Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Soichiro Sonoda Last modified date:2021.06.25

Assistant Professor / Oral Biological Science / Department of Dental Science / Faculty of Dental Science


Papers
1. Ratih Yuniartha, Takayoshi Yamaza, Soichiro Sonoda, Koichiro Yoshimaru, Toshiharu Matsuura, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yoshinao Oda, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Cholangiogenic potential of human deciduous pulp stem cell-converted hepatocyte-like cells, Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-020-02113-8, 12, 1, 2021.01, Abstract
Background
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have been reported to show the in vivo and in vitro hepatic differentiation, SHED-Heps; however, the cholangiogenic potency of SHED-Heps remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that SHED-Heps contribute to the regeneration of intrahepatic bile duct system in chronic fibrotic liver.



Methods
SHED were induced into SHED-Heps under cytokine stimulation. SHED-Heps were intrasplenically transplanted into chronically CCl4-treated liver fibrosis model mice, followed by the analysis of donor integration and hepatobiliary metabolism in vivo. Immunohistochemical assay was examined for the regeneration of intrahepatic bile duct system in the recipient liver. Furthermore, SHED-Heps were induced under the stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA).



Results
The intrasplenic transplantation of SHED-Heps into CCl4-treated mice showed that donor SHED-Heps behaved as human hepatocyte paraffin 1- and human albumin-expressing hepatocyte-like cells in situ and ameliorated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Of interest, the integrated SHED-Heps not only expressed biliary canaliculi ATP-binding cassette transporters including ABCB1, ABCB11, and ABCC2, but also recruited human keratin 19- (KRT19-) and KRT17-positive cells, which are considered donor-derived cholangiocytes, regenerating the intrahepatic bile duct system in the recipient liver. Furthermore, the stimulation of TNFA induced SHED-Heps into KRT7- and SRY-box 9-positive cells.



Conclusions
Collectively, our findings demonstrate that infused SHED-Heps showed cholangiogenic ability under the stimulation of TNFA in CCl4-damaged livers, resulting in the regeneration of biliary canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts in chronic fibrotic liver. Thus, the present findings suggest that SHED-Heps may be a novel source for the treatment of cholangiopathy.


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2. Soichiro Sonoda, Sara Murata, Kento Nishida, Hiroki Kato, Norihisa Uehara, Yukari N. Kyumoto, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Ichiro Takahashi, Toshio Kukita, Takayoshi Yamaza, Extracellular vesicles from deciduous pulp stem cells recover bone loss by regulating telomerase activity in an osteoporosis mouse model, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-020-01818-0, 11, 1, 2020.07, Background: Systemic transplantation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) recovers bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis; however, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here, we hypothesized that trophic factors within SHED-releasing extracellular vesicles (SHED-EVs) rescue osteoporotic phenotype. Methods: EVs were isolated from culture supernatant of SHED. SHED-EVs were treated with or without ribonuclease and systemically administrated into ovariectomized mice, followed by the function of recipient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) including telomerase activity, osteoblast differentiation, and sepmaphorine-3A (SEMA3A) secretion. Subsequently, human BMMSCs were stimulated by SHED-EVs with or without ribonuclease treatment, and then human BMMSCs were examined regarding the function of telomerase activity, osteoblast differentiation, and SEMA3A secretion. Furthermore, SHED-EV-treated human BMMSCs were subcutaneously transplanted into the dorsal skin of immunocompromised mice with hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) careers and analyzed the de novo bone-forming ability. Results: We revealed that systemic SHED-EV-infusion recovered bone volume in ovariectomized mice and improved the function of recipient BMMSCs by rescuing the mRNA levels of Tert and telomerase activity, osteoblast differentiation, and SEMA3A secretion. Ribonuclease treatment depleted RNAs, including microRNAs, within SHED-EVs, and these RNA-depleted SHED-EVs attenuated SHED-EV-rescued function of recipient BMMSCs in the ovariectomized mice. These findings were supported by in vitro assays using human BMMSCs incubated with SHED-EVs. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-secreted RNAs, such as microRNAs, play a crucial role in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis by targeting the telomerase activity of recipient BMMSCs..
3. Tsuyoshi Iwanaka, Takayoshi Yamaza, Soichiro Sonoda, Koichiro Yoshimaru, Toshiharu Matsuura, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Shouichi Ohga, Yoshinao Oda, Tomoaki Taguchi, A model study for the manufacture and validation of clinical-grade deciduous dental pulp stem cells for chronic liver fibrosis treatment, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-020-01630-w, 11, 1, 2020.03, Background: Human deciduous pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have remarkable stem cell potency associated with cell proliferation, mesenchymal multipotency, and immunosuppressive function and have shown beneficial effects in a variety of animal disease models. Recent studies demonstrated that hDPSCs exhibited in vivo anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory action and in vivo hepatogenic-associated liver regeneration, suggesting that hDPSCs may offer a promising source with great clinical demand for treating liver diseases. However, how to manufacture ex vivo large-scale clinical-grade hDPSCs with the appropriate quality, safety, and preclinical efficacy assurances remains unclear. Methods: We isolated hDPSCs from human deciduous dental pulp tissues formed by the colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) method and expanded them under a xenogeneic-free and serum-free (XF/SF) condition; hDPSC products were subsequently stored by two-step banking including a master cell bank (MCB) and a working cell bank (WCB). The final products were directly thawed hDPSCs from the WCB. We tested the safety and quality check, stem cell properties, and preclinical potentials of final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the MCB and WCB. Results: We optimized manufacturing procedures to isolate and expand hDPSC products under a XF/SF culture condition and established the MCB and the WCB. The final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the MCB and WCB were validated the safety and quality including population doubling ability, chromosome stability, microorganism safety, and stem cell properties including morphology, cell surface marker expression, and multipotency. We also evaluated the in vivo immunogenicity and tumorigenicity and validated in vivo therapeutic efficacy for liver regeneration in a CCl4-induced chronic liver fibrosis mouse model in the final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the WCB. Conclusion: The manufacture and quality control results indicated that the present procedure could produce sufficient numbers of clinical-grade hDPSC products from a tiny deciduous dental pulp tissue to enhance clinical application of hDPSC products in chronic liver fibrosis..
4. Junko Fujiyoshi, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Soichiro Sonoda, Ratih Yuniartha, Kenji Ihara, Kazuaki Nonaka, Tomoaki Taguchi, Shouichi Ohga, Takayoshi Yamaza, Therapeutic potential of hepatocyte-like-cells converted from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in fulminant Wilson’s disease, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-018-38275-y, 9, 1, 2019.12, Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited metabolic disease arising from ATPase copper transporting beta gene (ATP7B) mutation. Orthotoropic liver transplantation is the only radical treatment of fulminant WD, although appropriate donors are lacking at the onset of emergency. Given the hepatogenic capacity and tissue-integration/reconstruction ability in the liver of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), SHED have been proposed as a source for curing liver diseases. We hypothesized the therapeutic potential of SHED and SHED-converted hepatocyte-like- cells (SHED-Heps) for fulminant WD. SHED and SHED-Heps were transplanted into WD model Atp7b-mutated Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats received copper overloading to induce a lethal fulminant liver failure. Due to the superior copper tolerance via ATP7B, SHED-Hep transplantation gave more prolonged life-span of fulminant LEC rats than SHED transplantation. The integrated ATP7B-expressing SHED-Heps showed more therapeutic effects on to restoring the hepatic dysfunction and tissue damages in the recipient liver than the integrated naïve SHED without ATP7B expression. Moreover, SHED-Heps could reduce copper-induced oxidative stress via ATP7B- independent stanniocalcin 1 secretion in the fulminant LEC rats, suggesting a possible role for paracrine effect of the integrated SHED-Heps. Taken together, SHED-Heps offer a potential of functional restoring, bridging, and preventive approaches for treating fulminant WD..
5. Yoshiaki Takahashi, Ratih Yuniartha, Takayoshi Yamaza, Soichiro Sonoda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Kosuke Kirino, Koichiro Yoshimaru, Toshiharu Matsuura, Tomoaki Taguchi, Therapeutic potential of spheroids of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth for chronic liver fibrosis and hemophilia A, Pediatric Surgery International, 10.1007/s00383-019-04564-4, 35, 12, 1379-1388, 2019.12, Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapies have emerged as a promising treatment option for various diseases. Due to the superior survival and higher differentiation efficiency, three-dimensional spheroid culture systems have been an important topic of MSC research. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have been considered an ideal source of MSCs for regenerative medicine. Thus, in the present study, we introduce our newly developed method for fabricating SHED-based micro-hepatic tissues, and demonstrate the therapeutic effects of SHED-based micro-hepatic tissues in mouse disease models. Methods: SHED-converted hepatocyte-like cells (SHED-HLCs) were used for fabricating spherical micro-hepatic tissues. The SHED-HLC-based spheroids were then transplanted both into the liver of mice with CCl4-induced chronic liver fibrosis and the kidney of factor VIII (F8)-knock-out mice. At 4 weeks after transplantation, the therapeutic efficacy was investigated. Results: Intrahepatic transplantation of SHED-HLC-spheroids improved the liver dysfunction in association with anti-fibrosis effects in CCl4-treated mice. Transplanted SHED-converted cells were successfully engrafted in the recipient liver. Meanwhile, renal capsular transplantation of the SHED-HLC-spheroids significantly extended the bleeding time in F8-knock-out mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SHED-HLC-based micro-hepatic tissues might be a promising source for treating pediatric refractory diseases, including chronic liver fibrosis and hemophilia A..
6. Yosuke Tanaka, Soichiro Sonoda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Sara Murata, Kento Nishida, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Kazuaki Nonaka, Toshio Kukita, Takayoshi Yamaza, Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Suppressive Regulation of AKT Accelerate Odontogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla, Journal of Endodontics, 10.1016/j.joen.2019.01.016, 45, 5, 591-598.e6, 2019.05, Introduction: Stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (stem cells from the apical papilla [SCAPs])are capable of forming tooth root dentin and are a feasible source for bioengineered tooth root regeneration. In this study, we examined the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)on odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro and in vivo. Methods: SCAPs were cultured under odontogenic conditions supplemented with or without ASA. ASA-treated SCAPs were also subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Results: ASA accelerates in vitro and in vivo odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs associated with down-regulation of runt-related nuclear factor 2 and up-regulation of specificity protein 7, nuclear factor I C, and dentin phosphoprotein. ASA up-regulated the phosphorylation of AKT in the odontogenic SCAPs. Of interest, pretreatments with phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294402 and small interfering RNA for AKT promoted ASA-induced in vitro and in vivo odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. LY294402 and small interfering RNA for AKT also suppressed the ASA-induced expression of runt-related nuclear factor 2 and enhanced ASA-induced expression of specificity protein 7, nuclear factor I C, and dentin phosphoprotein in SCAPs. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a combination of ASA treatment and suppressive regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–AKT signaling pathway is a novel approach for SCAP-based tooth root regeneration..
7. Tamer Badawy, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Jingqi Zhang, Soichiro Sonoda, Hidenobu Hiura, Takayoshi Yamaza, Akiko Kukita, Toshio Kukita, Osteoblast lineage-specific cell-surface antigen (A7) regulates osteoclast recruitment and calcification during bone remodeling, Laboratory Investigation, 10.1038/s41374-018-0179-4, 99, 6, 866-884, 2019.06, Bone remodeling is a continuous process characterized by highly coordinated cell-cell interactions in distinct multi-cellular units. Osteoclasts, which are specialized bone resorbing cells, play a central role in bone remodeling. Although the RANKL/RANK axis determines the gross number of osteoclasts present in bone tissue, detailed molecular events regulating bone remodeling related to osteoclast recruitment, initiation of bone remodeling, and coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are still ambiguous. We hypothesized that osteoblast-specific cell-surface molecules contribute to the molecular modulation of bone remodeling. Therefore, we searched for regulatory cell-surface molecules expressed on osteoblasts by use of B-cell hybridoma technology. We obtained a monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MAb) highly specific to cells of osteoblast-lineage. Here we describe the expression pattern and possible role of A7 antigen specifically recognized by A7 MAb. In vitro, A7 antigen was expressed on cell-surface of osteoblasts and osteoblast-like bone marrow stromal cells. In vivo, A7 antigen was detected in a subset of bone surface osteoblasts and in osteocytes, with a typical cell membrane expression pattern. Tissue array analysis showed only a limited expression of A7 antigen in osteocytes close to the bone surface. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that A7 antigen is a lineage-specific cell-surface protein with an approximate molecular weight of 45 KDa. Cross-linking of cell-surface A7 antigen in cultures of osteoclastogenesis showed stimulation of osteoclast formation. Marked suppression of calcification in primary osteoblast cultures was observed when A7 antigen was cross-linked with anti-A7 antigen MAb, A7 MAb. These data suggest that A7 antigen regulates recruitment of osteoclasts and triggering of calcification. A7 antigen may be an important molecule involved in the precise regulation of bone remodeling..
8. Soichiro Sonoda, Yu Feng Mei, Ikiru Atsuta, Atsushi Danjo, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Shion Hama, Kento Nishida, Ronghao Tang, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Toshio Kukita, Fusanori Nishimura, Takayoshi Yamaza, Exogenous nitric oxide stimulates the odontogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-018-21183-6, 8, 1, 2018.12, Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a pivotal regulatory role in dental pulp tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, little is known about the NO functions in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We examined the direct actions of a spontaneous NO gas-releasing donor, NOC-18, on the odontogenic capacity of rat DPSCs (rDPSCs). In the presence of NOC-18, rDPSCs were transformed into odontoblast-like cells with long cytoplasmic processes and a polarized nucleus. NOC-18 treatment increased alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation and the expression levels of several odontoblast-specific genes, such as runt related factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein, in rDPSCs. In contrast, carboxy-PTIO, a NO scavenger, completely suppressed the odontogenic capacity of rDPSCs. This NO-promoted odontogenic differentiation was activated by tumor necrosis factor-NF-κB axis in rDPSCs. Further in vivo study demonstrated that NOC-18-application in a tooth cavity accelerated tertiary dentin formation, which was associated with early nitrotyrosine expression in the dental pulp tissues beneath the cavity. Taken together, the present findings indicate that exogenous NO directly induces the odontogenic capacity of rDPSCs, suggesting that NO donors might offer a novel host DPSC-targeting alternative to current pulp capping agents in endodontics..
9. Haruyoshi Yamaza, Soichiro Sonoda, Kazuaki Nonaka, Toshio Kukita, Takayoshi Yamaza, Pamidronate decreases bilirubin-impaired cell death and improves dentinogenic dysfunction of stem cells from human deciduous teeth, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-018-1042-7, 9, 1, 2018.11, Background: Hyperbilirubinemia that occurs in pediatric liver diseases such as biliary atresia can result in the development of not only jaundice in the brain, eyes, and skin, but also tooth abnormalities including green pigmentation and dentin hypoplasia in the developing teeth. However, hyperbilirubinemia-induced tooth impairments remain after liver transplantation. No effective dental management to prevent hyperbilirubinemia-induced tooth impairments has been established. Methods: In this study, we focused on pamidronate, which is used to treat pediatric osteopenia, and investigated its effects on hyperbilirubinemia-induced tooth impairments. We cultured stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) under high and low concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin in the presence or absence of pamidronate. We then analyzed the effects of pamidronate on the cell death, associated signal pathways, and dentinogenic function in SHED. Results: We demonstrated that a high concentration of unconjugated bilirubin induced cell death in SHED via the mitochondrial pathway, and this was associated with the suppression of AKT and extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signal pathways and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway. The high concentration of unconjugated bilirubin impaired the in vitro and in vivo dentinogenic capacity of SHED, but not the low concentration. We then demonstrated that pamidronate decreased the bilirubin-induced cell death in SHED via the altered AKT, ERK1/2, and NF-κB signal pathways and recovered the bilirubin-impaired dentinogenic function of SHED. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pamidronate may prevent tooth abnormalities in pediatric patients with hyperbilirubinemia..
10. Yosuke Tanaka, Soichiro Sonoda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Sara Murata, Kento Nishida, Shion Hama, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Kazuaki Nonaka, Toshio Kukita, Takayoshi Yamaza, Suppression of AKT-mTOR signal pathway enhances osteogenic/dentinogenic capacity of stem cells from apical papilla, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-018-1077-9, 9, 1, 2018.11, Background: Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) are a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the apical papilla of the developing tooth root apex of human teeth. Because of their osteogenic/dentinogenic capacity, SCAP are considered as a source for bone and dentin regeneration. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism of osteogenic/dentinogenic differentiation of SCAP. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway participates in regulating the differentiation of various cell types, such as MSCs. In this study, we examined the role of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal pathway in the osteogenic/dentinogenic differentiation of SCAP. Moreover, we challenge to fabricate scaffold-free SCAP-based spheroidal calcified constructs. Methods: SCAP were pretreated with or without small interfering RNA for AKT (AKT siRNA), PI3K inhibitor LY294402, and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and were cultured under osteogenic/dentinogenic differentiation to examine in vitro and in vivo calcified tissue formation. Moreover, SCAP-based cell aggregates were pretreated with or without LY294402 and rapamycin. The cell aggregates were cultured under osteogenic/dentinogenic condition and were analyzed the calcification of the aggregates. Results: Pretreatment with AKT siRNA, LY294402, and rapamycin enhances the in vitro and in vivo calcified tissue-forming capacity of SCAP. SCAP were fabricated as scaffold-free spheroids and were induced into forming calcified 3D constructs. The calcified density of the spheroidal constructs was enhanced when the spheroids were pretreated with LY294402 and rapamycin. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the suppression of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal pathway plays a role in not only enhancing the in vivo and in vitro osteogenic/dentinogenic differentiation of SCAP, but also promoting the calcification of scaffold-free SCAP-based calcified constructs. These findings suggest that a suppressive regulation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal pathway is a novel approach for SCAP-based bone and dentin regeneration..
11. H. Yamaza, E. Tomoda, S. Sonoda, K. Nonaka, T. Kukita, T. Yamaza, Bilirubin reversibly affects cell death and odontogenic capacity in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, Oral Diseases, 10.1111/odi.12827, 24, 5, 809-819, 2018.07, Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia in patients with biliary atresia causes deciduous tooth injuries such as green pigmentation and dentin hypoplasia. In patients with biliary atresia who received liver transplantation, tooth structure appears to be recovered radiographically. Nevertheless, little is known about cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin-induced damage and suppression of deciduous tooth formation. In this study, we examined the effects of bilirubin in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in vitro. Materials and Methods: SHED were cultured under exposure to excess of bilirubin and then interruption of bilirubin stimulation. Results: Bilirubin induced cell death and inhibited the odontogenic capacity of SHED by suppressing AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathways and enhancing nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) pathway. The interruption of bilirubin stimulation reduced cell death and recovered the inhibited odontogenic capacity of bilirubin-damaged SHED. The bilirubin interruption also normalized the impaired AKT, ERK1/2, and NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. Conclusion: These findings suggest that tooth hypodontia in patients with hyperbilirubinemia might be due to bilirubin-induced cell death and dentinogenic dysfunction of odontogenic stem cells via AKT, ERK1/2, and NF-κB pathways and also suggested that bilirubin-induced impairments in odontogenic stem cells were reversible when bilirubin stimulation is interrupted..
12. Soichiro Sonoda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Lan Ma, Yosuke Tanaka, Erika Tomoda, Reona Aijima, Kazuaki Nonaka, Toshio Kukita, Songtao Shi, Fusanori Nishimura, Takayoshi Yamaza, Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep19286, 6, 2016.01, Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment..
13. Lan Ma, Reona Aijima, Yoshihiro Hoshino, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Erika Tomoda, Yosuke Tanaka, Soichiro Sonoda, Guangtai Song, Wei Zhao, Kazuaki Nonaka, Songtao Shi, Takayoshi Yamaza, Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates secondary osteoporosis through interleukin-17-impaired functions of recipient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in MRL/lpr mice, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, 10.1186/s13287-015-0091-4, 6, 1, 2015.05, Introduction: Secondary osteoporosis is common in systemic lupus erythematosus and leads to a reduction in quality of life due to fragility fractures, even in patients with improvement of the primary disorder. Systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells could ameliorate bone loss and autoimmune disorders in a MRL/lpr mouse systemic lupus erythematosus model, but the detailed therapeutic mechanism of bone regeneration is not fully understood. In this study, we transplanted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) into MRL/lpr mice and explored their therapeutic mechanisms in secondary osteoporotic disorders of the systemic lupus erythematosus model mice. Methods: The effects of systemic human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on bone loss of MRL/lpr mice were analyzed in vivo and ex vivo. After systemic human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, recipient BMMSC functions of MRL/lpr mice were assessed for aspects of stemness, osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and a series of co-culture experiments under osteogenic or osteoclastogenic inductions were performed to examine the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-17-impaired recipient BMMSCs in the bone marrow of MRL/lpr mice. Results: Systemic transplantation of human BMMSCs and SHED recovered the reduction in bone density and structure in MRL/lpr mice. To explore the mechanism, we found that impaired recipient BMMSCs mediated the negative bone metabolic turnover by enhanced osteoclastogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis in secondary osteoporosis of MRL/lpr mice. Moreover, IL-17-dependent hyperimmune conditions in the recipient bone marrow of MRL/lpr mice damaged recipient BMMSCs to suppress osteoblast capacity and accelerate osteoclast induction. To overcome the abnormal bone metabolism, systemic transplantation of human BMMSCs and SHED into MRL/lpr mice improved the functionally impaired recipient BMMSCs through IL-17 suppression in the recipient bone marrow and then maintained a regular positive bone metabolism via the balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IL-17 and recipient BMMSCs might be a therapeutic target for secondary osteoporosis in systemic lupus erythematosus..