeutic strategies forthese groups. The aim of this study was to elucidate the significance ofthese categories in terms of predicting malignant IPMNs.Methods: The medical records of 100 consecutive patients whounderwent pancreatectomy for IPMNs were retrospectively reviewed. Seventypatients with branch duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs) were stratified into 3groups. The relationships between the number of predictive factors and histopathologicgrade were investigated.Results: The prevalence rates of malignant IPMN, invasive carcinoma,and lymph node metastasis in the high-risk group were 80%, 55%, and20%, respectively, with these percentages significantly increasing in a stepwisemanner acc
ording to the number of predictive factors. In contrast,there was no significant correlation between the number of worrisome featuresand grade of malignancy in patients stratified as having worrisomeBD-IPMNs.Conclusions: The number of high-risk stigmata correlated significantlywith the grade of malignancy of BD-IPMNs. The presence of at least 1high-risk stigma in patients with BD-IPMNs indicates a need for pancreatectomywith lymphadenectomy..
14. Aso T, Ohtsuka T, Tamura K, Ideno N, Kono H, Nagayoshi Y, Ohuchida K, Ueda J, Takahata S, Shindo K, Aishima S, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Elevated Expression Level of MicroRNA-196a Is Predictive of Intestinal-Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas, Pancreas, 43, 3, 361-366, 2014.04, AbstractOBJECTIVES: Aberrant expression of several microRNAs (miRs) has been reported in various neoplasms including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. MicroRNA-196a (miR-196a) is up-regulated in Barrett esophagus (characterized by intestinal metaplasia) and in colorectal cancer; this relationship between intestinal characteristics and miR-196a might also be applicable to intestinal-type IPMNs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intestinal-type IPMNs can be discriminated from non-intestinal-type IPMNs by the expression level of miR-196a in tissue and pancreatic juice samples.METHODS: Thirty-seven formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (including 3 of normal pancreatic ducts) and 36 pancreatic juice samples were obtained. The expression level of miR-196a measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays was compared between intestinal-type and non-intestinal-type IPMNs.RESULTS: Mi
croRNA-196a expression in intestinal-type IPMN tissue samples (n = 18) was significantly higher than that of non-intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 16) (P < 0.001). Similarly, miR-196a expression in pancreatic juice samples of intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 6) was significantly higher than that of non-intestinal-type IPMNs (n = 30) (P = 0.008), and the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of intestinal-type IPMNs using pancreatic juice samples were both 83%.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated expression of miR-196a in pancreatic juice samples is predictive of intestinal-type IPMNs..
15. Kubo Y, Aishima S, Tanaka Y, Shindo K, Mizuuchi Y, Abe K, Shirabe K, Maehara Y, Honda H, Oda Y, Different expression of glucose transporters in theprogression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Hum Pathol, 45, 8, 1610-1617, 2014.04, Abstract
Glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 is expressed in malignant tumors and correlated with poor outcome in several cancers. Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) is considered to be a precursor or a noninvasive lesion of invasive cholangiocarcinoma. We examined GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in 149 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 39 BilINs immunohistochemically and evaluated their correlation with clinicopathological findings and patient outcome in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, we examined the role of GLUT-1 on migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells using GLUT-1 siRNA. In intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, GLUT-1 expression was frequently observed near the necrotic areas, whereas GLUT-2 expression tended to be observed in adenocarcinoma of large bile ducts. Compared with the GLUT-1-negative group, the GLUT-1-positive group showed significantly larger tumor size (P = .0031), poor differentiation (P < .0001), frequent lymphatic invasion (P = .0031) and lymph node metastasis (P < .0001), and high HIF-1α expression (P = .0297). GLUT-2 expression was significantly correlated with good differentiation (P = .0015), perihilar location (P < .0001), perineural invasion (P = .0049), and lymph node metastasis (P = .0248). The patients with GLUT-1-positive tumors showed poor disease related survival (P < .0001). The numbers of migrating and invading cells were significantly decreased in GLUT-1 siRNA transfectants of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Although, GLUT-1 was expressed in all grades of BilINs, GLUT-2 was expressed only in high-grade BilINs. Our results suggest that GLUT-1 expression correlates aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, and that GLUT-1 might be a therapeutic target of cholangiocarcinoma. GLUT-2 expression may be associated with cholangiocarcinogenesis of large bile duct and is a helpful marker for detecting high-grade BilIN lesions in atypical bile ducts..
16. Fujiwara K, Ohuchida K, Sada M, Horioka K, Ulrich CD 3rd, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Tanaka M, CD166/ALCAM expression is characteristic of tumorigenicity and invasive and migratory activities of pancreatic cancer cells, PLoS One, 9, 9, e107247, 2014.04, BACKGROUND:

CD166, also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is expressed by various cells in several tissues including cancer. However, the role of CD166 in malignant tumors is controversial, especially in pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to clarify the role and significance of CD166 expression in pancreatic cancer.

METHODS:

We performed immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry to analyze the expression of CD166 in surgical pancreatic tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. The differences between isolated CD166+ and CD166- pancreatic cancer cells were analyzed by invasion and migration assays, and in mouse xenograft models. We also performed quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analyses to evaluate the expression levels of CD166 and related genes in cultured cells.

RESULTS:

Immunohistochemistry revealed high expression of CD166 in pancreatic cancer tissues (12.2%; 12/98) compared with that in normal pancreas controls (0%; 0/17) (p = 0.0435). Flow cytometry indicated that CD166 was expressed in 33.8-70.2% of cells in surgical pancreatic tissues and 0-99.5% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Invasion and migration assays demonstrated that CD166- pancreatic cancer cells showed stronger invasive and migratory activities than those of CD166+ cancer cells (p<0.05). On the other hand, CD166+ Panc-1 cells showed a significantly stronger colony formation activity than that of CD166- Panc-1 cells (p<0.05). In vivo analysis revealed that CD166+ cells elicited significantly greater tumor growth than that of CD166- cells (p<0.05) in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse tumor models. mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition activator Zeb1 was over-expressed in CD166- cells (p<0.001). Microarray analysis showed that TSPAN8 and BST2 were over-expressed in CD166+ cells, while BMP7 and Col6A1 were over-expressed in CD166- cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

CD166+ pancreatic cancer cells are strongly tumorigenic, while CD166- pancreatic cancer cells exhibit comparatively stronger invasive and migratory activities. These findings suggest that CD166 expression is related to different functions in pancreatic cancer cells.
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17. Zheng B, Ohuchida K, Cui L, Zhao M, Shindo K, Fujiwara K, Manabe T, Torata N, Moriyama T, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Takahata S, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Tanaka M, TM4SF1 as a prognostic marker of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is involved in migration and invasion of cancer cells, Int J Oncol, 47, 2, 490-498, 2015.04, The cell surface protein Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 1 (TM4SF1) has been detected in various tumors, and its expression on tumor cells is implicated in cancer cell metastasis and patient prognosis. The role of TM4SF1 in malignant tumors remains poorly understood, particularly in pancreatic cancer. We performed immunohistochemical staining to analyze the expression of TM4SF1 in resected pancreatic tissues and investigated the correlation between TM4SF1 expression and prognosis. The function of TM4SF1 in the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells was analyzed in vitro using an RNA interference technique. In pancreatic cancer tissues, TM4SF1 expression was detected in cancer cells, and patients with high tumor levels of TM4SF1 showed longer survival times than those with low TM4SF1 levels (P=0.0332). In vitro, reduced TM4SF1 expression enhanced the migration (P<0.05) and invasion (P<0.05) of pancreatic cancer cells partially via decreased E-cadherin expression. TM4SF1 protein levels were also reduced after TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).TM4SF1 expression is associated with better prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Loss of TM4SF1 contributes to the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells..
18. Cases AI, Ohtsuka T, Kimura H, Zheng B, Shindo K, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, Significance of expression of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor in pancreatic cancer, Oncol Rep, 10.3892/or.2015.4138, 34, 4, 1717-1725, 2015.04, Abstract
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) induces insulin secretion and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells, and inhibits their apoptosis through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), thus providing a foundation for using GLP-1-based therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, doubts have emerged regarding the drug safety of these therapies. We investigated the potential role of GLP-1R in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). GLP-1R expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 48 PDAC samples, and its correlations with clinicopathological features were investigated. CFPAC-1 cells were used for GLP-1R knockdown to evaluate its effects on cell proliferation, migration and invasion. GLP-1R expression was positive in 23 tumors and negative in 25 tumors. No correlations were found between GLP-1R expression status and clinicopathological characteristics. Furthermore, GLP-1R expression status did not affect the patient prognosis (P=0.74). The majority of lymph node metastases (11 of 15 samples examined; 73%) were positive for GLP-1R expression. Immunoreactivity for GLP-1R was also noted in sites of perineural and lymphovascular invasion. GLP-1R knockdown significantly reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of CFPAC-1 cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, although GLP-1R is not an independent prognostic factor in PDAC patients, it appears to have some implications for PDAC metastatic ability.
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19. Mizuuchi Y, AishimaS, Ohuchida K, Shindo K, Fujino M, Hattori M, Miyazaki T, Mizumoto K, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Anterior gradient 2 downregulation in a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a prognostic factor indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Lab Invest, 95, 2, 193-206, 2015.04, Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, has been implicated in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is known to promote cancer progression. However, the prognostic value of AGR2 expression and the interaction with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain unclear. We investigated the clinical significance of AGR2 and EMT markers in PDAC patients by immunohistochemical analyses. Although AGR2 expression was not observed in normal pancreas, all pancreatic precursor neoplastic lesions were positive for AGR2, even at the earliest stages, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A, AGR2 expression was reduced in 27.7% (54/195 cases) of PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation correlated with EMT markers (vimentin overexpression and reduced membranous E-cadherin expression), high Union for International Cancer Control stage (P<0.0001), high histological cellular grade (P<0.0001), and adverse outcome (P<0.0001). In vitro, targeted silencing of AGR2 in cancer cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasiveness, and migration, but did not alter EMT markers. To confer a more aggressive phenotype and induce EMT in PDAC cells, we co-cultured PDAC cell lines with primary-cultured pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and found that AGR2 was downregulated in co-cultured PDAC cells compared with PDAC monocultures. Treatment with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β), secreted from PSCs, decreased AGR2 expression, whereas inhibition of TGF-β signaling using recombinant soluble human TGF-β receptor type II and TGF-β-neutralizing antibodies restored AGR2 expression. We conclude that AGR2 downregulation is a useful prognostic marker, induced by EMT, and that secreted TGF-β from PSCs may partially contribute to AGR2 downregulation in PDAC patients. AGR2 downregulation does not induce EMT or a more aggressive phenotype, but is a secondary effect of these processes in advanced PDAC.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 24 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.138..
20. Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Tamura K, Mori Y, Shindo K, Yamada D, Takahata S, Ishigami K, Ito T, Tokunaga S, Oda Y, Mizumoto K, Nakamura M, Tanaka M, Predictive factors for the metachronous development of high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatectomy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Ann Surg, 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001368 , 263, 6, 1180-1187, 2016.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To identify factors predicting the development of high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas after surgery for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).
BACKGROUND:
IPMN has unique features, including multifocality, adenoma-carcinoma sequence, and the development of distinct pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the same pancreas. Careful attention should, therefore, be paid to the metachronous occurrence of high-risk lesions, including high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma (HGD/INV) of IPMN and concomitant PDAC in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatectomy for IPMN.
METHODS:
Clinicopathologic and surveillance data for 195 patients who underwent partial pancreatectomy for IPMN were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS:
Thirteen patients exhibited metachronous development of high-risk lesions including 6 HGD/INV and 7 concomitant PDACs in the remnant pancreas. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of metachronous high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas were 7.8% and 11.8%, respectively. Twelve of 13 patients had high-risk lesions at the time of initial surgery, and 10 of the 13 IPMNs were located in the distal pancreas. The IPMN subtypes initially resected were gastric in 6 patients, intestinal in 5, and pancreatobililary in the remaining 2. Univariate and multiple regression analyses identified pathologic results of HGD/INV and IPMN located in the distal pancreas as independent predictive factors for metachronous HGD/INV of IPMN, and the pancreatobiliary subtype of IPMN and presence of concomitant PDAC for metachronous PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS:
Patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy for IPMN are at high risk of developing lesions requiring surgery in the remnant pancreas, and close, long-term surveillance should be considered in these patients..
21. Dal Molin M, Brant A, Blackford AL, Griffin JF, Shindo K, Barkley T, Rezaee N, Hruban RH, Wolfgang CL, Goggins M, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and PathologicalCharacteristics of Resected Pancreatic DuctalAdenocarcinoma, PLoS One, 11, 10, e0164195, 2016.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Prospective studies have identified obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for increased overall cancer incidence and mortality. The potential role of OSA in the risk or progression of specific cancers is not well known. We hypothesized that pathological differences in pancreatic cancers from OSA cases compared to non-OSA cases would implicate OSA in pancreatic cancer progression.
METHODS:
We reviewed the medical records of 1031 patients who underwent surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2003 and 2014 and compared the TNM classification of their cancer and their overall survival by patient OSA status.
RESULTS:
OSA cases were significantly more likely than non-OSA cases to have lymph node-negative tumors (37.7% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.004). Differences in the prevalence of nodal involvement of OSA vs. non-OSA cases were not associated with differences in other pathological characteristics such as tumor size, tumor location, resection margin status, vascular or perineural invasion, or other comorbidities more common to OSA cases (BMI, smoking, diabetes). A logistic regression model found that a diagnosis of OSA was an independent predictor of lymph node status (hazard ratio, 0.051, p = 0.038). Patients with OSA had similar overall survival compared to those without OSA (HR, 0.89, (0.65-1.24), p = 0.41).
CONCLUSION:
The observed pathological differences between OSA-associated and non-OSA-associated pancreatic cancers supports the hypothesis that OSA can influence the pathologic features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma..
22. Fujino M, Aishima S, Shindo K, Oda Y, Morimatsu K, Tsutsumi K, Otsuka T, Tanaka M, Oda Y, Expression of glucose transporter-1 is correlated with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and malignant potential in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, Oncol Lett, 10.3892/ol.2016.5092, 12, 5, 3337-3343, 2016.04, The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic usefulness of the expression of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) and GLUT-2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1, GLUT-2, HIF-1α and IMP3 was performed in 70 pNET specimens. The expression of GLUT-1 and HIF-1α was significantly higher in the World Health Organization grade 2 (G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma cases and mixed-type pNETs compared with the G1 cases. Vessel invasion, a high Ki-67 labeling index and a high mitotic count were significantly more frequent in the GLUT-1- and HIF-1α-positive cases compared with the negative cases. Lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the GLUT-1-positive cases than in the negative cases. Insulin expression was significantly higher in the IMP3-positive cases than th
e negative cases. The GLUT-1 expression group experienced a significantly poor disease-free survival rate compared with the negative GLUT-1 expression group. HIF-1α expression was significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival rates. A multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis was an independent risk factor for disease-free survival in all cases. In the G1/G2 group, tumor size and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for disease-free survival. Overall, the results suggested that GLUT-1 is a useful prognostic biomarker for pNETs..
23. Yu J, Sadakari Y, Shindo K, Suenaga M, Brant A, Almario JAN, Borges M, Barkley T, Fesharakizadeh S, Ford M, Hruban RH, Shin EJ, Lennon AM, Canto MI, Goggins M, Digital next-generation sequencing identifies low-abundance mutations in pancreatic juice samples collected from the duodenum of patients with pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, Gut, 2016.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice contains DNA shed from cells lining the pancreatic ducts. Genetic analysis of this fluid may form a test to detect pancreatic ductal neoplasia.
DESIGN:
We employed digital next-generation sequencing ('digital NGS') to detect low-abundance mutations in secretin-stimulated juice samples collected from the duodenum of subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening studies at Johns Hopkins Hospital. For each juice sample, digital NGS necessitated 96 NGS reactions sequencing nine genes. The study population included 115 subjects (53 discovery, 62 validation) (1) with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), (2) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), (3) controls with non-suspicious pancreata.
RESULTS:
Cases with PDAC and IPMN were more likely to have mutant DNA detected in pancreatic juice than controls (both p<0.0001); mutant DNA concentrations were higher in patients with PDAC than IPMN (p=0.003) or controls (p<0.001). TP53 and/or SMAD4 mutations were commonly detected in juice samples from patients with PDAC and were not detected in controls (p<0.0001); mutant TP53/SMAD4 concentrations could distinguish PDAC from IPMN cases with 32.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity (area under the curve, AUC 0.73, p=0.0002) and controls (AUC 0.82, p<0.0001). Two of four patients who developed pancreatic cancer despite close surveillance had SMAD4/TP53 mutations from their cancer detected in juice samples collected over 1 year prior to their pancreatic cancer diagnosis when no suspicious pancreatic lesions were detected by imaging.
CONCLUSIONS:
The detection in pancreatic juice of mutations important for the progression of low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and invasive pancreatic cancer may improve the management of patients undergoing pancreatic screening and surveillance.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/..
24. Oda Y, Aishima S, Shindo K, Fujino M, Mizuuchi Y, Hattori M, Miyazaki T, Tanaka M, Oda Y, SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in mural nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, Hum Pathol, 65, 71-78, 2017.04, Abstract
In intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), the presence of a mural nodule showing a papillary or nodular proliferation of tumor cells in the dilated pancreatic duct is an indication for resection of the IPMN. Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1, known as Glucose transporter type 1 (SLC2A1/GLUT1) mediates cellular glucose uptake in many carcinomas and is correlated with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. We examined SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules of 180 IPMN specimens to distinguish malignant/benign tumors. A mural nodule was detected in 80 (44.4%) of the IPMNs, and was detected in 18.6% (13/70) of the IPMN-low (dysplasia) specimens, 36.1% (13/36) of the IPMN-int, 93.3% (28/30) of the IPMN-high, and 59.1% (26/44) of the IPMN-inv. (with an associated invasive carcinoma) specimens. The sensitivity for detecting mural nodules was 81.7% by endoscopic ultrasonography, 70% by contrast-enhanced CT and 54% by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules was recognized in the basal and basolateral cytomembrane of tumor cells and was expressed in 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-low, 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-int, 71.4% (20/28) of the IPMN-high and 84.6% (22/26) of the IPMN-inv. groups. The SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression was significantly higher in the IPMN-high and IPMN-inv. mural nodules than in those of the IPMN-low and IPMN-int groups. Our findings suggest that SLC2A1/GLUT1 is expressed late in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence during carcinogenesis in the IPMN, and SLC2A1/GLUT1 act as therapeutic target for malignant IPMN..
25. Shindo K, Yu, J Suenaga M, Fesharakizadeh S, Tamura K, Alejandro Navarro Almatio J, Brant A, Borges M, Siddiqui A, Datta L, L.Wolfgang C, H.Hruban R, Patricia Klein A, Goggins M, Lack of association between the pancreatitis risk allele CEL-HYB and pancreatic cancer, Oncotarget, 10.18632/oncotarget.15137, 8, 31, 50824-50831, 2017.04, CEL-HYB is a hybrid allele that arose from a crossover between the 3' end of the Carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) gene and the nearby CEL pseudogene (CELP) and was recently identified as a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Since chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer, we compared the prevalence of the CEL-HYB allele in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to spousal controls and disease controls. The CEL-HYB allele was detected using Sanger and next generation sequencing. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the CEL-HYB allele between cases with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared to controls; 2.6% (22/850) vs. 1.8% (18/976) (p=0.35). CEL-HYB carriers were not more likely to report a history of pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic cancer are not more likely than controls to be carriers of the CEL-HYB allele.
26. Ayars M, O’Sullivan E, Macgregor-Das A, Shindo K, Kim H, Borges M, Yu J, Hruban RH, Goggins M, IL2RG, identified as overexpressed by RNA-seq profiling of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, mediates pancreatic cancer growth, Oncotarget, 10.18632/oncotarget.19848, 8, 48, 83370-83383, 2017.04, Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma evolves from precursor lesions, the most common of which is pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). We performed RNA-sequencing analysis of laser capture microdissected PanINs and normal pancreatic duct cells to identify differentially expressed genes between PanINs and normal pancreatic duct, and between low-grade and high-grade PanINs. One of the most highly overexpressed transcripts identified in PanIN is interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma (IL2RG) encoding the common gamma chain, IL2Rγ. CRISPR-mediated knockout of IL2RG in orthotopically implanted pancreatic cancer cells resulted in attenuated tumor growth in mice and reduced JAK3 expression in orthotopic tumors. These results indicate that IL2Rγ/JAK3 signaling contributes to pancreatic cancer cell growth in vivo..
27. Hosoda W, Chianchiano P, Griffin J, Pittman ME, Brosens L.A, Noë M, Yu J, Shindo K, Suenaga M, Rezaee N, Yonescu R, Ning Y, Albores-Saavedra J, Yoshizawa N, Harada K, Yoshizawa A, Hanada K, Yonehara S, Shimizu M, Uehara T, Samra JS, Gill AJ, Wolfgang CL, Goggins MG, Hruban RH, Wood LD, Genetic analyses of isolated high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PanIN) reveal paucity of alterations in TP53 and SMAD4, J Pathol, 10.1002/path.4884, 242, 1, 16-23, 2017.04, High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PanIN) is the major precursor of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is an ideal target for early detection. To characterize pure HG-PanIN, we analysed 23 isolated HG-PanIN lesions occurring in the absence of PDAC. Whole-exome sequencing of five of these HG-PanIN lesions revealed a median of 33 somatic mutations per lesion, with a total of 318 mutated genes. Targeted next-generation sequencing of 17 HG-PanIN lesions identified KRAS mutations in 94% of the lesions. CDKN2A alterations occurred in six HG-PanIN lesions, and RNF43 alterations in five. Mutations in TP53, GNAS, ARID1A, PIK3CA, and TGFBR2 were limited to one or two HG-PanINs. No non-synonymous mutations in SMAD4 were detected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and SMAD4 proteins in 18 HG-PanINs confirmed the paucity of alterations in these genes, with aberrant p53 labelling noted only in three lesions, two of which were found to be wild type in sequencing analyses. Sixteen adjacent LG-PanIN lesions from ten patients were also sequenced using targeted sequencing. LG-PanIN harboured KRAS mutations in 94% of the lesions; mutations in CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4 were not identified. These results suggest that inactivation of TP53 and SMAD4 are late genetic alterations, predominantly occurring in invasive PDAC. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
28. Ohuchida K, Nagai E, Moriyama T, Shindo K, Manabe T, Ohtsuka T, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Feasibility and safety of modified inverted T-shaped method using linear stapler with movable cartridge fork for esophagojejunostomy following laparoscopic total gastrectomy, Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol, 23, 2, 50, 2017.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We previously reported the use of an inverted T-shaped method to obtain a suitable view for hand sewing to close the common entry hole when the linear stapler was fired for esophagojejunostomy after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). This conventional method involved insertion of the fixed cartridge fork to the Roux limb and the fine movable anvil fork to the esophagus to avoid perforation of the jejunum. However, insertion of the movable anvil fork to the esophagus during this procedure often requires us to strongly push down the main body of the stapler with the fixed cartridge fork to bring the direction of the anvil fork in line with the direction of the long axis of the esophagus while controlling the opening of the movable anvil fork. We therefore modified this complicated inverted T-shaped method using a linear stapler with a movable cartridge fork. This modified method involved insertion of the movable cartridge fork into the Roux limb followed by natural, easy insertion of the fixed anvil fork into the esophagus without controlling the opening of the movable cartridge fork.
METHODS:
We performed LTG in a total of 155 consecutive patients with gastric cancer from November 2007 to December 2015 in Kyushu University Hospital. After LTG, we performed the conventional inverted T-shaped method using a linear stapler with a fixed cartridge fork in 61 patients from November 2007 to July 2011 (fixed cartridge group). From August 2011, we used a linear stapler with a movable cartridge fork and performed the modified inverted T-shaped method in 94 patients (movable cartridge group). We herein compare the short-term outcomes in 94 cases of LTG using the modified method (movable cartridge fork) with those in 61 cases using the conventional method (fixed cartridge fork).
RESULTS:
We found no significant differences in the perioperative or postoperative events between the movable and fixed cartridge groups. One case of anastomotic leakage occurred in the fixed cartridge group, but no anastomotic leakage occurred in the movable cartridge group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Although there were no remarkable differences in the short-term outcomes between the movable and fixed cartridge groups, we believe that the modified inverted T-shaped method is technically more feasible and reliable than the conventional method and will contribute to the improved safety of LTG..
29. Shindo K, Yu J, Suenaga M, Fesharakizadeh S, Cho C, Macgregor-Das A, Siddiqui A, Witmer PD, Tamura K, Song TJ, Almario JAN, Brant A, Borges M, Ford M, Barkley T, He J, Weiss MJ, Wolfgang CL, Roberts NJ, Hruban RH, Klein AP, Goggins M, Deleterious Germline mutations in Patients with Apparently Sporadic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, J Clin Oncol, 10.1200/JCO.2017.72.3502, 35, 30, 3382-3390, 2017.04.
30. Suenaga M, Yu J, Shindo K, Tamura K, Almario JA, Zaykoski C, Witmer PD, Fesharakizadeh S, Borges M, Lennon AM, Shin EJ, Canto MI, Goggins M, Pancreatic Juice Mutation Concentrations Can Help Predict the Grade of Dysplasia in Patients Undergoing Pancreatic Surveillance, Clin Cancer Res, 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2463, 24, 12, 2963-2974, 2018.04.
31. Tamura K, Yu J, Hata T, Suenaga M, Shindo K, Abe T, MacGregor-Das A, Borges M, Wolfgang CL, Weiss MJ, He J, Canto MI, Petersen GM, Gallinger S, Syngal S, Brand RE, Rustgi A, Olson SH, Stoffel E, Cote ML, Zogopoulos G, Potash JB, Goes FS, McCombie RW, Zandi PP, Pirooznia M, Kramer M, Parla J, Eshleman JR, Roberts NJ, Hruban RH, Klein AP, Goggins M, Mutations in the pancreatic secretory enzymes CPA1 and CPB1 are associated with pancreatic cancer, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 10.1073/pnas.1720588115, 115, 18, 4767-4772, 2018.04, To evaluate whether germline variants in genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the coding regions of CPB1 and other genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes and known pancreatitis susceptibility genes (PRSS1, CPA1, CTRC, and SPINK1) in a hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Variants in CPB1, CPA1 (encoding carboxypeptidase B1 and A1), and CTRC were evaluated in a second set of cases with familial pancreatic cancer and controls. More deleterious CPB1 variants, defined as having impaired protein secretion and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in transfected HEK 293T cells, were found in the hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases (5/986, 0.5%) than in controls (0/1,045, P = 0.027). Among familial pancreatic cancer cases, ER stress-inducing CPB1 variants were found in 4 of 593 (0.67%) vs. 0 of 967 additional controls (P = 0.020), with a combined prev
alence in pancreatic cancer cases of 9/1,579 vs. 0/2,012 controls (P < 0.01). More ER stress-inducing CPA1 variants were also found in the combined set of hospital and familial cases with pancreatic cancer than in controls [7/1,546 vs. 1/2,012; P = 0.025; odds ratio, 9.36 (95% CI, 1.15-76.02)]. Overall, 16 (1%) of 1,579 pancreatic cancer cases had an ER stress-inducing CPA1 or CPB1 variant, compared with 1 of 2,068 controls (P < 0.00001). No other candidate genes had statistically significant differences in variant prevalence between cases and controls. Our study indicates ER stress-inducing variants in CPB1 and CPA1 are associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and implicate ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells in pancreatic cancer development..
32. Hata T, Suenaga M, Marchionni L, Macgregor-Das A, Yu J, Shindo K, Tamura K, Hruban RH, Goggins M, Genome-Wide Somatic Copy Number Alterations and Mutations in High-Grade Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Am J Pathol, 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.03.012, 188, 7, 1723-1733, 2018.04.
33. Skaro M, Nanda N, Gauthier C, Felsenstein M, Jiang Z, Qiu M, Shindo K, Yu J, Hutchings D, Javed AA, Beckman R, He J, Wolfgang CL, Thompson E, Hruban RH, Klein AP, Goggins M, Wood LD, Roberts NJ, Prevalence of Germline Mutations Associated With Cancer Risk in Patients With Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms, Gastroenterology, 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.01.254, 156, 6, 1905-1913, 2019.04.
34. Yan Z, Ohuchida K, Fei S, Zheng B, Guan W, Feng H, Kibe S, Ando Y, Koikawa K, Abe T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 10.1186/s13046-019-1226-8 , 38, 1, 221, 2019.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND:Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been related to multiple cancers, including breast cancer, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. ERK1/2 inhibitor can suppress growth of KRAS-mutant pancreatic tumors by targeting cancer cell. However, no studies have shown the expression of ERK1/2 on pancreatic stromal and its effect on pancreatic cancer-stromal interaction.
METHODS:Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of p-ERK1/2 in pancreatic tissues and cells. Cell viability assay was used to study IC50 of ERK inhibitor on pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and primary cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Transwell migration, invasion, cell viability assay, senescence β-galactosidase staining were performed to determine the effect of ERK inhibitor on PCCs and PSCs in vitro and in vivo. The expression of key factors involved in autophagy and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process were evaluated by western blotting. The expression of key factors related to cell invasiveness and malignancy were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Co-transplantation of PCC Organoid and PSC using a splenic xenograft mouse model was used to evaluated combined treatment of ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor.
RESULTS:Immunohistochemical staining in pancreatic tumor samples and transgenetic mice detected p-ERK1/2 expression in both cancer cells and stromal cells. In pancreatic tissues, p-ERK1/2 was strongly expressed in cancer-associated PSCs compared with cancer cells and normal PSCs. PSCs were also significantly more sensitive to ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment. Inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed EMT transition in HMPCCs, upregulated cellular senescence markers, activated autophagy in cancer-associated PSCs; and suppressed cancer-stromal interaction, which enhanced invasiveness and viability of cancer cells. We also found that chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed ERK inhibition-induced autophagy and promoted PSC cellular senescence, leading to significantly decreased cell proliferation. The combination of an ERK inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor suppressed liver metastasis in a splenic pancreatic cancer organoid xenograft mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that inhibition of ERK1/2 in cancer-associated pancreatic stellate cells suppresses cancer-stromal interaction and metastasis.
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35. Gotoh Y, Ohtsuka T, Nakamura S, Shindo K, Ohuchida K, Miyasaka Y, Mori Y, Mochidome N, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Genetic assessment of recurrent pancreatic high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas: Metachronous multifocal lesion or local recurrence?, Surgery, 10.1016/j.surg.2018.10.025 , 165, 4, 767-774, 2019.04, Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to determine whether a second high-risk lesion, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm, is a metachronous multifocal lesion or represents local recurrence after resection of the first high-risk lesion. This study attempts to clarify the characteristics of second high-risk lesions in the remnant pancreas using genetic analyses.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were collected from 12 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for a second high-risk lesion in the remnant pancreas. We performed mutational and immunohistochemical analyses of 4 major genes-KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4-associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression, as well as targeted next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Mutations in the four genes in the second high-risk lesion were consistent with the first lesion in four patients but were inconsistent in the remaining eight patients, and thus we considered that the latter eight patients likely had metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions and the other four patients had local recurrence. The estimated cumulative recurrence rate after resection of the second high-risk lesion was greater in the local recurrence group compared with the metachronous multifocal group, and the estimated cumulative disease-specific survival rate was greater in the metachronous multifocal group. Targeted next-generation sequencing demonstrated that the second lesions in the metachronous multifocal high-risk lesion group showed differences in founder mutations compared with the first lesion. In the local recurrence group, the founder mutations in the second lesion were common with those in the first lesion.
CONCLUSION: Genetic assessment might help discriminate metachronous multifocal high-risk lesions from local recurrence.
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36. Yan Z, Ohuchida K, Zheng B, Okumura T, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, CD110 promotes pancreatic cancer progression and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 10.1007/s00432-019-02860-z , 145, 5, 1147-1164, 2019.04, Abstract
PURPOSE:This study aimed at investigating the function and significance of CD110 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS:We performed immunohistochemical staining for CD110 expression in tumor samples from 86 patients with pancreatic cancer. We evaluated clinical outcomes and other clinicopathological factors to determine the significance of CD110 on survival and liver metastasis. We examine thrombopoietin-CD110 signaling in cancer cell extravasation in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the effects of CD110 knockdown on liver metastasis in a splenic xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS:CD110 expression in cancer cells was associated with low-histological-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, and patients with high CD110 expression had poorer prognosis (P = 0.0003). High CD110 expression was an independent predictor of liver metastasis (P = 0.0422). Knockdown of CD110 expression significantly attenuated cell migration and invasion. Treatment with thrombopoietin promoted pancreatic cancer cell extravasation. In the presence of thrombopoietin, CD110 increased cell viability through the activation of the ERK-MYC signaling pathway. Knockdown of CD110 expression inhibited liver metastases in the mouse model.
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37. Kibe S, Ohuchida K, Ando Y, Takesue S, Nakayama H, Abe T, Endo S, Koikawa K, Okumura T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Shimamoto M, Ohtsuka T, Mizumoto K, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Cancer-associated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia within the invasive front of pancreatic cancer contributes to local invasion, Cancer Lett, 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.12.005, 1, 444, 70-81, 2019.04, Abstract
The pancreas is an organ prone to inflammation, fibrosis, and atrophy because of an abundance of acinar cells that produce digestive enzymes. A characteristic of pancreatic cancer is the presence of desmoplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cancer-associated acinar atrophy (CAA) within the invasive front. CAA is characterized by a high frequency of small ducts and resembles acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). However, the clinical significance of changes in acinar morphology, such as ADM with acinar atrophy, within the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. Here, we find that ADM within the invasive front of tumors is associated with cell invasion and desmoplasia in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. An analysis of resected human tumors revealed that regions of cancer-associated ADM were positive for TGFα, and that this TGFα expression was associated with primary tumor size and shorter survival times. Gene expression analysis identified distinct phenotypic profiles for cancer-associated ADM, sporadic ADM and chronic pancreatitis ADM. These findings suggest that the mechanisms driving ADM differ according to the specific tissue microenvironment and that cancer-associated ADM and acinar atrophy contribute to tumor cell invasion of the local pancreatic parenchyma.
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38. Valencia S, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Ohuchida K, Tsurumaru D, Chua M, Chen HC, Yao L, Ohtsuka T, Shimizu S, Nakamura M, Subcutaneous fat area as a risk factor for extraction site incisional hernia following gastrectomy for gastric cancer, Surg Today, 10.1007/s00595-020-02039-x , 50, 11, 1418-1426, 2020.04, Abstract
Purpose: To identify the incidence of extraction site incisional hernia following gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its significant risk factors, including the subcutaneous fat area.
Methods: We reviewed data gathered prospectively on patients with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy between 2008 and 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. The subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using axial computed tomography at the level of the L4 and L3 transverse processes, and the L2-L3 intervertebral disc. The primary endpoint of the rate of extraction site incisional hernia was based on the computed tomography and clinical data including hospital follow-up reports.
Results: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 320 patients were included in this retrospective analysis: 3.1% (10/320) had extraction site incisional hernias after a mean follow-up of 11 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the SFA were independent risk factors (age ≥ 70.5 years: P = .013, odds ratio: 9.116, 95% confidence interval 1.581-52.553; L4 SFA ≥ 124 cm2: P = .004, odds ratio: 13.752, 95% confidence interval 2.290-82.582).
Conclusion: Age and the SFA were independent risk factors for extraction site incisional hernia in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
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39. Matsuda R, Miyasaka Y, Ohishi Y, Yamamoto T, Saeki K, Mochidome N, Abe A, Ozono K, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Kikutake C, Nakamura M, Oda Y, Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Is an Independent Predictive Factor for the Occurrence of New Cancer in the Remnant Pancreas, Ann Surg, 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003060, 271, 5, 941-948, 2020.04.
40. Takesue S, Ohuchida K, Shinkawa T, Otsubo Y, Matsumoto S, Sagara A, Yonenaga A, Ando Y, Kibe S, Nakayama H, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Toma H, Tominaga Y, Mizumoto K, Hashizume M, Nakamura M, Neutrophil extracellular traps promote liver micrometastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via the activation of cancer‑associated fibroblasts, Int J Oncol, 10.3892/ijo.2019.4951, 56, 2, 596-605, 2020.04, Abstract
Cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) via tumor‑stromal interactions. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular DNA meshworks released from neutrophils together with proteolytic enzymes against foreign pathogens. Emerging studies suggest their contribution to liver metastasis in several types of cancer. Herein, in order to investigate the role of NETs in liver metastasis in PDAC, the effects of NET inhibitors on spontaneous PDAC mouse models were evaluated. It was demonstrated that DNase I, a NET inhibitor, suppressed liver metastasis. For further investigation, further attention was paid to liver micrometastasis and an experimental liver metastasis mouse model was used that was generated by intrasplenic tumor injection. Furthermore, DNase I also suppressed liver micrometastasis and notably, CAFs accumulated in metastatic foci were significantly decreased in number. In vitro experiments revealed that pancreatic cancer cells induced NET formation and consequently NETs enhanced the migration of hepatic stellate cells, which was the possible origin of CAFs in liver metastasis. On the whole, these results suggest that NETs promote liver micrometastasis in PDAC via the activation of CAFs.
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41. Ando Y, Ohuchida K, Otsubo Y, Kibe S, Takesue S, Abe T, Iwamoto C, Shindo K, Moriyama T, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Ohtsuka T, Oda Y, Nakamura M, Necroptosis in pancreatic cancer promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by release of CXCL5, Plos one, 10.1371/journal.pone.0228015, 15, 1, e0228015, 2020.04, Abstract
Background: Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is accompanied by release of intracellular contents, and reportedly contributes to various diseases. Here, we investigate the significance of necroptosis in pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We used immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis to evaluate expression of the key mediators of necroptosis-receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL)-in human pancreatic cancer. We also tested the effects of conditioned media (CM) from necroptotic cells on pancreatic cancer cells in Transwell migration and Matrigel invasion assays. Protein array analysis was used to investigate possible mediators derived from necroptotic cells.

Results: RIP3 and MLKL are highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared with normal pancreas. MLKL expression was particularly intense at the tumor invasion front. CM derived from necroptotic cells promoted cancer cell migration and invasion, but not CM derived from apoptotic cells. C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) was upregulated in CM derived from necroptotic cells compared with CM derived from control or apoptotic cells. Moreover, expression of the receptor for CXCL5, C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2), was upregulated in pancreatic cancer cells. Inhibition of CXCR2 suppressed cancer cell migratory and invasive behavior enhanced by necroptosis.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that necroptosis at the pancreatic cancer invasion front can promote cancer cell migration and invasion via the CXCL5-CXCR2 axis..
42. Macgregor-Das A, Yu J, Tamura K, Abe T, Suenaga M, Shindo K, Borges M, Koi C, Kohi S, Sadakari Y, Molin MD, Almario JA, Ford M, Chuidian M, Burkhart R, He J, Hruban RH, Eshleman JR, Klein AP, Wolfgang CL, Canto MI, Goggins M, Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Using Digital Next-Generation Sequencing , J Mol Diagn, 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2020.02.010., 22, 6, 748-756, 2020.04.
43. Matsuda R, Miyasaka Y, Ohishi Y, Yamamoto T, Saeki K, Mochidome N, Abe A, Ozono K, Shindo K, Ohtsuka T, Kikutake C, Nakamura M, Oda Y, Concomitant Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Is an Independent Predictive Factor for the Occurrence of New Cancer in the Remnant Pancreas, Ann Surg, 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003060. , 271, 5, 941-948, 2020.04, Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the factors predicting the subsequent development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in remnant pancreas (PDAC-RP) after partial pancreatectomy for PDAC.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA:
PDAC-RP after partial pancreatectomy for PDAC is currently not so rare because of improved prognosis of PDAC patients due to recent advances in surgical techniques and adjuvant therapy. However, the predictive factors related to PDAC-RP remain unknown.
METHODS:
We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 379 patients with PDAC treated by partial pancreatectomy between 1992 and 2015; 14 patients (3.69%) had PDAC-RP. Clinicopathological variables were compared between PDAC-RP and non-PDAC-RP.
RESULTS:
In univariate analysis, concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (P = 0.0005), cancer location (body/tail) (P = 0.0060), and lower T factor in UICC (P = 0.0039) were correlated with PDAC-RP development. Multivariate analysis revealed concomitant IPMN (P = 0.0135) to be an independent predictive factor for PDAC-RP. PDAC concomitant with IPMN had higher cumulative incidence of PDAC-RP (47.5%/10 yrs) than PDAC without IPMN (9.96%/10 yrs) (P = 0.0071). Moreover, the density of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions in the background pancreas of cases of PDAC concomitant with IPMN (1.86/cm) was higher than that of cases of PDAC without IPMN (0.91/cm) (P = 0.0007).
CONCLUSIONS:
Concomitant IPMN in PDAC is an independent predictive factor for the development of new PDAC in remnant pancreas. Cancer susceptibility of remnant pancreas after resection for PDAC concomitant with IPMN is probably due to an increased density of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions.
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44. Ryuichiro Kimura, Taiki Moriyama, Kenoki Ohuchida, Koji Shindo, Shuntaro Nagai, Takao Ohtsuka, Masafumi Nakamura, Risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after laparoscopic gastrectomy in patients aged 75 years and over with gastric cancer, Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, 10.1111/ases.12883, 14, 3, 408-416, 2021.04, Abstract
Introduction: The proportion of patients aged 75 years and over who undergo minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is increasing. However, the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in this age group is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether LG is safe and effective in patients aged 75 years and over.
Methods: The study included 728 patients with early and advanced gastric cancer who underwent curative LG between 2009 and 2017; 166 of these patients (22.8%) were aged 75 or over. All surgeries were performed laparoscopically. Selected clinical factors were compared between the 166 patients aged 75 years and over and the 562 patients aged under 75 years.
Results: There were significant differences in presence of comorbidity, respiratory function and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores between the older and younger groups. The older patients more frequently developed complications than the younger ones, particularly postoperative pneumonia. According to multivariate analyses of all participants, age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Advanced stage and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors in the older group, whereas only COPD was an independent risk factor in the younger group.
Conclusions: LG for gastric cancer can be safely performed in patients aged over 75 years with an acceptable complication rate. However, the present data suggest that care should be taken in selecting LG with D2 lymphadenectomy to treat advanced cancer in these patients because the risk of postoperative complications, especially postoperative pneumonia, increases.
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45. Akiko Sagara, Kohei Nakata, Tomohiro Yamashita, Weiyu Guan, Pingshan Zhong, Sokichi Matsumoto, Sho Endo, Chika Iwamoto, Koji Shindo, Naoki Ikenaga, Taiki Moriyama, Kenoki Ohuchida, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Masafumi Nakamura, New high-throughput screening detects compounds that suppress pancreatic stellate cell activation and attenuate pancreatic cancer growth, Pancreatology, 10.1016/j.pan.2021.04.002, 21, 6, 1071-1080, 2021.04, Abstract
Background/objectives: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are involved in abundant desmoplasia, which promotes cancer cell aggressiveness and resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, PSCs are suggested to be a promising therapeutic target by attenuating PSC activation to inhibit tumor-stromal interactions with pancreatic cancer cells. Here, we developed a screen to identify compounds that reduce the activity of PSCs and investigated the effect of candidates on pancreatic cancer.
Methods: Lipid droplet accumulation in PSCs was used to observe differences in PSC activity and a new high-throughput screening platform that quantified lipid droplets in PSCs was established. A library of 3398 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs was screened by this platform. Validation assays were performed in vitro and in vivo.
Results: Thirty-two compounds were finally selected as candidate compounds by screening. These compounds decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and inhibited autophagic flux in PSCs in vitro. Among the candidates, three drugs selected for validation assays inhibited the proliferation and migration of PSCs and invasion of cancer cells by disrupting tumor-stromal interactions. Production of extracellular matrix molecules was also decreased significantly by this treatment. In vivo testing in xenograft models showed that dopamine antagonist zuclopenthixol suppressed tumor growth; this suppression was significantly increased when combined with gemcitabine.
Conclusions: A new screening platform that focused on the morphological features of PSCs was developed. Candidate drugs from this screening suppressed PSC activation and tumor growth. This screening system may be useful to discover new compounds that attenuate PSC activation.
Keywords: Cell-based screen; Dopamine antagonist; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreatic stellate cell; Stromal targeting therapy..
46. Haimin Feng, Taiki Moriyama, Kenoki Ohuchida, Nan Sheng, Chika Iwamoto, Koji Shindo, Kengo Shirahane, Naoki Ikenaga, Shuntaro Nagai, Kohei Nakata, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Masafumi Nakamura, N-acetyl cysteine induces quiescent-like pancreatic stellate cells from an active state and attenuates cancer-stroma interactions, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 10.1186/s13046-021-01939-1, 40, 133, 1-19, 2021.04, Background: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) occupy the majority of the pancreatic cancer microenvironment, contributing to aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs). Recently, anti-fibrotic agents have proven to be an effective strategy against cancer, but clinical trials have shown little efficacy, and the driving mechanism remains unknown. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is often used for pulmonary cystic fibrosis. Pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, was habitually used for type II diabetes, but recently reported to inhibit metastasis of PCCs. However, few studies have focused on the effects of these two agents on cancer-stromal interactions.
Method: We evaluated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the number of lipid droplets in PSCs cultured with or without NAC. We also evaluated changes in invasiveness, viability, and oxidative level in PSCs and PCCs after NAC treatment. Using an indirect co-culture system, we investigated changes in viability, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs and PCCs. Combined treatment effects of NAC and Pioglitazone were evaluated in PSCs and PCCs. In vivo, we co-transplanted KPC-derived organoids and PSCs to evaluate the effects of NAC and Pioglitazone's combination therapy on subcutaneous tumor formation and splenic xenografted mouse models.
Results: In vitro, NAC inhibited the viability, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs at a low concentration, but not those of PCCs. NAC treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress level and expression of α-SMA, collagen type I in PSCs, which apparently present a quiescent-like state with a high number of lipid droplets. Co-cultured PSCs and PCCs mutually promoted the viability, invasiveness, and migration of each other. However, these promotion effects were attenuated by NAC treatment. Pioglitazone maintained the NAC-induced quiescent-like state of PSCs, which were reactivated by PCC-supernatant, and enhanced chemosensitivity of PCCs. In vivo, NAC and Pioglitazone's combination suppressed tumor growth and liver metastasis with fewer stromal components and oxidative stress level.
Conclusion: NAC suppressed activated PSCs and attenuated cancer-stromal interactions. NAC induces quiescent-like PSCs that were maintained in this state by pioglitazone treatment..
47. Chikanori Tsutsumi, Kenoki Ohuchida, Koji Shindo, Taiki Moriyama, Shin Akagawa, Ryo Maeyama, Shuntaro Nagai, Kohei Nakata, Toshinaga Nabae, Nobuhiro Suehara, Kazuyoshi Nishihara, Akihiko Uchiyama, Toru Nakano, Masafumi Nakamura, High frequency of bone recurrence as an initial recurrence site after radical surgery in T1N3 gastric cancer: a propensity score matching analysis, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 10.1007/s00423-021-02231-8, 406, 7, 2305-2313, 2021.04, Purpose: T1 gastric cancer (GC) with seven or more metastatic lymph nodes is extremely rare, and very few clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the clinicopathological features of their recurrence.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of T1 GC and T2-4 GC patients who had multiple nodal metastases after radical surgery from 2006 to 2020. Propensity score matching was performed to compare the two groups of patients.

Results: After propensity score matching, 18 of 22 patients in the T1 group and 36 of 144 patients in the T2-4 group were selected. Recurrence occurred in six patients (33.3%) in the T1 group. In the T1 group, the most common site of initial recurrence was bone (15.0%). The prevalence of bone recurrence was significantly higher in the T1 group than in the T2-4 group (P = 0.02). The median interval time between radical surgery and bone recurrence was 24 months, and the median survival time after bone recurrence was 14 months.

Conclusion: Bone recurrence was more frequently identified as an initial recurrence site in T1 GC cases with multiple metastases after radical surgery compared with that in T2-4 GC cases. Careful attention should be paid to postoperative bone recurrence in the long-term postoperative course of these patients..
48. Ryuichiro Kimura, Takao Ohtsuka, Makoto Kubo, Atsuko Kajihara, Atsushi Fujii, Yusuke Watanabe, Yasuhisa Mori, Naoki Ikenaga, Kohei Nakata, Koji Shindo, Kenoki Ohuchida, Masafumi Nakamura, FoundationOne® CDx gene profiling in Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients: a single-institution experience , Surgery Today, 10.1007/s00595-020-02123-2 , 51, 4, 619-626, 2021.04, Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mutation profiles of Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.
Methods: Next-generation sequencing was performed using FoundationOne® CDx on 17 PDAC patients who were treated by surgical resection at Kyushu University Hospital between February 2016 and January 2019. The tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability status were also assessed.
Results: There were 16 patients (94%) with KRAS mutations, 13 (76%) with TP53 mutations, three (18%) with SMAD4 mutations, and one (6%) with a CDKN2A mutation. All patients had at least one pathogenic variant or a likely pathogenic variant. No patient had targeted therapies that matched with any clinical benefit according to FoundationOne® CDx. An unresectable PDAC patient with BRCA2-mutant disease was successfully treated by conversion surgery using platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Conclusions: Currently, FoundationOne® CDx might be difficult to use on PDAC patients, although further investigations with larger study populations are called for.
Keywords: FoundationOne; Gene profiling; Next-generation sequencing; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
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49. Tomohiko Shinkawa, Kenoki Ohuchida, Yuki Mochida, Kukiko Sakihama, Chika Iwamoto, Toshiya Abe, Noboru Ideno, Yusuke Mizuuchi, Koji Shindo, Naoki Ikenaga, Taiki Moriyama, Kohei Nakata, Yoshinao Oda, Masafumi Nakamura, Subtypes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on niche factor dependency show distinct drug treatment responses, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 10.1186/s13046-022-02301-9, 41, 89, 1-20, 2022.04, Abstract
Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by abundant stroma in which microenvironmental (niche) factors promote PDAC progression. In mouse models, reduction of the stroma increased the proportion of poorly differentiated PDAC with a worse prognosis. Here, we aimed to clarify the effects of stroma on PDAC that may define the PDAC phenotype and induce distinct therapeutic responses.
Methods: The molecular features of PDAC based on differentiation grade were clarified by genome and transcriptome analysis using PDAC organoids (PDOs). We identified the dependency on niche factors that might regulate the differentiation grade. A three-dimensional co-culture model with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was generated to determine whether CAFs provide niche factors essential for differentiated PDAC. PDOs were subtyped based on niche factor dependency, and the therapeutic responses for each subtype were compared.
Results: The expression profiles of PDOs differed depending on the differentiation grade. Consistent with the distinct profiles, well differentiated types showed high niche dependency, while poorly differentiated types showed low niche dependency. The three-dimensional co-culture model revealed that well differentiated PDOs were strongly dependent on CAFs for growth, and moderately differentiated PDOs showed plasticity to change morphology depending on CAFs. Differentiated PDOs upregulated the expression of mevalonate pathway-related genes correlated with the niche dependency and were more sensitive to simvastatin than poorly differentiated PDOs.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that CAFs maintain the differentiated PDAC phenotype through secreting niche factors and induce distinct drug responses. These results may lead to the development of novel subtype-based therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Cancer-associated fibroblast; Organoid; Statin; Stroma-targeting therapy; Subtype-based therapy; Tumor differentiation; Tumor microenvironment..
50. Kukiko Sakihama, Yutaka Koga, Takeo Yamamoto, Yuki Shimada, Yutaka Yamada, Jun Kawata, Koji Shindo, Masafumi Nakamura, Yoshinao Oda, RNF43 as a predictor of malignant transformation of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, Virchows Archiv, 10.1007/s00428-022-03277-9, 2022.04, Abstract
Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas rarely progresses to invasive carcinoma, but few studies have analyzed genomic alterations involved in its malignant transformation. The relationships of ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) mutations with cytological atypia, RNF43 protein expression, and Wnt signaling proteins in MCN remain unclear. This study included 106 MCN cases, classified into 89 low-grade dysplasia (LG), 9 high-grade dysplasia (HG), and 8 invasive carcinoma (INV). We analyzed HG/INV and LG lesions of 9 HG/INV cases and LG lesions of 9 LG cases using targeted sequencing and confirmed the protein expression of RNF43 and β-catenin. The frequency of RNF43 mutations was significantly higher in HG/INV cases than in LG cases. Furthermore, HG/INV lesions (56%) and LG lesions (33%) of HG/INV cases possessed RNF43 mutation, whereas no such mutation was detected in any LG cases. The expression of RNF43 was reduced in 71% of HG/INV cases and significantly correlated with histological grade and aberrant expression of β-catenin. In 3 of 5 RNF43-mutated cases, the expression of RNF43 was reduced, but there was no significant correlation between RNF43 mutation and protein expression. MCNs frequently harbored KRAS mutations, at rates of 100% in HG/INV lesions and 50% in LG lesions of HG/INV and LG cases. There was no significant difference in mutation frequency in LG lesions between HG/INV and LG cases. These results suggest that RNF43 mutations may be involved in and predictive of malignant transformation from an early stage of MCN.
Keywords: KRAS; Mucinous cystic neoplasm; Pancreas; RNF43..
51. Weiyu Guan, Kohei Nakata, Akiko Sagara, Chika Iwamoto, Sho Endo, Ryota Matsuda, Sokichi Matsumoto, Naoki Ikenaga, Koji Shindo, Taiki Moriyama, Hideya Onishi, Kenoki Ohuchida, Yoshinao Oda, Masafumi Nakamura, ERAP2 is a novel target involved in autophagy and activation of pancreatic stellate cells via UPR signaling pathway, Pancreatology, 10.1016/j.pan.2021.09.012, 22, 1, 9-19, 2022.04, Abstract
Background/objectives: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by excessive desmoplasia and autophagy-dependent tumorigenic growth. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) as a predominant stromal cell type play a critical role in PDAC biology. We have previously reported that autophagy facilitates PSC activation, however, the mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the mechanism of autophagy in PSC activation.
Methods: We compared gene expression profiles between patient-derived PSCs from pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis using a microarray. The stromal expression of target gene in specimen of PDAC patients (n = 63) was analyzed. The effect of target gene on autophagy and activation of PSCs was investigated by small interfering RNAs transfection, and the relationship between autophagy and ER stress was investigated. We analyzed the growth and fibrosis of xenografted tumor by orthotopic models.
Results: In analysis of gene expression microarray, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) upregulated in cancer-associated PSCs was identified as the target gene. High stromal ERAP2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown of ERAP2 inhibited unfolded protein response mediated autophagy, and led to inactivation of PSCs, thereby attenuating tumor-stromal interactions by inhibiting production of IL-6 and fibronectin. In vivo, the promoting effect of PSCs on xenografted tumor growth and fibrosis was inhibited by ERAP2 knockdown.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of PSCs activation regulated by autophagy. ERAP2 as a promising therapeutic target may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of PDAC.
Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Stromal remodeling; Tumor-stromal interaction; Tunicamycin..

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