Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Presentations
Mao Kudo Last modified dateļ¼š2024.05.13

Assistant Professor / Department of Media Design / Faculty of Design

1. Mao Kudo, Symbols for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Symbol' 22, 2022.10, People with intellectual disability have a tendency to understand pictograms that generally require some degree of learning or have been reported to be difficult to understand. They often exhibit difficulties understanding, including reading and writing, textual information and use images in the form of pictograms to circumvent this difficulty. Against the backdrop of research by Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC), Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children (TEACCH), and others, pictograms have been used as tools for communication from school age onward. Therefore, pictograms displayed in public spaces can be considered as public support tools that enable people with intellectual disability to understand information. When certain pictograms were revised or added in preparation for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics in 2017, a paired comparison survey was carried out by JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) committee to determine whether JIS or ISO (International Organization for Standardization) pictograms were appropriate. Several people with disabilities were included in the study, however, only 20 out of 121 responded (16.5%), and the data were used only as reference. However, the results of previous surveys on people with intellectual disabilities have shown that pictograms that are well understood by them are also well understood by people non disabilities too. In addition, in the graphic design of pictograms, graphic elements to enhance comprehension were also common regardless of the presence or absence of intellectual disability. Thus, the design of pictograms that are easy to understand for people with intellectual disabilities is not only for thinking about them, but also for all people, which is a fundamental question for pictograms that are nonverbal communication. In this study, 19 adults with intellectual disabilities and pictograms of 16 items from the JIS were used for guidance; they were subjected to a comprehension survey in a situation in which they recalled their intended actions. As a result, in each pictogram, graphic elements that increase comprehension were identified. The study also suggested an association between comprehensible graphic elements and IQ. Specifically, five graphic elements influence the comprehension of pictograms. (1) person symbolizing location, (2) real orientation, (3) motion line (the effect line representing movement, emphasis, sound, etc.), (4) location element, and (5) arrow or the length of the axis affects the degree of comprehension. It was suggested that lower IQ(:IQ21-35) group, (2) real orientation, and (3) motion line had a more significant influence on the ease of comprehension..
2. In Japan, Universal Design Typefaces (UD Fonts) have been released by typeface manufacturers since 2006, and in recent years, UD Fonts that are easy for dyslexics to understand have been developed and are now included as standard in Win10. With the increasing use of smartphones and tablet PCs, and the digitisation of textbooks in the education sector, the need for fonts that are easy to understand on displays has increased, and usability evaluations are becoming more widespread. In the case of intellectual disabilities, the readability of fonts is also important, as skip reading and misrecognition of words and sentences are often observed. In this study, we evaluated the impressions of typefaces that people with both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) felt were "easy to read". As a result of comparing the typefaces perceived as easy to read by people with intellectual disability and people with both intellectual disability and ASD, it was found that there were differences. The intellectual disability group found it easier to read typefaces with no contrast between the vertical and horizontal lines and rounded corners, while the ASD group found it easier to read typefaces with a strong contrast between the vertical and horizontal lines, a spike, and a strong expression of the spike..