||Shiroh Miura, Takuya Morikawa, Ryuta Fujioka, Kengo Kosaka, Kohei Yamada, Gohsuke Hattori, Manabu Motomura, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata, A novel frameshift mutation of DDHD1 in a Japanese patient with autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia., European journal of medical genetics, 10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.05.010, 59, 8, 413-6, 2016.08, Spastic paraplegia (SPG) type 28 is an autosomal recessive SPG caused by mutations in the DDHD1 gene. We examined a Japanese 54-years-old male patient with autosomal recessive SPG. His parents were consanguineous. He needed a wheelchair for transfer due to spastic paraplegia. There was a history of operations for bilateral hallux valgus, thoracic ossification of the yellow ligament, bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ankle contracture, and lumbar spinal canal stenosis. He noticed gait disturbance at age 14. He used a cane for walking in his 40s. On neurological examination, he showed hyperreflexia, spasticity, and weakness in the lower extremities and bilateral Babinski reflexes. Urinary dysfunctions and impaired vibration sense in the lower limbs were observed. By exome sequencing analysis using Agilent SureSelect and Illumina MiSeq, we identified 17,248 homozygous nucleotide variants in the patient. Through the examination of 48 candidate genes known to be responsible for autosomal recessive SPG, we identified a novel homozygous 4-bp deletion, c.914_917delGTAA, p.Ser305Ilefs*2 in exon2 of the DDHD1 gene encoding phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 (PA-PLA1). The mutation is expected to cause a frameshift generating a premature stop codon 3-bp downstream from the deletion. In consequence, the DDHD domain that is known to be critical for PLA1 activity is completely depleted in the mutated DDHD1 protein, predicted to be a functionally null mutation of the DDHD1 gene. By Sanger sequencing, we confirmed that both parents are heterozygous for the mutation. This variation was not detected in 474 Japanese control subjects as well as the data of the 1,000G Project. We conclude that the novel mutation in DDHD1 is the causative variant for the SPG28 patient that is the first record of the disease in Japanese population..
||Shiroh Miura, Takuya Morikawa, Ryuta Fujioka, Kazuhito Noda, Kengo Kosaka, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata, A novel missense variant (Gln220Arg) of GNB4 encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant motor and sensory neuropathy., European journal of medical genetics, 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.06.006, 60, 9, 474-478, 2017.09, Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy with reduced action potentials in the lower limbs. Case 2 was an 80-year-old man, Case 1's father, who reported difficulty in riding a bicycle at the age of 76. On neurological examination, he showed areflexia in the upper and lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment in the lower limbs was also observed. Nerve conduction studies revealed mainly axonal involvement. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (NM_021629.3:c.659T > C [p.Gln220Arg]) in GNB4 exon 8, which is known to be responsible for CMT. Sanger sequencing confirmed that both patients are heterozygous for the variation, which causes an amino acid substitution, Gln220Arg, in the highly conserved region of the WD40 domain of GNB4. The frequency of this variant in the Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was 0.000008247, and we confirmed its absence in 502 Japanese control subjects. We conclude that this novel GNB4 variant is causative for CMTDIF in these patients, who represent the first record of the disease in the Japanese population..
||Fuminori Yamaji, Akio Soeda, Hiroki Shibata, Takuya Morikawa, Kodai Suzuki, Shozo Yoshida, Shinji Ogura, A new mutation of congenital methemoglobinemia exacerbated after methylene blue treatment., Acute medicine & surgery, 10.1002/ams2.335, 5, 2, 199-201, 2018.04, Case: Methylene blue is useful for the treatment of methemoglobinemia. However, even after the patient's methemoglobin (metHb) rate has improved, careful observation is important because they could have undiagnosed congenital methemoglobinemia. In this case, a 67-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy with the use of lidocaine for local anesthesia. During the examination, he complained of dyspnea and had low SpO2 despite normal PaO2 and SaO2. He was transferred to our department as a suspected case of acquired methemoglobinemia. Outcome: The patient's metHb level was 26.2%. We administered methylene blue i.v. and his metHb level subsequently decreased to 1.6%. However, his metHb level gradually increased to 18.2%, and we suspected that he had congenital methemoglobinemia. We administered riboflavin and ascorbic acid orally, and his metHb level decreased to 6.4%. We also obtained genomic DNA from the patient and identified a novel variant of CYB5R3. Conclusion: We report a novel variant of congenital methemoglobinemia that deteriorated after methylene blue treatment..
||Shiroh Miura, Kengo Kosaka, Takuo Nomura, Shuji Nagata, Tomofumi Shimojo, Takuya Morikawa, Ryuta Fujioka, Masaya Harada, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata, TDRKH is a candidate gene for an autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy., European journal of medical genetics, 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.11.028, 62, 12, 103594-103594, 2019.12, Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) comprise a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited lower motor neuron syndromes mainly characterized by a distal-predominant pattern of progressive muscle atrophy, weakness and hyporeflexia, without sensory dysfunction. Although at least 21 causative genes for dHMN have been reported, mutational scanning of these genes often fails to identify the causative variants in dHMN cohorts, suggesting that additional causative genes remain to be identified. We studied a four-generation pedigree of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant dHMN to provide insight into the pathogenetic basis of the disease. Neurological examinations were performed on all six family members enrolled in this study. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify the causative gene for dHMN. The clinical features of the patients included muscle weakness with distal extensor dominancy in the lower extremities, accompanied by facial and neck flexor muscle impairment, no sensory involvement, and areflexia. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated axonal changes mainly in the peroneal nerve. WES combined with rigorous filtering revealed three missense variants (NM_001083964: c.851G > A [p.Arg284His] in TDRKH, NM_002858: c.1654G > T [p.Gly552Cys] in ABCD3, NM_001005164: c.898A > T [p.Ile300Phe], in OR52E2). The variant in TDRKH is located in a conserved region of the tudor domain which is also present in the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, encoded by the SMN1 gene. Therefore, we concluded the variant in TDRKH is likely to be responsible for dHMN in our pedigree..
||Shiroh Miura, Kengo Kosaka, Ryuta Fujioka, Yusuke Uchiyama, Tomofumi Shimojo, Takuya Morikawa, Azusa Irie, Takayuki Taniwaki, Hiroki Shibata, Spinocerebellar ataxia 27 with a novel nonsense variant (Lys177X) in FGF14., European journal of medical genetics, 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.07.005, 62, 3, 172-176, 2019.03, Spinocerebellar ataxia 27 (SCA27) is an autosomal dominant SCA caused by variants in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) gene. We examined a Japanese SCA patient whose deceased father also suffered from SCA. The patient was a 63-year-old male. He graduated from junior high school but received no further education. The predominant complaint was slowly progressive dysarthria and gait disturbance, which appeared at age 47. He showed pathological saccadic dysmetria, saccadic intrusions into smooth pursuit eye movements, dysarthria, and limb and truncal ataxia. His gait was wide-based but he did not require a walking stick. Limb muscle strength was intact. Deep tendon reflexes were normal or slightly reduced. Pathological reflexes were absent. He demonstrated mildly impaired vibration sense in the lower limbs. There was no urinary dysfunction. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy without brainstem involvement. We first confirmed the absence of repeat expansion in genes known to be responsible for SCAs 1-3, 6-8, 10, 12, 17, 36 and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy. By exome analysis, we identified a novel heterozygous variant (NM_004115, c.529A>T; Lys177X) in exon 4 of the FGF14 gene. This variant is expected to generate a truncated FGF14 protein lacking the heparin binding sites, those are likely to modify the activity of FGF14. We confirmed the absence of the variant in 502 healthy Japanese individuals by Sanger sequencing. There is no record of the variant in public databases. We conclude that the novel variation in FGF14 is causative for SCA27 in this patient..
||Shiroh Miura, Tomofumi Shimojo, Takuya Morikawa, Takashi Kamada, Yusuke Uchiyama, Seiji Kurata, Ryuta Fujioka, Hiroki Shibata, Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with a novel missense variant (Arg2866Trp) in NBEA., Journal of human genetics, 10.1038/s10038-021-00914-0, 66, 8, 805-811, 2021.08, Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a movement disorder characterized by episodic involuntary movement attacks triggered by sudden movements, acceleration, or intention to move. We ascertained two Japanese familial cases with PKD. The proband is a 22-year-old woman who had noted sudden brief (<30 s) of involuntary movements provoked by kinesigenic trigger such as starting to run, getting on a train, picking up a telephone receiver and so on at the age of 14. Interictal brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed hyperperfusion in the left thalamus. A 46-year-old woman, the mother of the proband was also suffering from brief attacks triggered by starting to run in her high school days. On neurological examination, both showed no abnormality. Whole exome sequencing combined with rigorous filtering revealed two heterozygous nonsynonymous variants (NM_001447: c.8976G > C [p.Gln2992His] in FAT2 and NM_015678: c.8596C > T [p.Arg2866Trp] in NBEA). Real time quantitative PCR analysis of Nbea mRNA levels in the developing rat brain revealed peak at postnatal day 28 and decline at postnatal day 56. This result might match the most common clinical course of PKD from the point of view of the most common age at remission. NBEA has been reported to be responsible for neurodevelopmental disease accompanied by epilepsy. We concluded the variant in NBEA most likely to be responsible for our familial cases of PKD..
||Takuya Morikawa, Hiroaki Ohishi, Kengo Kosaka, Tomofumi Shimojo, Akihiro Nagano, Itsuki Taniguchi, Ryuta Fujioka, Kosei Moriyama, Motoko Unoki, Masatomo Takahashi, Motonao Nakao, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shiroh Miura, Hiroki Shibata, Ddhd1 knockout mouse as a model of locomotive and physiological abnormality in familial spastic paraplegia., Bioscience reports, 10.1042/BSR20204171, 41, 2, 2021.02, We have previously reported a novel homozygous 4-bp deletion in DDHD1 as the responsible variant for spastic paraplegia type 28 (SPG28; OMIM#609340). The variant causes a frameshift, resulting in a functionally null allele in the patient. DDHD1 encodes phospholipase A1 (PLA1) catalyzing phosphatidylinositol to lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of SPG28, we established Ddhd1 knockout mice (Ddhd1[-/-]) carrying a 5-bp deletion in Ddhd1, resulting in a premature termination of translation at a position similar to that of the patient. We observed a significant decrease in foot-base angle (FBA) in aged Ddhd1(-/-) (24 months of age) and a significant decrease in LPI 20:4 (sn-2) in Ddhd1(-/-) cerebra (26 months of age). These changes in FBA were not observed in 14 months of age. We also observed significant changes of expression levels of 22 genes in the Ddhd1(-/-) cerebra (26 months of age). Gene Ontology (GO) terms relating to the nervous system and cell-cell communications were significantly enriched. We conclude that the reduced signaling of LPI 20:4 (sn-2) by PLA1 dysfunction is responsible for the locomotive abnormality in SPG28, further suggesting that the reduction of downstream signaling such as GPR55 which is agonized by LPI is involved in the pathogenesis of SPG28..
||Takuya Morikawa, Shiroh Miura, Takahisa Tateishi, Kazuhito Noda, Hiroki Shibata, A Japanese hereditary spastic paraplegia family with a rare nonsynonymous variant in the SPAST gene., Human genome variation, 10.1038/s41439-021-00153-x, 8, 1, 21-21, 2021.05, Spastic paraplegia (SPG) type 4 is an autosomal dominant SPG caused by functional variants in the SPAST gene. We examined a Japanese family with three autosomal dominant SPG patients. These patients presented with typical symptoms of SPG, such as spasticity of the lower limbs. We identified a rare nonsynonymous variant, NM_014946.4:c.1252G>A [p.Glu418Lys], in all three family members. This variant has previously been reported in a Russian SPG family as a "likely pathogenic" variant.5 Ascertainment of additional patients carrying this variant in an unrelated Japanese SPG family further supports its pathogenicity. Molecular diagnosis of SPG4 in this family with hereditary spastic paraplegia is confirmed..