Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Papers
Akira Nabeshima Last modified date:2021.05.30

Assistant Professor / Orthopedic Surgery / Kyushu University Hospital


Papers
1. Keiichiro Iida, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yoshinao Oda, Yusuke Takahashi, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Yuko Fujiwara-Okada, Mihoko Hatano, Akira Nabashima, Satoshi Kamura, Yukihide Iwamoto, miR-125b develops chemoresistance in Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor., Cancer cell international, 10.1186/1475-2867-13-21, 13, 1, 21-21, 2013.03, BACKGROUND: Diverse functions of microRNAs (miRNAs), including effects on tumorigenesis, proliferation, and differentiation, have been reported, and several miRNAs have also been demonstrated to play an important role in apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the possible role that miRNAs may play in the development of chemoresistance in Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (EWS). METHODS: We screened doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant EWS cells to identify any distinct miRNA sequences that may regulate the chemoresistance of EWS cells. The effects of miRNAs were evaluated using a chemosensitivity assay. The possible target genes of the miRNAs were predicted using a web-based prediction program. RESULTS: We found miR-125b to be upregulated in two different Dox-resistant EWS cell lines. The upregulation of miR-125b was also confirmed in the EWS tumors having survived chemotherapy regimen which includes doxorubicin. When miR-125b was knocked down in EWS cells, both the Dox-resistant and parental cells showed an enhanced sensitivity to doxorubicin, which was associated with the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic molecules, p53 and Bak. Inversely, the overexpression of miR-125b in parental EWS cells resulted in enhanced drug resistance, not only to doxorubicin, but also to etoposide and vincristine. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that miR-125b may play a role in the development of chemoresistance in EWS by suppressing the expression of the apoptotic mediators, such as p53 and Bak..
2. Y Fujiwara-Okada, Y Matsumoto, J Fukushi, N Setsu, S Matsuura, S Kamura, T Fujiwara, K Iida, M Hatano, A Nabeshima, H Yamada, M Ono, Y Oda, Y Iwamoto, Y-box binding protein-1 regulates cell proliferation and is associated with clinical outcomes of osteosarcoma., British journal of cancer, 10.1038/bjc.2012.579, 108, 4, 836-47, 2013.03, BACKGROUND: Prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) with distant metastasis and local recurrence is still poor. Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional protein that can act as a regulator of transcription and translation and its high expression of YB-1 protein was observed in OS, however, the role of YB-1 in OS remains unclear. METHODS: Y-box binding protein-1 expression in OS cells was inhibited by specific small interfering RNAs to YB-1 (si-YB-1). The effects of si-YB-1 in cell proliferation and cell cycle transition in OS cells were analysed in vitro and in vivo. The association of nuclear expression of YB-1 and clinical prognosis was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Proliferation of OS cell was suppressed by si-YB-1 in vivo and in vitro. The expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin A were also decreased by si-YB-1. In addition, si-YB-1 induced G1/S arrest with decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin A in OS cell lines. Direct binding of YB-1 in OS cell lines was also observed. Finally, the nuclear expression of YB-1 was significantly related to the poorer overall survival in OS patients. CONCLUSION: Y-box binding protein-1 would regulate cell cycle progression at G1/S and tumour growth in human OS cells in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear expression of YB-1 was closely associated with the prognosis of OS, thus, YB-1 simultaneously could be a potent molecular target and prognostic biomarker for OS..
3. A Nabeshima, Y Matsumoto, J Fukushi, K Iura, T Matsunobu, M Endo, T Fujiwara, K Iida, Y Fujiwara, M Hatano, N Yokoyama, S Fukushima, Y Oda, Y Iwamoto, Tumour-associated macrophages correlate with poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma and promote cell motility and invasion via the HB-EGF-EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathways., British journal of cancer, 10.1038/bjc.2014.637, 112, 3, 547-55, 2015.02, BACKGROUND: Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, and metastasis occurs in up to one-third of cases. However, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in tumour invasion, metastasis, and/or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TAMs and MLS. METHODS: Using 78 primary MLS samples, the association between clinical prognosis and macrophage infiltration was evaluated by immunochemistry. The effects of macrophages on cell growth, cell motility, and invasion of MLS cell lines were investigated in vitro. In addition, clinicopathological factors were analysed to assess their prognostic implications in MLS. RESULTS: Higher levels of CD68-positive macrophages were associated with poorer overall survival in MLS samples. Macrophage-conditioned medium enhanced MLS cell motility and invasion by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the key ligand suggested to be heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was mostly involved in HB-EGF-induced cell motility and invasion of MLS. The expression of phosphorylated EGFR in MLS clinical samples was associated with macrophage infiltration. In addition, more significant macrophage infiltration was associated with poor prognosis even in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage infiltration in MLS predicts poor prognosis, and the relationship between TAMs and MLS may be a new candidate for therapeutic targets of MLS..
4. Mihoko Hatano, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Tomoya Matsunobu, Makoto Endo, Seiji Okada, Kunio Iura, Satoshi Kamura, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Keiichiro Iida, Yuko Fujiwara, Akira Nabeshima, Nobuhiko Yokoyama, Suguru Fukushima, Yoshinao Oda, Yukihide Iwamoto, Cadherin-11 regulates the metastasis of Ewing sarcoma cells to bone., Clinical & experimental metastasis, 10.1007/s10585-015-9729-y, 32, 6, 579-91, 2015.08, Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a small round-cell tumor of the bones and soft tissues. ES frequently causes distant metastases, particularly in the lung and bone, which worsens patient prognosis. Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) is an adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in osteoblasts. Its expression is associated with bone metastases in prostate and breast cancer patients, and is known to occur in ES. Here we investigated the effects of Cad-11 on bone metastases of ES. Human ES cell lines RD-ES, SK-ES-1, SK-N-MC, and TC-71 cells were transduced with lentivirus containing Cad-11 shRNA or control shRNA (ES/Cad-11 and ES/Ctr). RD-ES and TC-71 were infected with a lentivirus luciferase vector. Adhesion assays were performed using these cells and recombinant Cad-11-Fc chimera or mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell motility was investigated via wound-healing assay. Intracardiac injection of RD-ES/Cad-11 and RD-ES/Ctr was used to create a mouse model of experimental bone metastasis. The association between Cad-11 expression and bone metastases and clinical prognosis in ES patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We found knockdown of Cad-11 in ES cells resulted in reduced attachment ability and cell motility. In a mouse model of metastasis, RD-ES/Cad-11 cells caused fewer metastases than RD-ES/Ctr cells. The expression of Cad-11 in ES patients was significantly related to bone metastases (P < 0.05, logistic regression) and poorer overall survival (P < 0.05, log-rank test). These findings may explain that Cad-11 in ES cells may be essential for cell adhesion and motility, and is a promising molecular target for patients with ES..
5. Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Taishi Sato, Florence Loi, Changchun Fan, Luis A Córdova, Akira Nabeshima, Emmanuel Gibon, Ruth Zhang, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide mitigates wear particle-associated bone loss in the murine continuous infusion model., Acta biomaterialia, 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.05.038, 41, 273-81, 2016.09, UNLABELLED: Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Wear particle-induced chronic inflammation is associated with the development of periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells could potentially mitigate this disease. In the current study, we examined the effects of local delivery of decoy NF-κB oligo-deoxynucleotide (ODN) on wear particle-induced bone loss in a murine continuous femoral particle infusion model. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were infused via osmotic pumps into hollow titanium rods placed in the distal femur of mice for 4weeks. Particle-induced bone loss was evaluated by μCT, and immunohistochemical analysis of sections from the femur. Particle infusion alone resulted in reduced bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume fraction in the distal femur. The decoy ODN reversed the particle-associated bone volume fraction loss around the implant, irrespective of the presence of LPS. Particle-infusion with LPS increased bone mineral density in the distal femur compared with particle-infusion alone. NF-κB decoy ODN reversed or further increased the bone mineral density in the femur (3-6mm from the distal end) exposed to particles alone or particles plus LPS. NF-κB decoy ODN also inhibited macrophage infiltration and osteoclast number, but had no significant effects on osteoblast numbers in femurs exposed to wear particles and LPS. Our study suggests that targeting NF-κB activity via local delivery of decoy ODN has great potential to mitigate wear particle-induced osteolysis. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Chronic inflammation is crucial for the development of wear particle-associated bone loss. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages (pro-inflammatory cells), osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells), and osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) could potentially mitigate this disease. Here we demonstrated that local delivery of decoy NF-κB oligo-deoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particle induced bone loss in a clinically relevant murine model. The protective effects of decoy ODN was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and osteoclast activation, but had no significant effects on osteoblast numbers. Our study suggests that targeting NF-κB activity via local delivery of decoy ODN has great potential to mitigate wear particle-induced bone loss..
6. Emmanuel Gibon, Derek F Amanatullah, Florence Loi, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Zhenyu Yao, Moussa Hamadouche, Stuart B Goodman, The biological response to orthopaedic implants for joint replacement: Part I: Metals., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials, 10.1002/jbm.b.33734, 105, 7, 2162-2173, 2017.10, Joint replacement is a commonly performed, highly successful orthopaedic procedure, for which surgeons have a large choice of different materials and implant designs. The materials used for joint replacement must be both biologically acceptable to minimize adverse local tissue reactions, and robust enough to support weight bearing during common activities of daily living. Modern joint replacements are made from metals and their alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites. This review focuses on the biological response to the different biomaterials used for joint replacement. In general, modern materials for joint replacement are well tolerated by the body as long as they are in bulk (rather than in particulate or ionic) form, are mechanically stable and noninfected. If the latter conditions are not met, the prosthesis will be associated with an acute/chronic inflammatory reaction, peri-prosthetic osteolysis, loosening and failure. This article (Part 1 of 2) is dedicated to the use of metallic devices in orthopaedic surgery including the associated biological response to metallic byproducts is a review of the basic science literature regarding this topic. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2162-2173, 2017..
7. Laura Y Lu, Florence Loi, Karthik Nathan, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Emmanuel Gibon, Akira Nabeshima, Luis Cordova, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages promote Osteogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells via the COX-2-prostaglandin E2 pathway., Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 10.1002/jor.23553, 35, 11, 2378-2385, 2017.11, Bone fractures are among the most common orthopaedic problems that affect individuals of all ages. Immediately after injury, activated macrophages dynamically contribute to and regulate an acute inflammatory response that involves other cells at the injury site, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These macrophages and MSCs work in concert to modulate bone healing. In this study, we co-cultured undifferentiated M0, pro-inflammatory M1, and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages with primary murine MSCs in vitro to determine the cross-talk between polarized macrophages and MSCs and their effects on osteogenesis. After 4 weeks of co-culture, MSCs grown with macrophages, especially M1 macrophages, had enhanced bone mineralization compared to MSCs grown alone. The level of bone formation after 4 weeks of culture was closely associated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion early in osteogenesis. Treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor, significantly reduced bone mineralization in all co-cultures but most dramatically in the M1-MSC co-culture. We also found that the presence of macrophages reduced the secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy RANKL receptor, suggesting that macrophages may indirectly modulate osteoclast activity in addition to enhancing bone formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that an initial pro-inflammatory phase modulated by M1 macrophages promotes osteogenesis in MSCs via the COX-2-PGE2 pathway. Understanding the complex interactions between macrophages and MSCs provide opportunities to optimize bone healing and other regenerative processes via modulation of the inflammatory response. This study provides one possible biological mechanism for the adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fracture healing and bone regeneration. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2378-2385, 2017..
8. Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Preconditioning of murine mesenchymal stem cells synergistically enhanced immunomodulation and osteogenesis., Stem cell research & therapy, 10.1186/s13287-017-0730-z, 8, 1, 277-277, 2017.12, BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of immunomodulation and tissue regeneration, highlighting their potential translational application for treating inflammatory bone disorders. MSC-mediated immunomodulation is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous studies showed that MSCs exposed to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) synergistically suppressed T-cell activation. METHODS: In the current study, we developed a novel preconditioning strategy for MSCs using LPS plus TNF-α to optimize the immunomodulating ability of MSCs on macrophage polarization. RESULTS: Preconditioned MSCs enhanced anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage marker expression (Arginase 1 and CD206) and decreased inflammatory M1 macrophage marker (TNF-α/IL-1Ra) expression using an in-vitro coculture model. Immunomodulation of MSCs on macrophages was significantly increased compared to the combination of IFN-γ plus TNF-α or single treatment controls. Increased osteogenic differentiation including alkaline phosphate activity and matrix mineralization was only observed in the LPS plus TNF-α preconditioned MSCs. Mechanistic studies showed that increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was associated with enhanced Arginase 1 expression. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by Celecoxib decreased PGE2 production and Arginase 1 expression in cocultured macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The novel preconditioned MSCs have increased immunomodulation and bone regeneration potential and could be applied to the treatment of inflammatory bone disorders including periprosthetic osteolysis, fracture healing/nonunions, and osteonecrosis..
9. Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Emmanuel Gibon, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Orthopaedic wear particle-induced bone loss and exogenous macrophage infiltration is mitigated by local infusion of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 10.1002/jbm.a.36169, 105, 11, 3169-3175, 2017.11, Excessive production of wear particles from total joint replacements induces chronic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and consequent bone loss (periprosthetic osteolysis). This inflammation and bone remodeling are critically regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB signaling by using the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigates polyethylene wear particle-induced bone loss using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB decoy ODN action, and in particular its impact on systemic macrophage recruitment, remain unknown. In the current study, this systemic macrophage infiltration was examined in our established murine femoral continuous particle infusion model. RAW264.7 murine macrophages expressing a luciferase reporter gene were injected into the systemic circulation. Quantification of bioluminescence showed that NF-κB decoy ODN reduced the homing of these reporter macrophages into the distal femurs exposed to continuous particle delivery. Particle-induced reduction in bone mineral density at the distal diaphysis of the femur was also mitigated by infusion of decoy ODN. Histological staining showed that the decoy ODN infusion decreased osteoclast and macrophage numbers, but had no significant effects on osteoblasts. Local infusion of NF-κB decoy ODN reduced systemic macrophage infiltration and mitigated particle-induced bone loss, thus providing a potential strategy to treat periprosthetic osteolysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3169-3175, 2017..
10. Akira Nabeshima, Jukka Pajarinen, Tzu-Hua Lin, Xinyi Jiang, Emmanuel Gibon, Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Laura Lu, Eemeli Jämsen, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Mutant CCL2 protein coating mitigates wear particle-induced bone loss in a murine continuous polyethylene infusion model., Biomaterials, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.11.039, 117, 1-9, 2017.02, Wear particle-induced osteolysis limits the long-term survivorship of total joint replacement (TJR). Monocyte/macrophages are the key cells of this adverse reaction. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is the most important chemokine regulating trafficking of monocyte/macrophages in particle-induced inflammation. 7ND recombinant protein is a mutant of CCL2 that inhibits CCL2 signaling. We have recently developed a layer-by-layer (LBL) coating platform on implant surfaces that can release biologically active 7ND. In this study, we investigated the effect of 7ND on wear particle-induced bone loss using the murine continuous polyethylene (PE) particle infusion model with 7ND coating of a titanium rod as a local drug delivery device. PE particles were infused into hollow titanium rods with or without 7ND coating implanted in the distal femur for 4 weeks. Specific groups were also injected with RAW 264.7 as the reporter macrophages. Wear particle-induced bone loss and the effects of 7ND were evaluated by microCT, immunohistochemical staining, and bioluminescence imaging. Local delivery of 7ND using the LBL coating decreased systemic macrophage recruitment, the number of osteoclasts and wear particle-induced bone loss. The development of a novel orthopaedic implant coating with anti-CCL2 protein may be a promising strategy to mitigate peri-prosthetic osteolysis..
11. Jukka Pajarinen, Tzu-Hua Lin, Akira Nabeshima, Eemeli Jämsen, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Mesenchymal stem cells in the aseptic loosening of total joint replacements., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 10.1002/jbm.a.35978, 105, 4, 1195-1207, 2017.04, Peri-prosthetic osteolysis remains as the main long-term complication of total joint replacement surgery. Research over four decades has established implant wear as the main culprit for chronic inflammation in the peri-implant tissues and macrophages as the key cells mediating the host reaction to implant-derived wear particles. Wear debris activated macrophages secrete inflammatory mediators that stimulate bone resorbing osteoclasts; thus bone loss in the peri-implant tissues is increased. However, the balance of bone turnover is not only dictated by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption but also by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts; under physiological conditions these two processes are tightly coupled. Increasing interest has been placed on the effects of wear debris on the cells of the bone-forming lineage. These cells are derived primarily from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) residing in bone marrow and the walls of the microvasculature. Accumulating evidence indicates that wear debris significantly impairs MSC-to-osteoblast differentiation and subsequent bone formation. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of biomaterial implant wear debris on MSCs. Emerging treatment options to improve initial implant integration and treat developing osteolytic lesions by utilizing or targeting MSCs are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1195-1207, 2017..
12. Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Establishment of NF-κB sensing and interleukin-4 secreting mesenchymal stromal cells as an "on-demand" drug delivery system to modulate inflammation., Cytotherapy, 10.1016/j.jcyt.2017.06.008, 19, 9, 1025-1034, 2017.09, Chronic inflammation is associated with up-regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and excessive inflammatory cytokine secretion by M1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 converts pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages into an anti-inflammatory and tissue-regenerative M2 phenotype, thus reducing inflammation and enhancing tissue regeneration. We have generated NF-κB responsive, or constitutively active IL-4 expression lentiviral vectors transduced into murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs with a constitutively active IL-4 expression vector produced large quantities of IL-4 continuously, whereas IL-4 secretion was significantly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the NF-κB sensing MSCs. In contrast, LPS had no effect on MSCs with IL-4 secretion driven by a constitutively active promoter. We also found that intermittent and continuous LPS treatment displayed distinct NF-κB activation profiles, and this regulation was independent of IL-4 signaling. The supernatant containing IL-4 from the LPS-treated MSCs suppressed M1 marker (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) expression and enhanced M2 marker (Arginase 1, CD206 and IL1 receptor antagonist [IL1Ra]) expression in primary murine macrophages. The IL-4 secretion at the basal, non-LPS induced level was sufficient to suppress TNFα and enhance Arginase 1 at a lower level, but had no significant effects on iNOS, CD206 and IL1Ra expression. Finally, IL-4 secretion at basal or LPS-induced levels significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Our findings suggest that the IL-4 secreting MSCs driven by NF-κB sensing or constitutive active promoter have great potential for mitigating the effects of chronic inflammation and promoting earlier tissue regeneration..
13. Tzu-Hua Lin, Emmanuel Gibon, Florence Loi, Jukka Pajarinen, Luis A Córdova, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Decreased osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from the aged mouse is associated with enhanced NF-κB activity., Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 10.1002/jor.23270, 35, 2, 281-288, 2017.02, Aging is associated with significant bone loss and delayed fracture healing. NF-κB activation is highly correlated with inflammatory-associated bone diseases including infection, wear particle exposure, and chronic inflammation during natural aging processes. The critical roles of NF-κB in both the pro-inflammatory response and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption have been well defined. However, the biological effects of NF-κB activation in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated bone formation remain largely unknown. In the current study, bone marrow-MSCs were isolated from young (8 weeks old) and aged (72 weeks old) mice. NF-κB activity in MSCs at basal levels and under different biological conditions were determined by our recently established lentiviral vector-based luciferase reporter assay. We found that NF-κB activity was increased in aged MSCs at basal levels or when exposed to low dose (10 or 100 ng/ml) lipopolysaccharide (LPS); this effect was not seen when the cells were exposed to higher dose (1 μg/ml) LPS. During osteogenesis, NF-κB activity was increased in aged MSCs at weeks 1 and 2, but showed no significant difference at week 3. Both Smurf2 and TAZ, the NF-κB target genes that regulate osteogenic differentiation, were increased in aged MSCs. In addition, the expression of RANKL was dramatically increased, and OPG was decreased in aged MSCs. Our findings suggest that targeting NF-κB activity in MSCs has the potential to modulate aging-associated bone loss, or enhance bone-healing in aged patients. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:281-288, 2017..
14. Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Tzu-Hua Lin, Emmanuel Gibon, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, CCL2, CCL5, and IGF-1 participate in the immunomodulation of osteogenesis during M1/M2 transition in vitro., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 10.1002/jbm.a.36166, 105, 11, 3069-3076, 2017.11, The modulation of macrophage phenotype from pro-inflammatory (M1) to tissue healing (M2) via exogenous addition of interleukin-4 (IL-4) facilitates osteogenesis; however, the molecular mediators underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. This study characterizes the IL-4-dependent paracrine crosstalk between macrophages and osteoprogenitors and its effect on osteogenesis in vitro. Primary murine M1 were co-cultured with MC3T3 cells (M1-MC3T3) in both transwell plates and direct co-cultures. To modulate M1 to M2, M1-MC3T3 were treated with IL-4 (20 ng/mL) at day 3 after seeding (M1 + IL-4-MC3T3). Selected molecular targets were assessed at days 3 and 6 after seeding at protein and mRNA levels. Mineralization was assessed at day 21. Transwell M1 + IL-4-MC3T3 significantly enhanced the secretion of CCL2/MCP-1, IGF-1 and to a lesser degree, CCL5/RANTES at day 6. At day 3, alkaline phosphatase (Alpl) was upregulated in direct M1-MC3T3. At day 6, Smurf2 and Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in direct M1 + IL-4-MC3T3. Finally, M1 + IL-4-MC3T3 increased bone matrix mineralization compared with MC3T3 cells in transwell, but this was significantly less than M1-MC3T3. Taken together, macrophage subtypes enhanced the osteogenesis in transwell setting and the transition from M1 to M2 was associated with an increase in bone anabolic factors CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES and IGF-1 in vitro. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3069-3076, 2017..
15. Nobuhiko Yokoyama, Tomoya Matsunobu, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Makoto Endo, Mihoko Hatano, Akira Nabeshima, Suguru Fukushima, Seiji Okada, Yukihide Iwamoto, Activation of ERK1/2 Causes Pazopanib Resistance via Downregulation of DUSP6 in Synovial Sarcoma Cells., Scientific reports, 10.1038/srep45332, 7, 45332-45332, 2017.03, Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare high-grade malignant mesenchymal tumour with a relatively poor prognosis despite intensive multimodal therapy. Although pazopanib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is often used for advanced SS, most cases eventually become resistant to pazopanib. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of acquired pazopanib resistance in SS. To examine acquired pazopanib resistance, two SS cell lines, SYO-1 and HS-SY-II, were isolated after multiple selection steps with increasing concentrations of pazopanib. SYO-1 was also used in vivo. Then, pazopanib-resistant clones were investigated to assess potential mechanisms of acquired pazopanib resistance. Stable pazopanib-resistant clones were established and exhibited enhanced cell cycle progression, cell growth with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and higher sensitivity than parental cells to a MEK-inhibitor, trametinib, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, addition of low-dose trametinib partially reversed the pazopanib resistance. In the pazopanib-resistant clones, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) was downregulated. Inhibition of DUSP6 expression in parental HS-SY-II cells partially recapitulated acquired pazopanib resistance. Acquired pazopanib resistance in SS was associated with activation of ERK1/2 through downregulation of DUSP6 expression. Simultaneous treatment with pazopanib and a MEK inhibitor could be a promising strategy to overcome pazopanib resistance in SS..
16. Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Tzu-Hua Lin, Taishi Sato, Emmanuel Gibon, Eemeli Jämsen, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, * Murine Model of Progressive Orthopedic Wear Particle-Induced Chronic Inflammation and Osteolysis., Tissue engineering. Part C, Methods, 10.1089/ten.TEC.2017.0166, 23, 12, 1003-1011, 2017.12, Periprosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening of total joint replacements are driven by byproducts of wear released from the implant. Wear particles cause macrophage-mediated inflammation that culminates with periprosthetic bone loss. Most current animal models of particle-induced osteolysis are based on the acute inflammatory reaction induced by wear debris, which is distinct from the slowly progressive clinical scenario. To address this limitation, we previously developed a murine model of periprosthetic osteolysis that is based on slow continuous delivery of wear particles into the murine distal femur over a period of 4 weeks. The particle delivery was accomplished by using subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps and tubing, and a hollow titanium rod press-fit into the distal femur. In this study, we report a modification of our prior model in which particle delivery is extended to 8 weeks to better mimic the progressive development of periprosthetic osteolysis and allow the assessment of interventions in a setting where the chronic particle-induced osteolysis is already present at the initiation of the treatment. Compared to 4-week samples, extending the particle delivery to 8 weeks significantly exacerbated the local bone loss observed with μCT and the amount of both peri-implant F4/80+ macrophages and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts detected with immunohistochemical and histochemical staining. Furthermore, systemic recruitment of reporter macrophages to peri-implant tissues observed with bioluminescence imaging continued even at the later stages of particle-induced inflammation. This modified model system could provide new insights into the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory bone loss and be particularly useful in assessing the efficacy of treatments in a setting that resembles the clinical scenario of developing periprosthetic osteolysis more closely than currently existing model systems..
17. Masahiro Maruyama, Akira Nabeshima, Chi-Chun Pan, Anthony W Behn, Timothy Thio, Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Toshiyuki Kawai, Michiaki Takagi, Stuart B Goodman, Yunzhi Peter Yang, The effects of a functionally-graded scaffold and bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis., Biomaterials, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.09.030, 187, 39-46, 2018.12, Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a debilitating disease that may progress to femoral head collapse and subsequently, degenerative arthritis. Although injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is often performed with core decompression (CD) in the early stage of ONFH, these treatments are not always effective in prevention of disease progression and femoral head collapse. We previously described a novel 3D printed, customized functionally-graded scaffold (FGS) that improved bone growth in the femoral head after CD in a normal healthy rabbit, by providing structural and mechanical guidance. The present study demonstrates similar results of the FGS in a rabbit steroid-induced osteonecrosis model. Furthermore, the injection of BMMCs into the CD decreased the osteonecrotic area in the femoral head. Thus, the combination of FGS and BMMC provides a new therapy modality that may improve the outcome of CD for early stage of ONFH by providing both enhanced biological and biomechanical cues to promote bone regeneration in the osteonecrotic area..
18. Jukka Pajarinen, Tzuhua Lin, Akira Nabeshima, Taishi Sato, Emmanuel Gibon, Eemeli Jämsen, Tahsin N Khan, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Interleukin-4 repairs wear particle induced osteolysis by modulating macrophage polarization and bone turnover., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 10.1002/jbm.a.37142, 2020.12, Periprosthetic osteolysis remains as a major complication of total joint replacement surgery. Modulation of macrophage polarization with interleukin-4 (IL-4) has emerged as an effective means to limit wear particle-induced osteolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local IL-4 delivery in treating preexisting particle-induced osteolysis. To this end, recently established 8 week modification of murine continuous femoral intramedullary particle infusion model was utilized. Subcutaneous infusion pumps were used to deliver polyethylene (PE) particles into mouse distal femur for 4 weeks to induce osteolysis. IL-4 was then added to the particle infusion for another 4 weeks. This delayed IL-4 treatment (IL-4 Del) was compared to IL-4 delivered continuously (IL-4 Cont) with PE particles from the beginning and to the infusion of particles alone for 8 weeks. Both IL-4 treatments were highly effective in preventing and repairing preexisting particle-induced bone loss as assessed by μCT. Immunofluorescence indicated a significant reduction in the number of F4/80 + iNOS + M1 macrophages and increase in the number of F4/80 + CD206 + M2 macrophages with both IL-4 treatments. Reduction in the number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase + osteoclasts and increase in the amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) + osteoblasts was also observed with both IL-4 treatments likely explaining the regeneration of bone in these samples. Interesting, slightly more bone formation and ALP + osteoblasts were seen in the IL-4 Del group than in the IL-4 Cont group although these differences were not statistically significant. The study is a proof of principle that osteolytic lesions can be repaired via modulation of macrophage polarization..
19. Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Yusuke Kohno, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Zhenyu Yao, Joy Y Wu, Stuart Goodman, Increased NF-kB activity in osteoprogenitor-lineage cells impairs the balance of bone versus fat in the marrow of skeletally mature mice., Regenerative engineering and translational medicine, 10.1007/s40883-019-00112-7, 6, 69-77, 2020.03, "Senile osteoporosis" is defined as significant aging-associated bone loss, and is accompanied by increased fat in the bone marrow. The proportion of adipocytes in bone marrow is inversely correlated with bone formation, and is associated with increased risk of fracture. NF-κB is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of inflammation and bone remodeling. NF-κB activity increases during aging; furthermore, constitutive activation of NF-κB significantly impairs skeletal development in neonatal mice. However, the effects of NF-κB activation using a skeletally mature animal model have not been examined. In the current study, an osteoprogenitor (OP)-specific, doxycycline-regulated NF-κB activated transgenic mouse model (iNF-κB/OP) was generated to investigate the role of NF-κB in bone remodeling in skeletally mature mice. Reduced osteogenesis in the OP-lineage cells isolated from iNF-κB/OP mice was only observed in the absence of doxycycline in vitro. Bone mineral density in the metaphyseal regions of femurs and tibias was reduced in iNF-κB/OP mice. No significant differences in bone volume fraction and cortical bone thickness were observed. Osmium-stained bone marrow fat was increased in epiphyseal and metaphyseal areas in the tibias of iNF-κB/OP mice. These findings suggest that targeting NF-κB activity as a therapeutic strategy may improve bone healing and prevent aging-associated bone loss in aged patients..
20. Eemeli Jämsen, Jukka Pajarinen, Tzu-Hua Lin, Chi-Wen Lo, Akira Nabeshima, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Kari K Eklund, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman, Effect of Aging on the Macrophage Response to Titanium Particles., Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 10.1002/jor.24461, 38, 2, 405-416, 2020.02, Macrophage-mediated inflammatory reaction to implant wear particles drives bone loss around total joint replacements (TJR). Although most TJR recipients are elderly, studies linking wear particle-activated macrophages and peri-implant osteolysis have not taken into account the multiple effects that aging has on the innate immune system and, in particular, on macrophages. To address this, we compared the wear particle responses of bone marrow macrophages obtained from young (2-month) and aged (18-month) mice. Macrophages were polarized to M0, M1, or M2 phenotypes in vitro, challenged with titanium particles, and their inflammatory response was characterized at multiple time points by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, age-dependent changes in activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB were analyzed by a lentiviral vector-based luciferase reporter system. The particle stimulation experiment was further repeated using human primary macrophages isolated from blood donors of different ages. We found that the pro-inflammatory responses were generally higher in macrophages obtained from young mice, but differences between the age groups remained small and of uncertain biological significance. Noteworthily, M2 polarization effectively suppressed the particle-induced inflammation in both young and aged macrophages. These results suggest that aging of the innate immune system per se plays no significant role in the response of macrophages to titanium particles, whereas induction of M2 polarization appears a promising strategy to limit macrophage-mediated inflammation regardless of age. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:405-416, 2020..
21. Akira Maekawa, Tomoya Matsunobu, Akira Nabeshima, Suguru Fukushima, Kosuke Makihara, Masanori Hisaoka, Yukihide Iwamoto, Cardiac Tamponade as an Unusual Initial Clinical Manifestation of CIC-DUX4 Sarcoma., The American journal of case reports, 10.12659/AJCR.929349, 22, e929349, 2021.02, BACKGROUND CIC-rearranged sarcoma (CRS) is a recently described subset of undifferentiated small-round-cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue. DUX4 is the most common gene involved in CRS. CRS usually presents in the soft tissue of the trunk and extremities, and is recognized as being clinically aggressive, with poor prognosis. Our case highlights an unusual presentation of CRS with cardiac tamponade. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man presented with hypotension caused by hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade. ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in multiple lesions, including lesions in the left proximal humerus and several lymph nodes. Biopsy specimens of the humerus revealed proliferation of round-shaped cells. In addition, CIC-DUX4 gene rearrangement was detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing, leading to a diagnosis of cardiac tamponade caused by CRS. Although the patient received systemic chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy to the mediastinal lesion and left humerus, he died of progressive disease 12 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Because CRS is a recently proposed entity that is distinct from Ewing sarcoma, the clinical presentation and outcome of CRS has not been well documented in the literature. This is the first case report of CRS presenting as cardiac tamponade. Although cardiac tamponade due to metastatic sarcoma is extremely rare, CRS can be included in the differential diagnosis..