Kyushu University Academic Staff Educational and Research Activities Database
List of Presentations
Moriyasu Nonaka Last modified date:2021.05.25

Assistant Professor / Resources System Engineering / Department of Earth Resources Engineering / Faculty of Engineering


Presentations
1. 劉祥春, 平島 剛, 野中 壯泰, 笹木 圭子, ロイヤン炭の水熱脱水処理が気相・液相生成物に及ぼす影響, 資源素材学会, 2016.03.
2. Xiangchun LIU, 平島 剛, 野中 壯泰, 笹木 圭子, Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment Assisted with Mechanical Expression on Pore Structure of Loy Yang Lignite, International Symposium on Earth Science and Technology 2015 (CINEST), 2015.12, Effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT) and HT assisted with mechanical expression (HT-ME) on pore structure of Loy Yang lignite was investigated by N2 gas adsorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. .
3. 野中 壯泰, Tsuyoshi Hirajima, 熊谷聡, Keiko Sasaki, Upgrading and drying of lignite by super- and sub-critical fluids, CINEST2012, 2012.09, The main global trade in coal is in high rank coal, which makes up only half of the known deposits, and it is therefore forecast that the supply of coal will shift to low rank coal in the future. Low rank coals generally have low calorific value, high water content and proneness to spontaneous heat, although some low rank coals have favorable features such as low ash content and low sulfur one. In this study, super- and sub-critical fluid treatments were conducted on lignite with the aim of improving its low quality and high water content. Hydrothermal treatment produced upgraded solid fuel that showed higher fuel characterization. Positive correlation was observed between the filterability and the aromaticity rather than the particle size. The harshly-conditioned hydrothermal treatment showed advantages of low moisture content, high calorie and their slight variation regardless of wide variety in humidity. The mild treatment showed high energy recovery and sufficiently high filterability. Subsequent supercritical carbon dioxide treatment showed a drying effect that was temperature dependent; dehydrated the sample more at higher temperature..
4. High water content lignite was hydrothermally treated at temperatures ranging from 200 to 380 deg. C and it was studied how the characteristics were changed depending on the condition. .
5. Sink-and-float test and hydrothemal treatment were conducted on high ash coal and lignite, respectively. Using thermogravimetric analysis, it was studied how the gasification ability depends on the gravity and the condition of hydrothemal treatment. .
6. A CO2-blown integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising electric power generation
technology that will reduce CO2 emission due to its high efficiency. Recent studies have found that base
metals improve the coal char gasification in case that they can interact to the char matrix at an atomic level. An attempt to clarify the effect of heavy medium separation, which is one of the most popular coal cleaning technologies, on the CO2 gasification of the char derived from the coal fractionated according to the specific gravity is presented in this publication. Before sink and float test and thermogravimetric analysis, Datong Coal from china was ground to below 20 mesh that was a size usually used for a coal cleaning process. The highest separation efficiency was expected to obtain at specific gravity of 1.45 where the ash content would dramatically be reduced from 10.2 % for the raw coal to about 4 % and about 85 % of combustibles would be recovered. The chars derived from different macerals showed different gasification reactivity; Inertinitederived char has gasification reactivity higher than Vitrinite-derived one. Inorganic base metals did not show a significant catalytic effect. It was considered that heavy medium separation was an effective pretreatment technique without any significant deterioration of CO2 gasification ability..
7. Renewable resources of energy attract attention, because they are CO2 emission reducible as compared with fossil fuels, especially the CO2 emission intensity of biomass is estimated to be zero. Unutilized low coalified coal and low grade one are promising because the present mainstream of the worldwide trade of coal is high rank coals that merely occupy a half of global deposits. Hydrothermal treatment and heavy medium separation were adopted as an upgrading technology for low rank coal and biomass and for high ash coal, respectively. The hydrothermal treatment achieved a substantial increase in the carbon content, fixed carbon and gross calorific value of the material by dehydration and decarboxylation. The hydrothermally treated mixture showed almost constant chemical compositions and gross calorific value independent of a mixing ratio. By the heavy medium separation, the high ash coal was fractionated into some fractions; a high ash, a low ash and an intermediate fraction. Further, the gasification characteristic of the materials obtained by these upgrading technologies was analyzed by thermogravimetry using a thermobalance. Charring was conducted by rapid pyrolysis in a nitrogen flow and the consecutive gasification reaction was achieved in a O2/CO2 mixed gas flow to obtain useful information for a CO2-blown integrated gasification combined cycle. .
8. Unutilized low rank coal is promising because the present mainstream of the worldwide trade of coal are high rank coals that merely occupy a half of global deposits. A washability study as an upgrading technology was made by heavy medium separation. By the heavy medium separation, the coal sample was fractionated into some fractions; a high ash, a low ash and an intermediate fraction. The float-and-sink analysis data and the ash content of each fraction were combined into cumulative float and cumulative sink to develop the washability curve that is characteristic of the coal. Further, the gasification characteristic of the fractionated coal sample by the upgrading technology was analyzed by thermogravimetry using a thermobalance. Charring was conducted by rapid pyrolysis in a nitrogen flow and the consecutive gasification reaction was achieved in a O2/CO2 mixed gas flow. The gasification reaction of char was estimated by calculating the specific reactivity of the char organic matter of each fraction that has a different ash content. The result gives us useful information for a CO2-blown integrated gasification combined cycle. .
9. Massive consumption of fossil fuel resources such as coal and oil have led to growing emissions of carbon dioxide which cause global warming. So, the alternative, sustainable and environmentally friendly resources must be developed. Under these situations, woody biomass has been focused on as an alternative resource. However, the conversion technology for the effective utilization of woody biomass has not been established.
In this study, we conducted hydrothermal treatment of Acacia mangium in hot-compressed water using a rapid heating device at the temperature ranging from 240 to 300°C to estimate the decomposition behavior and the calorific value of solid residues. As a result, cellulose and hemicellulose - these being constituent of polysaccharides in biomass - were mainly converted to water-soluble oligosaccharides, which were immediately changed to monosaccharides. Furthermore, when the reaction time was prolonged, some organic acids, furfural and HMF were obtained in the liquid phase. These materials can be used as raw materials for chemicals. For the solid residue, the solid yield decreased and the calorific value increased as the higher reaction temperature and the longer reaction time. Finally, the calorific value attained the Subbituminous coal ranking, suggesting that the solid residue showed the possibility as a solid fuel.
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10. Renewable resources of energy attract attention, because they are CO2 emission reducible as compared with fossil fuels, especially the CO2 emission intensity of biomass is estimated to be zero. The decrease of food supply must be avoided by adopting inedible biomass when attempting to convert biomass into energy resources. In this study, the hydrothermal treatment of Moso-bamboo was conducted in a batch-type reactor at a temperature range of 200 to 380 deg. C. The carbonized solid phase and the liquid phase containing organic matter were recovered by the treatment, and the reaction temperature affected the characteristic of both the phases. For the solid phase, some spectroscopic studies and the determination of hygroscopic sorption properties were conducted. For the liquid phase, the constituting organic matters, such as a saccharide, a fran, an organic acid, an aromatic compound and so on, were determined by chromatography. The 13C-NMR study showed that glycoside bonds and hydroxy groups in solid product dramatically decreased at 200~270 deg. C and aromaticity increased with increasing temperature. A good correlation was found between the hydrophobicity by the determination of hygroscopic sorption properties and the aromaticity by the 13C-NMR. .
11. Hydrothermal treatments of low rank coal and biomass were conducted to produce high calorific solid fuel from a viewpoint of the efficient use of unutilized resources. The bench-scale continuous treatment showed a substantial increase in the gross calorific value of the material by dehydration and decarboxylation. Especially, the biomass sample was achieved a considerable carbonization as compared with the coal sample. Consequently, the hydrothermally treated mixture showed almost constant chemical compositions, gross calorific value and pyrolysis characteristic independent of a mixing ratio. These upgrading trends were well predictable by the result of the batch operation using an autoclave. Solid state 13C NMR spectrometry clarified the structural similarity of the treated biomass and low rank coal, which supported the similar fuel characteristics of the treated mixture. .
12. Recently, biomass energy has attracted attention because of a rise in the atmospheric level of CO2 that is considered to be the main cause of global warming.
The hydrothermal treatment of various biomasses using circulative hydrothermal equipment has been conducted. In this research, the Japan cedar(acicular tree), Acaciamangium(a fast-growing tropical species) and the Peat were heat-treated in water, and the solid and liquid phases were analyzed. The solid product that remained in the cell was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. As a result, the dehydration of cellulose and hemicellulose was confirmed. The liquid phase recovered every five minutes was analyzed by TOC analysis, HPLC and GC-MS. The concentration of total organic carbon in the liquid phase became the maximum in the range from 270 to 290℃ for every sample and was about 600 ppm. As for the sugar, a lot of sucrose and fructose were contained, whereas neither the glucose nor xylose was detected. Total sugar concentration occupied only 10 % of TOC. The qualitative analysis by GC-MS clarified the existence of various organic compounds (HMF, furfural, Vanillin, Guaiacol, 2,6-Dimethoxy-phenol, 3-Pyridinol, 4-Hydroxy-3.5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde etc.) in the liquid phase.
The furan derivatives such as HMF and furfural took the maximum concentration at about 270℃ ( HMF concentration was 180ppm and furfural concentration was 100ppm ) and the total concentration of them accounted for about 40% of TOC. HMF is attracting attention as an alternative of terephthalic acid that is one of the plastic raw materials.
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13. An attempt to produce fuel from biomass waste by hydrothermal treatment has been made with expectation to effectively utilize a renewable source of energy and an unexploited energy resource. In this paper, we have used empty fruit bunch (EFB) that is a residue after recovery of crude palm oil from palm oil trees in a plantation in a tropic country. A hydrothermal treatment was conducted using a 500 ml autoclave, with alkali (K2CO3) catalyst. EFB was decomposed more by alkali catalyst of lower alkali content and rather polymerized in higher catalytic region. The functional group composition of the solid phase oil is similar independent of alkali content, however its burning characteristic became more incombustible with increasing alkali content. .
14. Fly ash is a by-product in coal power plants and a rich source of hollow and spherical particles (fly ash balloons). Fly ash balloons mainly consist of SiO2 and Al2O3. They are filled up with N2 and/or CO2 gas bubbles and their densities can vary from 0.6g/cm3 to 2.0 gm/cm3 and, sometimes, more. Particles with density less than 1 g/cm3 called cenospheres are widely used as fillers and insulators with high performances in rubber, plastics, oil industry, space industry, glass steels, etc. due to their shape, specific surface, excellent physical and chemical properties. Conventionally, cenospheres are recovered as floating material through a process that releases fly ash on settlement lagoons. But the amount of cenospheres collected by this means is negligible (<1 wt%) and a large surface area1) i.e. large setting pond is required. As past research results show, fly ash balloons including cenospheres were concentrated by wet process using the hydrocyclone and the MGS2). In this study, we attempt to improve the recovery efficiency and cost of fly ash balloons by using a dry separation process.
Fly ash sample was supplied to the air classifier and particles were recovered at a different condition. Recovery of cenospheres was determined by float-sink test and ash measurement test. Calculated grade, recovery and Newton’s efficiency of cenospheres indicated that the most efficient classification condition for the recovery of cenospheres was the one the test at a rotor speed of 1000 rpm and a main/sub air flow rate of 2/1 was carried out.
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15. The present work is a survey of the upgrading mechanism of Moso-bamboo by hydrothermal treatment. Such a hydrothermal treatment of Moso-bamboo was conducted at a temperature range of 200 to 380 ℃. The solid, liquid and gas products were recovered after treatment at a specified temperature and were analyzed. The XRD study showed a complete decomposition of cellulose at 270 ℃. The amorphous part of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were decomposed in the range of 200 to 240 ℃. The formation of tar and char occurred at 240-300 ℃. The increase in the range of 200 to 240 ℃ is considered to be caused by the decomposition of cellulose that converted from solid phase to liquid phase. The total gas yield increased with temperature. The composition of H2, O2, CO, CO2 and CH4 gas was mainly obtained by hydrothermal treatment. CO2 yield accounts for more than 70% and O2 was detected in the low temperature range of 200 to 270 ℃ while H2 yield increased with temperature due to probably to decomposition of formic acid. CH4 yield dramatically increased at 380 ℃ ,suggesting that demethanation occurred in supercritical condition..
16. Hydrothermal treatments of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were conducted to produce high calorific solid fuel. The solid yield is higher at lower alkali catalyst because the total organic carbon (TOC) content is lower as an alkali catalyst is lower. The acetone soluble content in the solid phase, which is considered to be oil, and its conversion rate is highest at alkali concentration of 0.10 M. Dehydration and decarbonization occur, and consequently, the gross calorific value increases independent of alkali concentration. The atomic O/C and H/C ratio increase by alkali catalyst, suggesting that hydrolysis is promoted, and which promote the conversion to lower molecular weight compounds. As a consequence, none-catalyzed and low-concentrated alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatments can produce a high calorific solid fuel and a high calorific oil-rich solid fuel, respectively. .
17. A hydrothermal treatments of empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm that is a biomass residue by-produced in a crude palm oil company in a tropical country was conducted with alkali (K2CO3) catalyst by using a 500 ml autoclave. The component of the liquid phase is similar to that of wood vinegar that is used in various ways. The total organic carbon (TOC) content in the liquid phase increased as the concentration of alkali catalyst increased. The organic acid concentration increased with alkali dosage mainly caused by the increase in lactic acid. Oil conversion is promoted by alkali addition until 0.217 M; more than this point, rather inhibited. For non-catalyst, oil compounds identified were almost cyclic compounds such as a cyclopentanone, cyclopentenes and phenols except 2,5-hexanedione. Addition of alkali catalyst added variety to the component of oil compounds. It is considered that such variety was brought by derivatization such as methylation, ethylation and methoxylation of these coumpounds..
18. Comparative Study of Moso-Bamboo Hydrothermal Treated in Sub and Supercritical Condition.
19. Effect of Catalyst on Oil Conversion of Biomass by hydrothermal Treatment.
20. Recently, biomass energy has attracted attention because of a rise in the atmospheric level of CO2 that is considered to be the main cause of global warming.
The hydrothermal treatment of various biomasses using circulative hydrothermal equipment has been conducted. In this research, the Japan cedar(acicular tree), Acaciamangium(a fast-growing tropical species) and the Peat were heat-treated in water, and the solid and liquid phases were analyzed. The solid product that remained in the cell was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. As a result, the dehydration of cellulose and hemicellulose was confirmed. The liquid phase recovered every five minutes was analyzed by TOC analysis, HPLC and GC-MS. The concentration of total organic carbon in the liquid phase became the maximum in the range from 270 to 290℃ for every sample and was about 600 ppm. As for the sugar, a lot of sucrose and fructose were contained, whereas neither the glucose nor xylose was detected. Total sugar concentration occupied only 10 % of TOC. The qualitative analysis by GC-MS clarified the existence of various organic compounds (HMF, furfural, Vanillin, Guaiacol, 2,6-Dimethoxy-phenol, 3-Pyridinol, 4-Hydroxy-3.5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde etc.) in the liquid phase.
The furan derivatives such as HMF and furfural took the maximum concentration at about 270℃ ( HMF concentration was 180ppm and furfural concentration was 100ppm ) and the total concentration of them accounted for about 40% of TOC. HMF is attracting attention as an alternative of terephthalic acid that is one of the plastic raw materials.
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21. Production of coal-biomass fuel by hydrothermal treatment
-A change on standing of the liquid obtained through the treatment-.